# Petroleum 101 - Completions Sub Surface

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The sub surface is a major factor to consider when compiling a list of the drilling equipment to use in the extraction of petroleum. This quiz will help you to well understand this concept and at the same time expand your knowledge.

• 1.

### This law describes the flow in a fluid through a porous medium.

• A.

2. Law of Thermodynamics

• B.

Darcy's Law

• C.

Power Law

• D.

Stokes Theorem

B. Darcy's Law
Explanation
Darcy's Law is the correct answer because it specifically describes the flow of fluid through a porous medium. This law, formulated by Henry Darcy, states that the flow rate of a fluid through a porous medium is directly proportional to the pressure gradient and the cross-sectional area, and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid. It is commonly used in hydrogeology and petroleum engineering to understand and predict the movement of fluids in subsurface environments.

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• 2.

### Sorting, permeability and porosity are not important factors when looking at reservoir properties.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Sorting, permeability, and porosity are actually important factors when looking at reservoir properties. Sorting refers to the uniformity of grain sizes in a sedimentary rock, which can affect fluid flow within the reservoir. Permeability is the ability of a rock to allow fluids to flow through it, and it is a crucial factor in determining the productivity of a reservoir. Porosity, on the other hand, measures the amount of empty space within a rock, which is important for storing and transporting fluids. Therefore, the statement that these factors are not important is false.

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• 3.

• A.

Forcing pipe down the well

• B.

Increase pressure to push fluid down the well (and into formation)

• C.

Increasing Torque to increase drilling speed

• D.

Producing at a higher rate than normal

B. Increase pressure to push fluid down the well (and into formation)
Explanation
Bull heading refers to the process of increasing pressure in order to push fluid down the well and into the formation. This technique is commonly used in drilling operations to facilitate the flow of fluids and to enhance the efficiency of the drilling process. By increasing the pressure, the fluid is forced down the well, allowing for better penetration into the formation and improved drilling speed.

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• 4.

### What is this?

• A.

BOP

• B.

BHA

• C.

Packer

• D.

C. Packer
Explanation
A packer is a device used in oil and gas wells to create a seal between the inside of the casing and the outside of the tubing. It is typically used to isolate different zones in the well and prevent fluids from flowing between them. The other options listed (BOP, BHA, and Catheads) are not related to packers and are used for different purposes in well operations.

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• 5.

### What is not a primary recovery method ( natural Drive Method)?

• A.

Gas Solution Drive

• B.

Water Drive

• C.

Oil Drive

• D.

Gas Cap Drive

C. Oil Drive
Explanation
The primary recovery methods, also known as natural drive methods, are the techniques used to extract oil from a reservoir without any additional assistance. Gas Solution Drive, Water Drive, and Gas Cap Drive are all examples of primary recovery methods. However, Oil Drive is not a primary recovery method as it is not a technique used to extract oil from a reservoir.

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• 6.

### What is not a Secondary Recovery Method?

• A.

Water Injection

• B.

Gas injection

• C.

Casing

• D.

Waterflood

C. Casing
Explanation
Casing is not a secondary recovery method. Secondary recovery methods are techniques used to extract additional oil or gas from a reservoir after primary recovery methods have been exhausted. Water injection, gas injection, and waterflood are all examples of secondary recovery methods. Casing, on the other hand, is a steel pipe that is inserted into a wellbore to provide structural integrity and prevent collapse. It is not directly involved in the extraction or recovery of oil or gas.

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• 7.

### What is the Method in the picture called?

• A.

SAG-D

• B.

MPD

• C.

Dual Production

• D.

ERD

A. SAG-D
Explanation
SAG-D stands for Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage, which is a method used for extracting heavy crude oil and bitumen from oil sands. It involves injecting steam into the reservoir to heat the oil, reducing its viscosity and allowing it to flow more easily. The heated oil is then drained through a lower well. SAG-D is an effective method for extracting oil from deep and thick oil sands deposits.

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• 8.

### What is the name of the process showed in the picture?

• A.

Fracking

• B.

Perforating

• C.

CO2 Flooding

• D.

Logging while drilling

C. CO2 Flooding
Explanation
CO2 flooding is a process used in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil recovery from depleted reservoirs. It involves injecting carbon dioxide into the reservoir, which helps to reduce the viscosity of the oil and push it towards production wells. This process is shown in the picture. Fracking, perforating, and logging while drilling are all different processes used in the oil and gas industry, but they are not depicted in the given picture.

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• 9.

### What is  normally used when frac'ing?

• A.

Oil

• B.

Caustic Soda

• C.

Sand and Acid

• D.

Clay

C. Sand and Acid
Explanation
Sand and acid are typically used in the process of hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking. Fracking involves injecting a mixture of water, sand, and chemicals (including acids) into underground rock formations to create fractures and release natural gas or oil. The sand helps to prop open the fractures, allowing the oil or gas to flow more freely, while the acid is used to dissolve minerals and other substances that may be blocking the flow. This combination of sand and acid is crucial in maximizing the extraction of oil or gas from the well.

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• 10.

### Why do we perforate a well?

• A.

To Reduce pressure in high pressure zone

• B.

To test formation

• C.

Establish communication between the formation and well bore

• D.

To pump cement for setting casing

C. Establish communication between the formation and well bore
Explanation
Perforating a well involves creating holes in the casing and cement to establish communication between the formation and the well bore. This allows for the flow of oil, gas, or other fluids from the reservoir to the wellbore, enabling production. Perforation is crucial in order to access and extract the resources trapped in the formation. It is not primarily done to reduce pressure, test formation, or pump cement for setting casing, although these may be secondary reasons for perforation.

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• 11.

### Production Liner, Production, Intermediate, Conductor and Surface is all types of casing. But which is normally the longest section?

• A.

Production

• B.

Intermediate

• C.

Surface

• D.

Conductor

B. Intermediate
Explanation
The correct answer is Intermediate. The question asks which type of casing is normally the longest section, and the answer is Intermediate. This suggests that among the given options, the Intermediate casing is typically the longest section in a production line.

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• 12.

### Where is the rat hole?

• A.

Centre of the drill floor

• B.

At the casing shoe

• C.

Bottom of well

• D.

In the wall of the Platform

C. Bottom of well
Explanation
The rat hole is located at the bottom of the well. This refers to a small hole or opening at the base of the wellbore where small debris or cuttings can accumulate during drilling operations. It is important to keep the rat hole clear to ensure smooth drilling operations and prevent any blockages or obstructions.

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• 13.

### What is the first objective of completion

• A.

Have a solid casing

• B.

Don't mess up the well

• C.

Get ready to insert gas or water

B. Don't mess up the well
Explanation
The first objective of completion is to ensure that the well is not messed up. This means taking precautions and measures to prevent any damage or disruption to the well during the completion process. This could include techniques such as using proper casing to protect the well, implementing proper well control practices, and ensuring that the well is ready for the insertion of gas or water without any mishaps.

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• 14.

### The best information about an oilwell comes from the

• A.

Drilling fluid

• B.

Cuttings

• C.

Cores

• D.

The produced hydrocarbons

C. Cores
Explanation
Cores provide the best information about an oilwell because they are cylindrical samples of rock that are extracted from the well during drilling. These samples can provide valuable insights into the geological formations, reservoir properties, and potential hydrocarbon content of the well. By analyzing the composition and properties of the cores, geologists and engineers can make informed decisions about the productivity and viability of the oilwell.

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• 15.

### Offsets are information from nearby wells

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Offsets are information from nearby wells that can provide valuable data about the geology and hydrocarbon potential of a specific area. By studying the drilling results, rock formations, and production data from nearby wells, geologists and engineers can gain insights into the subsurface conditions and make more informed decisions about future drilling and production activities. This information can help reduce risks and increase the chances of success in oil and gas exploration and production operations. Therefore, the statement "Offsets are information from nearby wells" is true.

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• 16.

### It is most common to flow hydrocarbons up the casing

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because it is not most common to flow hydrocarbons up the casing. In oil and gas production, hydrocarbons are typically flowed up the production tubing, which is installed inside the casing. The casing provides structural support and serves as a conduit for fluids to reach the surface. Flowing hydrocarbons up the casing would be unusual and less efficient.

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• 17.

### If the reservoir pressure increases

• A.

The flow increases

• B.

The flow decreases

• C.

Flow stops

A. The flow increases
Explanation
When the reservoir pressure increases, it creates a greater force pushing the fluid through the system. This increased pressure differential drives the flow of fluid, causing it to increase.

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• 18.

### How do we kill a well?

• A.

Shut in the BOP

• B.

Fill it with cuttings to stop flow

• C.

Pump down high density fluids

• D.

Its not possible to kill a producing well

C. Pump down high density fluids
Explanation
To kill a well, one method is to pump down high density fluids. This involves injecting heavy fluids, such as drilling mud or cement, into the wellbore to counterbalance the pressure of the reservoir fluids and effectively stop the flow of hydrocarbons. By increasing the density of the fluids in the well, the pressure exerted by the reservoir is overcome, allowing for control and eventual cessation of the flow. This method is commonly used in well control operations to regain control over a well and prevent any further uncontrolled release of fluids.

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• 19.

### How many "barriers" is are minimum to have for a completion?

• A.

0

• B.

1

• C.

2

• D.

3

C. 2
Explanation
To ensure completion, a minimum of two "barriers" is required. This implies that there must be at least two obstacles or challenges that need to be overcome in order to achieve completion. Having only one barrier would not guarantee completion as it could be easily bypassed or overcome, while having three or more barriers would exceed the minimum requirement.

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• 20.

### A permanent packer can not be removed

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
A permanent packer can be removed.

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• 21.

### Are production liners/screens cemented?

• A.

Yes

• B.

No

B. No
Explanation
Production liners/screens are not cemented. Cementing refers to the process of sealing the annular space between the casing and the wellbore using cement. Production liners/screens, on the other hand, are used to support and control the flow of fluids in the wellbore during production operations. They are typically run and hanged in the wellbore without being cemented in place.

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• 22.

### Mechanical and chemical effects near the production zone surface are ?

• A.

Skin

• B.

Compaction

• C.

Decaption

A. Skin
Explanation
The correct answer is "Skin". In the context of the question, "skin" refers to the outer layer or surface of the production zone. Mechanical and chemical effects near this surface can have an impact on the overall production process. These effects may include compaction, which refers to the compression or consolidation of the production zone, or decaption, which could be a misspelling of "depletion" and may refer to the reduction or exhaustion of resources in the production zone. However, without further information, it is difficult to determine the exact meaning of "decaption".

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• 23.

### Fracking has occured since the 1860's, but when did the hydraulic fracking start?

• A.

1922

• B.

1949

• C.

1959

• D.

1993

B. 1949
Explanation
The hydraulic fracking technique started in 1949. Fracking has been used since the 1860s, but it was not until 1949 that the hydraulic method, which involves injecting water, sand, and chemicals into underground rock formations to release natural gas or oil, was first implemented. This innovation revolutionized the oil and gas industry, allowing for the extraction of resources from previously inaccessible reserves.

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• 24.

### The developer of current fracture techniqes is?

• A.

Exxon Mobile

• B.

Statoil

• C.

Mitchell Energy

• D.

Standard Oil

C. Mitchell Energy
Explanation
Mitchell Energy is credited with developing current fracture techniques, also known as hydraulic fracturing or fracking. This technique involves injecting high-pressure fluids into underground rock formations to release natural gas and oil. Mitchell Energy played a significant role in refining and popularizing this method in the late 20th century, leading to a boom in shale gas production. Exxon Mobile, Statoil, and Standard Oil are major oil and gas companies, but they are not specifically associated with the development of current fracture techniques.

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• 25.

### Fracpacks are a form of

• A.

Water Control

• B.

Sand Control

• C.

Gas Control

• D.

Plugs and valves

B. Sand Control
Explanation
Fracpacks are a form of sand control. Fracpacks, also known as fracturing packs, are used in the oil and gas industry to control the flow of sand during hydraulic fracturing operations. These packs are designed to prevent sand and other particles from entering the wellbore and causing damage to the production equipment. By placing a fracpack in the wellbore, operators can ensure that the sand is contained and the well can produce oil and gas efficiently. Therefore, sand control is the correct answer in this case.

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• 26.

### Which natural drive recovers the highest percentage of oil?

• A.

Solution-Gas Drive

• B.

Gas-Cap Drive

• C.

Solution-Water Drive

• D.

Water Drive

D. Water Drive
Explanation
Water drive is the natural drive that recovers the highest percentage of oil. In a water drive, water is injected into the reservoir to displace the oil and push it towards the production wells. This method is effective in recovering a large amount of oil because water has a higher mobility compared to oil, allowing it to sweep through the reservoir and recover a higher percentage of the oil in place. Additionally, water drive is commonly used in reservoirs where there is a significant amount of water already present, making it a favorable method for oil recovery.

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• 27.

### Gas cap drives are flared off during the completion process to help produce oil more efficiently.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Gas cap drives are not flared off during the completion process to help produce oil more efficiently. Flaring off gas cap drives would actually result in the loss of valuable resources. Gas cap drives occur naturally when gas accumulates above the oil in a reservoir, exerting pressure and helping to drive the oil towards the production well. Flaring off the gas would reduce this pressure and hinder the efficiency of oil production. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 28.

### What is a downfall of fast flow in production tubing?

• A.

Carrying solids out

• B.

Erosion

• C.

Faster production of hydrocarbons

• D.

"Churn" flow

B. Erosion
Explanation
Fast flow in production tubing can lead to erosion. When fluids flow at high velocities, they can cause erosion by carrying abrasive particles or by creating high shear forces that wear away the inner surface of the tubing. This erosion can result in the degradation of the tubing, leading to leaks, reduced efficiency, and potential equipment failure. Therefore, erosion is a significant downfall of fast flow in production tubing.

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• 29.

### Where is the wireline entry guide located?

• A.

Top of tubing

• B.

Center of tubing

• C.

Bottom of tubing

• D.

BHA

C. Bottom of tubing
Explanation
The wireline entry guide is located at the bottom of the tubing. This guide helps to direct the wireline tools into the tubing and prevent them from getting stuck or damaged during the operation. Placing the entry guide at the bottom ensures that the wireline tools can easily enter the tubing and reach the desired depth without any obstructions.

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• 30.

### Which is not a method for sand control?

• A.

Expandable Screen

• B.

Cased hole frac pack

• C.

Open hole gravel pack

• D.

Down hole sand pack

D. Down hole sand pack
Explanation
The down hole sand pack is not a method for sand control. The other options mentioned in the question, such as the expandable screen, cased hole frac pack, and open hole gravel pack, are all methods commonly used in the oil and gas industry to control sand production during drilling and production operations. However, a down hole sand pack is not a recognized method for sand control.

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• 31.

### What is "Bubble Point" ?

• A.

The corner of a square bubble formed as the gas enters a square sliding sleeve door

• B.

The pressure/temperature at which gas vapor comes out of solution

• C.

The point that a natural gas bubble pops in air

• D.

The line between gas and oil in a reservoir

B. The pressure/temperature at which gas vapor comes out of solution
Explanation
The term "Bubble Point" refers to the pressure/temperature at which gas vapor comes out of solution. This means that when a gas is dissolved in a liquid, the bubble point is the point at which the gas starts to separate from the liquid and form bubbles. It is an important concept in various industries, such as oil and gas, where the knowledge of bubble point helps in determining the behavior of hydrocarbon reservoirs and designing production processes.

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• 32.

### What is upper completion

• A.

The wellhead, christmas tree and choke

• B.

The completion from top of the reservoir to the surface

• C.

The completion in the reservoir

• D.

Smart wells

B. The completion from top of the reservoir to the surface
Explanation
The term "upper completion" refers to the completion process that starts from the top of the reservoir and extends all the way to the surface. This includes the wellhead, christmas tree, and choke, which are all essential components of the upper completion. The upper completion is responsible for controlling the flow of fluids from the reservoir to the surface and ensuring the well is properly sealed and secured.

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• 33.

### Which are part of the lower completion?

• A.

Cement and production tubulars

• B.

Gas lift valves and sub-surface safety valve

• C.

Permiability and porosity

• D.

Sand control and stimulation

D. Sand control and stimulation
Explanation
Sand control and stimulation are part of the lower completion. Lower completion refers to the activities and equipment used to prepare the wellbore for production after drilling. Sand control involves preventing sand and other solid particles from entering the wellbore and causing damage to the production equipment. Stimulation, on the other hand, involves enhancing the productivity of the reservoir by creating or improving the flow paths for hydrocarbons. Both sand control and stimulation are crucial aspects of the lower completion process.

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• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Feb 02, 2015
Quiz Created by
Pet101NOV

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