A&p II Final Exam Review

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AP Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Olfactory receptors are found

    • A.

      From the vestibule to the pharynx

    • B.

      Only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity

    • C.

      Only in the inferior portion of the nasal cavity

    • D.

      Throughout the nasal cavity

    • E.

      Only in the mid-nasal ridges

    Correct Answer
    B. Only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity
    Explanation
    Olfactory receptors are found only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity. This means that they are located in the upper part of the nasal cavity, closer to the roof of the nose. These receptors are responsible for detecting and transmitting signals related to the sense of smell. The fact that they are found only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity suggests that this area is particularly important for olfaction.

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  • 2. 

    These cells provide for the sense of smeill

    • A.

      Olfactory hair cells

    • B.

      Glial cells

    • C.

      Basal stem cells

    • D.

      Bowman's glands

    • E.

      Gustatory cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Olfactory hair cells
    Explanation
    Olfactory hair cells are responsible for the sense of smell. They are located in the olfactory epithelium in the upper part of the nasal cavity. These cells have specialized cilia called olfactory hairs that detect and transmit odor molecules to the brain for interpretation. When odor molecules bind to the olfactory hairs, it triggers a signal which is then transmitted to the olfactory bulb in the brain, allowing us to perceive different smells. Therefore, olfactory hair cells play a crucial role in our ability to detect and perceive smells.

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  • 3. 

    When is homework due each week?

    Correct Answer
    The start of class on Monday's.
    Explanation
    The homework is due at the start of class on Mondays.

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  • 4. 

    These provide physical support, nourishment, and electrical insulation for olfactory receptors.

    • A.

      Dendrites

    • B.

      Glial cells

    • C.

      Basal stem cells

    • D.

      Bowman's glands

    • E.

      Supporting cells

    Correct Answer
    E. Supporting cells
    Explanation
    Supporting cells in the olfactory system provide physical support, nourishment, and electrical insulation for olfactory receptors. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining the function and integrity of the olfactory system by providing structural support to the delicate olfactory receptors and ensuring their proper functioning. They also help in the nourishment of the receptors by supplying essential nutrients. Additionally, supporting cells contribute to electrical insulation, preventing cross-talk and interference between neighboring receptors, thus ensuring accurate odor detection and discrimination.

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  • 5. 

    Adaptation of olfactory sensations

    • A.

      Occurs rapidly

    • B.

      Is an increase in sensitivity

    • C.

      Is seen in olfaction and hearing

    • D.

      Occurs only with vision

    • E.

      Never occurs with taste

    Correct Answer
    A. Occurs rapidly
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that adaptation of olfactory sensations occurs rapidly. This means that our sense of smell quickly adjusts to a particular smell, causing us to become less sensitive to it over time. This adaptation allows us to detect new or changing odors more easily. Unlike other senses such as vision or taste, olfactory adaptation happens quickly and helps us efficiently process and respond to different smells in our environment.

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  • 6. 

    The olfactory tract

    • A.

      Projects to the cortical region controlled by the limbic system and part of the amygdale

    • B.

      Has its integrating center in the hypothalamus

    • C.

      Is only motor neurons

    • D.

      Receives information from the taste buds

    • E.

      Consists of the olfactory and vestibulocochlear nerves

    Correct Answer
    A. Projects to the cortical region controlled by the limbic system and part of the amygdale
    Explanation
    The olfactory tract projects to the cortical region controlled by the limbic system and part of the amygdala. This means that the pathway of the olfactory tract leads to the area of the brain that is responsible for processing emotions, memory, and behavior. The limbic system plays a crucial role in the sense of smell, as it is closely linked to our emotional and behavioral responses to different odors. The amygdala, which is part of the limbic system, is also involved in the processing of emotions and memory formation. Therefore, the olfactory tract's projection to these areas suggests its important role in the emotional and memory-related aspects of smell.

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  • 7. 

    Taste buds are found

    • A.

      Epiglottis

    • B.

      Pharynx

    • C.

      Soft palate

    • D.

      Both A and B

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The taste buds are found in multiple locations in the mouth and throat. The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that covers the trachea during swallowing, and it does not directly contain taste buds. The pharynx is the throat area that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the esophagus, and it does contain taste buds. The soft palate is the soft tissue at the back of the roof of the mouth, and it also contains taste buds. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above" because taste buds are found in the epiglottis, pharynx, and soft palate.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following nerves serves in a gustatory function?

    • A.

      Vestibulocochlear

    • B.

      Oculomotor

    • C.

      Vagus

    • D.

      Trigeminal

    • E.

      Spinal accessory

    Correct Answer
    C. Vagus
    Explanation
    The vagus nerve serves in a gustatory function. It is responsible for transmitting taste sensations from the back of the throat and the epiglottis. It innervates the taste buds on the tongue and carries signals to the brain, allowing us to perceive different tastes.

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  • 9. 

    Where is Wendy's office and what are her office hours for this course?

    Correct Answer
    CTC 417B Monday 5-6 and by appointment
    Explanation
    The answer provided states that Wendy's office is located in CTC 417B and her office hours for this course are on Monday from 5-6 PM.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is the space between the upper and lower eyelids?

    • A.

      Palpebral fissure

    • B.

      Levator palpebrae

    • C.

      Lacrimal caruncle

    • D.

      Lateral commissure

    • E.

      Conjectiva

    Correct Answer
    A. Palpebral fissure
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Palpebral fissure." The palpebral fissure refers to the space between the upper and lower eyelids. It is the opening through which light enters the eye and allows for blinking and eye movement. The other options mentioned in the question are not related to the space between the eyelids.

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  • 11. 

    What is Wendy's email address?

    Correct Answer
    [email protected]
    Explanation
    The given email address, [email protected], is stated as Wendy's email address.

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  • 12. 

    Which is the correct order in the flow of tears?

    • A.

      Lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac, excretory lacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity

    • B.

      Lacrimal gland, excretory lacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, nasolacrimal duct, lacrimal sac, nasal cavity

    • C.

      Lacrimal gland, excretory lacrimal duct, nasolacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, lacrimal sac, nasal cavity

    • D.

      Lacrimal gland, excretory lacrimal duct, superior and inferior lacrimal canal, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity

    • E.

      Lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, excretory lacrimal duct, nasal cavity

    Correct Answer
    D. Lacrimal gland, excretory lacrimal duct, superior and inferior lacrimal canal, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity
    Explanation
    The correct order in the flow of tears is as follows: Lacrimal gland secretes tears, which then pass through the excretory lacrimal duct. From there, the tears flow through the superior and inferior lacrimal canal, leading to the lacrimal sac. The tears then continue through the nasolacrimal duct and finally drain into the nasal cavity.

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  • 13. 

    How many extrinsic eye muscles are responsible for moving the eye?

    Correct Answer
    6
    Explanation
    There are six extrinsic eye muscles responsible for moving the eye. These muscles include the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior oblique, and inferior oblique. Each muscle has a specific action and works together to control the movement and position of the eye.

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  • 14. 

    This is the transparent coat that covers the iris.

    • A.

      Retina

    • B.

      Choroid

    • C.

      Tunic

    • D.

      Ciliary body

    • E.

      Cornea

    Correct Answer
    E. Cornea
    Explanation
    The cornea is a transparent coat that covers the iris. It is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye that helps to focus light onto the retina, which is responsible for forming visual images. The cornea also plays a crucial role in protecting the eye from dust, foreign particles, and other potential damage.

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  • 15. 

    The main function of this structure is to regulate the amount of light entering the eyeball through the pupil.

    • A.

      Retina

    • B.

      Cornea

    • C.

      Iris

    • D.

      Choroid

    • E.

      Tunic

    Correct Answer
    C. Iris
    Explanation
    The iris is the correct answer because it is the structure in the eye that controls the size of the pupil, which in turn regulates the amount of light entering the eyeball. The iris contains muscles that can contract or expand, thus adjusting the size of the pupil to allow more or less light to pass through. This function helps protect the sensitive retina at the back of the eye from excessive light and ensures optimal vision in varying lighting conditions.

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  • 16. 

    The lens is made of layers of proteins called

    • A.

      Choroid

    • B.

      Ciliary body

    • C.

      Crystallins

    • D.

      Cones

    • E.

      Rods

    Correct Answer
    C. Crystallins
    Explanation
    The lens of the eye is made up of layers of proteins called crystallins. These proteins are responsible for the transparency and flexibility of the lens, allowing it to focus light onto the retina. Crystallins are unique to the lens and are highly structured, which helps maintain the shape and function of the lens. They play a crucial role in maintaining clear vision and any abnormalities or changes in crystallins can lead to vision problems such as cataracts.

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  • 17. 

    This lies between the lens and the retina.

    • A.

      Vitreous chamber

    • B.

      Pupil

    • C.

      Iris

    • D.

      Cornea

    • E.

      Aqueous chamber

    Correct Answer
    A. Vitreous chamber
    Explanation
    The vitreous chamber is the correct answer because it is the space that lies between the lens and the retina in the eye. It is filled with a gel-like substance called vitreous humor, which helps maintain the shape of the eye and transmit light to the retina. The vitreous chamber plays a crucial role in supporting the structure of the eye and allowing for clear vision.

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  • 18. 

    This darkly pigmented structure reduces light reflection within the eyeball.

    • A.

      Sclera

    • B.

      Conjunctiva

    • C.

      Iris

    • D.

      Choroid

    • E.

      Retina

    Correct Answer
    D. Choroid
    Explanation
    The choroid is a darkly pigmented structure located between the retina and the sclera in the eye. It contains blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the retina. The dark pigmentation of the choroid helps to absorb excess light that enters the eye, reducing light reflection and preventing glare. This allows for better vision by minimizing the scattering of light within the eyeball.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the below receptors is primarily used during high light situations?

    • A.

      Scotopsin

    • B.

      Rods

    • C.

      Cones

    • D.

      Vitamin A

    • E.

      Optic nerve

    Correct Answer
    C. Cones
    Explanation
    Cones are the receptors primarily used during high light situations. Cones are responsible for color vision and are most sensitive to bright light. They are concentrated in the central part of the retina and are responsible for providing detailed and sharp vision in well-lit conditions. In contrast, rods are more sensitive to low light and are responsible for peripheral vision and night vision. Scotopsin is a protein found in the rods that helps in the process of vision in low light conditions. Vitamin A is essential for the functioning of both rods and cones. The optic nerve is responsible for transmitting visual information from the retina to the brain.

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  • 20. 

    The first step in visual transduction is:

    • A.

      Allowing light through the pupil

    • B.

      Stopping scattering of light

    • C.

      Enhancing light level

    • D.

      Absorbing light by photopigments

    • E.

      Generating action potentials in optic nerve

    Correct Answer
    D. Absorbing light by photopigments
    Explanation
    The first step in visual transduction is absorbing light by photopigments. Photopigments are molecules found in the retina of the eye that are responsible for capturing photons of light and initiating the process of vision. When light enters the eye, it interacts with the photopigments, causing them to change shape and trigger a cascade of chemical reactions that ultimately result in the generation of electrical signals in the optic nerve. These signals are then sent to the brain, where they are interpreted as visual information.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the below structures converts vibrations to action potentials?

    • A.

      Cochlea

    • B.

      Pinna

    • C.

      Tympanic membrane

    • D.

      Organ of Corti

    • E.

      Vestibulocochlear nerve

    Correct Answer
    D. Organ of Corti
    Explanation
    The Organ of Corti is responsible for converting vibrations into action potentials. It is located in the cochlea, which is the auditory portion of the inner ear. The Organ of Corti contains specialized hair cells that are stimulated by the vibrations transmitted through the cochlear fluid. These hair cells then convert the mechanical energy of the vibrations into electrical signals, which are then transmitted as action potentials along the auditory nerve to the brain for processing and interpretation of sound.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the below structures senses dynamic equilibrium?

    • A.

      Cochlea

    • B.

      Semicircular canals

    • C.

      Macula of vestibule

    • D.

      Organ of corti

    • E.

      Vestibulocochlear nerve

    Correct Answer
    B. Semicircular canals
    Explanation
    The semicircular canals are responsible for sensing dynamic equilibrium. These structures are part of the inner ear and contain fluid-filled canals that detect rotational movements of the head. When the head moves, the fluid in the canals moves as well, stimulating hair cells that send signals to the brain, allowing us to maintain balance and perceive changes in our body position. The other options listed, such as the cochlea, macula of vestibule, organ of corti, and vestibulocochlear nerve, are involved in hearing but not specifically in sensing dynamic equilibrium.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is NOT a function of a hormone?

    • A.

      Regulates chemical composition and volume of the internal environment

    • B.

      Regulates metabolism

    • C.

      Regulates glandular secretions

    • D.

      Produces electrolytes

    • E.

      Controls growth and development

    Correct Answer
    D. Produces electrolytes
    Explanation
    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes in the body. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating metabolism, controlling glandular secretions, and controlling growth and development. However, hormones do not produce electrolytes. Electrolytes are substances that dissociate into ions in solution and are responsible for maintaining fluid balance, conducting electrical impulses, and regulating pH levels in the body. Hormones may influence the levels of electrolytes in the body, but they do not directly produce them.

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  • 24. 

    When a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease.  This is called:

    • A.

      Receptor recognition

    • B.

      Circulating hormone

    • C.

      Paracrine

    • D.

      Up regulation

    • E.

      Down regulation

    Correct Answer
    E. Down regulation
    Explanation
    When a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease. This is known as down regulation. In this process, the cells decrease the number of receptors on their surface in response to the high hormone levels. This is a regulatory mechanism that allows cells to become less sensitive to the hormone and prevent overstimulation.

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  • 25. 

    These are lipid soluble hormones derived from cholesterol.

    • A.

      Steroids

    • B.

      Thyroid hormones

    • C.

      Nitric Oxide

    • D.

      Amine hormones

    • E.

      Peptide hormones

    Correct Answer
    A. Steroids
    Explanation
    Steroids are a type of lipid soluble hormone derived from cholesterol. They are characterized by their ability to easily pass through cell membranes and bind to intracellular receptors. This allows them to directly affect gene expression and regulate various physiological processes in the body. Examples of steroid hormones include cortisol, estrogen, and testosterone.

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  • 26. 

    What is a major difference in the action of a water soluble hormone versus a lipid soluble hormone?

    • A.

      Lipid soluble hormones bind to cell surface receptors

    • B.

      How the mRNA is transcribed

    • C.

      The use of a second messanger

    • D.

      Only one type needs a hormone receptor

    • E.

      Lipid hormones are not found in the bloodstream

    Correct Answer
    C. The use of a second messanger
    Explanation
    A major difference in the action of a water-soluble hormone versus a lipid-soluble hormone is the use of a second messenger. Water-soluble hormones, such as peptide hormones, cannot pass through the cell membrane and therefore bind to cell surface receptors. This binding triggers a cascade of events inside the cell, which involves the activation of second messengers like cAMP or calcium ions. These second messengers relay the signal from the hormone receptor to the target cell's interior, leading to various cellular responses. In contrast, lipid-soluble hormones, such as steroid hormones, can pass through the cell membrane and bind to intracellular receptors, directly influencing gene expression and protein synthesis without the need for second messengers.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates milk production?

    Correct Answer
    Prolactin
    Explanation
    Prolactin is the hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates milk production in the mammary glands. It plays a crucial role in lactation and is responsible for the production and secretion of breast milk in females after childbirth. Prolactin levels increase during pregnancy and remain high during breastfeeding to ensure an adequate milk supply for the infant. Therefore, it is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 28. 

    When one hormone opposing the action of another hormone it is called:

    • A.

      Synergistic effects

    • B.

      Permissive effects

    • C.

      Antagonistic effects

    • D.

      Circulating

    • E.

      Local

    Correct Answer
    C. Antagonistic effects
    Explanation
    Antagonistic effects occur when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone. This means that the two hormones have opposite effects on the same target cell or organ. For example, insulin and glucagon have antagonistic effects on blood sugar levels. Insulin lowers blood sugar levels by promoting glucose uptake by cells, while glucagon raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. Therefore, the correct answer is antagonistic effects.

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  • 29. 

    What controls the anterior pituitary gland?

    • A.

      Action of hypothalamic hormones

    • B.

      Chemical signals from the blood

    • C.

      The peripheral nervous system

    • D.

      Action potentials from the thalamus

    • E.

      Chemical changes in CSF

    Correct Answer
    A. Action of hypothalamic hormones
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the action of hypothalamic hormones. The hypothalamus releases various hormones that travel through the blood vessels to the anterior pituitary gland, stimulating or inhibiting the release of specific hormones from the gland. This communication between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland is crucial for regulating hormone production and maintaining homeostasis in the body. Chemical signals from the blood, the peripheral nervous system, action potentials from the thalamus, and chemical changes in CSF do not directly control the anterior pituitary gland.

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  • 30. 

    Which methods provide hemostasis?

    • A.

      Vascular spasm, clotting, polycythemia

    • B.

      Hemolysis, vascular spasm, platelet plug formation

    • C.

      Emigration, clotting, hemolysis

    • D.

      Platelet plug formation, vascular spasm, clotting

    • E.

      Anemia, hemogenesis, platelet plug formation

    Correct Answer
    D. Platelet plug formation, vascular spasm, clotting
    Explanation
    Platelet plug formation, vascular spasm, and clotting are all methods that provide hemostasis. Platelet plug formation occurs when platelets adhere to the site of injury and aggregate to form a plug, which helps to stop bleeding. Vascular spasm is the constriction of blood vessels near the injured area, reducing blood flow and further preventing bleeding. Clotting, also known as coagulation, involves the formation of a fibrin clot to seal the wound and promote healing. Together, these methods work to achieve hemostasis and prevent excessive bleeding.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates growth of long bones?

    • A.

      Human growth hormone

    • B.

      Prolactin

    • C.

      Thyrotropin

    • D.

      Follicle stimulating hormone

    • E.

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Correct Answer
    A. Human growth hormone
    Explanation
    Human growth hormone (HGH) stimulates the growth of long bones. It is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and plays a crucial role in regulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration. HGH acts directly on the bones and promotes the division and multiplication of bone cells, leading to an increase in bone length and overall growth. It also stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which further promotes bone growth. Therefore, HGH is the correct answer as it specifically targets and stimulates the growth of long bones.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates Cortisol production?

    • A.

      Luteinizing hormone

    • B.

      Prolactin

    • C.

      Insulin like growth hormone

    • D.

      Melanocyte stimulating hormone

    • E.

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Correct Answer
    E. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    Explanation
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the production of cortisol in the adrenal glands. Cortisol is a steroid hormone that helps regulate various processes in the body, including metabolism, immune response, and stress response. ACTH is released from the anterior pituitary gland in response to a signal from the hypothalamus. It then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, where it binds to receptors on the cells and stimulates the production and release of cortisol. Therefore, ACTH is the correct answer for this question.

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  • 33. 

    The pars distalis and the pars tuberalis comprise:

    • A.

      The anterior pituitary

    • B.

      The hypothalamus

    • C.

      The posterior pituitary

    • D.

      The adrenal gland

    • E.

      The thyroid gland

    Correct Answer
    A. The anterior pituitary
    Explanation
    The pars distalis and the pars tuberalis together make up the anterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary is a gland located at the base of the brain that produces and releases various hormones that regulate important bodily functions. It is responsible for the secretion of hormones such as growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin. These hormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth, metabolism, reproduction, and other physiological processes.

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  • 34. 

    List the 5 white blood cells.

    Correct Answer
    neutrophils lymphocytes monocytes basophils eosinophils
    Explanation
    The question asks for a list of the 5 types of white blood cells. The answer provided includes neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils, which are all types of white blood cells.

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  • 35. 

    Name the (specific) disease in which the beta cells are being destroyed by the victim's immune system?

    Correct Answer
    type 1 diabetes mellitus
    Explanation
    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a specific disease in which the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system. This autoimmune response leads to a lack of insulin production, causing high blood sugar levels. As a result, individuals with type 1 diabetes require lifelong insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels.

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  • 36. 

    Which type of anterior pituitary cell secretes human growth hormone?

    • A.

      Thyrotrophs

    • B.

      Gonadotrophs

    • C.

      Somatotrophs

    • D.

      Lactotrophs

    • E.

      Corticotrophs

    Correct Answer
    C. Somatotrophs
    Explanation
    Somatotrophs are the anterior pituitary cells that secrete human growth hormone. This hormone plays a crucial role in stimulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration in humans. Therefore, it makes sense that the cells responsible for secreting this hormone are called somatotrophs.

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  • 37. 

    Which hormones does the posterior pituitary produce?

    • A.

      Prolactin and Human Growth Hormone

    • B.

      Melatonin stimulating hormone and Oxytocin

    • C.

      Follicle stimulating hormone and Thyroid stimulating hormone

    • D.

      Prolactin and ACTH

    • E.

      Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone

    Correct Answer
    E. Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone. The posterior pituitary gland produces these two hormones. Oxytocin is involved in various reproductive functions, such as stimulating contractions during childbirth and promoting milk release during breastfeeding. Antidiuretic hormone helps regulate water balance in the body by reducing urine production and promoting water reabsorption in the kidneys.

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  • 38. 

    The amount of ADH that is secreted varies with

    • A.

      Blood osmotic pressure

    • B.

      Blood calcium

    • C.

      Oxygen content of blood

    • D.

      Blood levels of glucose

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Blood osmotic pressure
    Explanation
    The amount of ADH that is secreted varies with blood osmotic pressure. ADH, or antidiuretic hormone, is released by the pituitary gland in response to changes in blood osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure refers to the concentration of solutes in the blood, and when it is too high, ADH is released to increase water reabsorption in the kidneys, reducing urine output and helping to maintain fluid balance in the body. Therefore, blood osmotic pressure directly influences the secretion of ADH.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following hormones opposes the action of parathyroid hormone?

    • A.

      Thyroid stimulating hormone

    • B.

      Testosterone

    • C.

      Insulin

    • D.

      Calcitonin

    • E.

      Calcitriol

    Correct Answer
    D. Calcitonin
    Explanation
    Calcitonin is the hormone that opposes the action of parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone increases the levels of calcium in the blood by promoting the release of calcium from bones and increasing calcium reabsorption in the kidneys. On the other hand, calcitonin decreases blood calcium levels by inhibiting calcium release from bones and increasing calcium excretion in the kidneys. Therefore, calcitonin counteracts the effects of parathyroid hormone and helps to regulate calcium homeostasis in the body.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is NOT a part of the process used to synthesize and secrete T3 and T4?

    • A.

      Iodide trapping

    • B.

      Oxidation of iodide

    • C.

      Coupling of T1 and T2

    • D.

      Hydrolysis of calcium

    • E.

      Iodination of tyrosine

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydrolysis of calcium
    Explanation
    Hydrolysis of calcium is not a part of the process used to synthesize and secrete T3 and T4. The synthesis of T3 and T4 involves several steps, including iodide trapping, oxidation of iodide, coupling of T1 and T2, and iodination of tyrosine. Calcium hydrolysis, on the other hand, refers to the breakdown of calcium compounds into calcium ions and hydroxide ions, and it is not directly involved in the synthesis and secretion of T3 and T4.

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  • 41. 

    Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of the concentration of which of the following ions in the blood?

    • A.

      Calcium

    • B.

      Sodium

    • C.

      Potassium

    • D.

      Chloride

    • E.

      Manganese

    Correct Answer
    A. Calcium
    Explanation
    Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of the concentration of calcium in the blood. It acts to increase calcium levels by stimulating the release of calcium from bones, increasing calcium absorption in the intestines, and reducing calcium excretion in the kidneys. This hormone plays a crucial role in maintaining calcium homeostasis and ensuring proper functioning of various physiological processes that rely on calcium ions.

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  • 42. 

    List two of the three items secreted by basophils at sites of inflammation:

    Correct Answer
    serotonin histamine heparin
    Explanation
    Basophils are a type of white blood cell that play a role in the immune response. During inflammation, basophils secrete various substances to promote the inflammatory response. Serotonin is one of the substances secreted by basophils and it helps to increase blood vessel dilation and permeability. Histamine is another substance secreted by basophils, which also contributes to blood vessel dilation and increased blood flow to the site of inflammation. Lastly, basophils secrete heparin, which is an anticoagulant that helps to prevent blood clotting at the site of inflammation.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following is not a glucocorticoid effect?

    • A.

      Protein and fat breakdown

    • B.

      Glucose formation

    • C.

      Immune suppression

    • D.

      Reduction of inflammation

    • E.

      Increase in blood cell production

    Correct Answer
    E. Increase in blood cell production
    Explanation
    Increase in blood cell production is not a glucocorticoid effect. Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, have several effects on the body including protein and fat breakdown, glucose formation, immune suppression, and reduction of inflammation. However, they do not directly increase blood cell production. This is a function of other hormones, such as erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow.

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  • 44. 

    Which blood glucose lowering hormone is produced by the pancreatic islet cells?

    • A.

      Insulin

    • B.

      Plasma proteins

    • C.

      Blood clotting factors

    • D.

      Thyroid hormones

    • E.

      Calcitonin

    Correct Answer
    A. Insulin
    Explanation
    Insulin is the correct answer because it is the hormone produced by the pancreatic islet cells that helps to lower blood glucose levels. It is responsible for facilitating the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, where it can be used for energy or stored for later use. Insulin also plays a crucial role in regulating carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in the body.

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  • 45. 

    Which hormone promotes an increased metabolic rate?

    • A.

      Insulin

    • B.

      Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

    • C.

      Glucagon

    • D.

      Thyroid hormone

    • E.

      Calcitonin

    Correct Answer
    D. Thyroid hormone
    Explanation
    Thyroid hormone promotes an increased metabolic rate. It plays a crucial role in regulating the body's metabolism by stimulating the production of proteins and increasing oxygen consumption in cells. It also helps in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy production. Therefore, an increase in thyroid hormone levels leads to an overall increase in metabolic rate.

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  • 46. 

    Name the two hormones produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland:

    Correct Answer
    thyroxine triiodothyronine
    Explanation
    The follicular cells of the thyroid gland produce two hormones: thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones are responsible for regulating metabolism and growth in the body. Thyroxine, also known as T4, is the main hormone produced by the thyroid gland and is converted into the more active triiodothyronine, or T3, in the body. Both hormones play crucial roles in maintaining overall health and proper functioning of various organs and systems in the body.

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  • 47. 

    Which is NOT a major function of the blood?

    • A.

      Transportation of nutrients

    • B.

      Regulation of blood pH

    • C.

      Protection against disease infection

    • D.

      Transportation of heat

    • E.

      Production of oxygen

    Correct Answer
    E. Production of oxygen
    Explanation
    The blood has several major functions, including the transportation of nutrients, regulation of blood pH, protection against disease infection, and transportation of heat. However, the blood does not produce oxygen. Oxygen is primarily obtained through the process of respiration in the lungs, and it is then carried by the red blood cells to the body's tissues.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following hormones contribute to the body's long term response to stress?

    • A.

      Insulin, Glucagon, Thyroid hormone

    • B.

      HGH, Insulin, Aldosterone

    • C.

      Cortisol, hGH, Thyroid hormone

    • D.

      Parathyroid hormone, Cortisol, hGH

    • E.

      Calcitonin, Thyroid hormone, Insulin

    Correct Answer
    C. Cortisol, hGH, Thyroid hormone
    Explanation
    Cortisol, hGH, and Thyroid hormone contribute to the body's long-term response to stress. Cortisol is released by the adrenal glands and helps regulate metabolism, blood sugar levels, and immune responses during stress. hGH (human growth hormone) is released by the pituitary gland and helps regulate growth, metabolism, and energy levels. Thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland, regulates metabolism, body temperature, and energy levels. Together, these hormones play a crucial role in adapting the body to prolonged stress and maintaining homeostasis.

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  • 49. 

    How much of blood plasma is water (approximately)?

    • A.

      95%

    • B.

      91%

    • C.

      88%

    • D.

      80%

    • E.

      50%

    Correct Answer
    B. 91%
    Explanation
    Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood that carries various substances throughout the body. It is mostly composed of water, along with other components such as proteins, electrolytes, hormones, and waste products. The given correct answer of 91% indicates that approximately 91% of blood plasma is water. This means that water is the main constituent of blood plasma, playing a crucial role in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body and facilitating the transport of nutrients, hormones, and waste products.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following is not an agranular leukocyte?

    • A.

      Monocytes

    • B.

      Macrophage

    • C.

      Lymphocyte

    • D.

      Basophil

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Basophil
    Explanation
    Basophil is the correct answer because it is an example of a granular leukocyte, not an agranular leukocyte. Agranular leukocytes do not contain granules in their cytoplasm, whereas granular leukocytes, like basophils, have granules that are visible under a microscope. Monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes are all examples of agranular leukocytes.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 08, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Cpeebs22
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