A&p II Digestive SySTEM

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Quizzes Created: 3 | Total Attempts: 2,115
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AP Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    All of the following are considered organs of the gastrointestinal tract except

    • A.

      Pharynx

    • B.

      Small intestine

    • C.

      Gallbladder

    • D.

      Stomach

    • E.

      Esophagus

    Correct Answer
    C. Gallbladder
    Explanation
    The gallbladder is not considered an organ of the gastrointestinal tract because it does not play a role in the digestion of food. The gastrointestinal tract consists of organs that are involved in the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients, such as the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. The gallbladder, on the other hand, stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver, and releases it into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats. Therefore, it is not considered a part of the gastrointestinal tract.

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  • 2. 

    The myenteric plexus

    • A.

      Controls the contractile strength and frequency of contraction of the muscularis

    • B.

      Supplies the secretory cells of the mucosal epithelium

    • C.

      Contains sensory neurons which function as chemoreceptors

    • D.

      Regulates secretional gastrointestinal organs

    • E.

      Supplies the mucosal epithelium

    Correct Answer
    A. Controls the contractile strength and frequency of contraction of the muscularis
    Explanation
    The myenteric plexus is a network of nerves located in the muscular layer of the gastrointestinal tract. It is responsible for controlling the strength and frequency of contractions of the muscularis, which is the layer of smooth muscle that helps move food through the digestive system. The myenteric plexus coordinates and regulates the contractions of the muscularis, ensuring that food is properly propelled through the digestive tract.

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  • 3. 

    The mesentery

    • A.

      Binds the transverse and sigmoid colon to the posterior abdominal wall

    • B.

      Attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm

    • C.

      Drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine

    • D.

      Extends from the posterior wall to wrap around the small intestine

    • E.

      Suspends the mucosal epithelium

    Correct Answer
    D. Extends from the posterior wall to wrap around the small intestine
    Explanation
    The mesentery is a fold of tissue that extends from the posterior wall of the abdomen and wraps around the small intestine. It provides support and holds the small intestine in place within the abdominal cavity. This arrangement allows for proper positioning and movement of the small intestine during digestion and absorption of nutrients. The mesentery also contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that supply the small intestine.

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  • 4. 

    The pharynx is part of both the __________ and ___________ organ systems.

    • A.

      Digestive and muscular

    • B.

      Digestive and respiratory

    • C.

      Respiratory and muscular

    • D.

      Digestive and endocrine

    • E.

      Digestive and skeletal

    Correct Answer
    B. Digestive and respiratory
    Explanation
    The pharynx is a part of both the digestive and respiratory organ systems. It serves as a common pathway for both food and air. In the digestive system, it helps in the process of swallowing by allowing food to pass from the mouth to the esophagus. In the respiratory system, it plays a vital role in the passage of air from the nasal cavity or mouth to the trachea. Therefore, the pharynx is involved in both the digestion of food and the respiration of air.

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  • 5. 

    Gastric lipase

    • A.

      Is the result of activation of lingual lipase in the stomach

    • B.

      Functions best at an alkaline pH

    • C.

      Is most active in infants

    • D.

      Synthesizes triglycerides from fatty acids and monoglycerides

    • E.

      Is much more effective than lingual lipase or pancreatic lipase

    Correct Answer
    C. Is most active in infants
    Explanation
    Gastric lipase is most active in infants because it plays a crucial role in the digestion of milk fat in newborns. Infants have a higher concentration of gastric lipase compared to adults, which allows them to efficiently break down the triglycerides present in breast milk. As infants grow and transition to solid foods, the production of gastric lipase decreases, and pancreatic lipase takes over the primary role in fat digestion. Therefore, gastric lipase's activity is highest in infants and gradually decreases as they age.

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  • 6. 

    Pancreatic juice does all of the following except

    • A.

      Buffer gastric juice

    • B.

      Provide protein-digesting enzymes in inactive form

    • C.

      Provide starch-digesting enzymes

    • D.

      Provide glucagon

    • E.

      Stop the action of pepsin

    Correct Answer
    D. Provide glucagon
    Explanation
    Pancreatic juice is a fluid secreted by the pancreas that aids in digestion. It contains bicarbonate ions which help to buffer the acidic gastric juice in the stomach, ensuring that the pH in the small intestine is optimal for digestion. It also contains protein-digesting enzymes called proteases, such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially secreted in an inactive form to prevent them from digesting the pancreas itself. Additionally, pancreatic juice contains amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch into simpler sugars. However, pancreatic juice does not provide glucagon, a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and plays a role in regulating blood sugar levels.

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  • 7. 

    You absolutely love plain, unsweetened whipped cream and have eaten a cup of it by itself.  Which of the following enzymes would be most useful in digesting this snack of questionable dietary value?

    • A.

      Pancreatic amylase

    • B.

      Aminopeptidase

    • C.

      Pancreatic lipase

    • D.

      Pepsin

    • E.

      Deoxyribonuclease

    Correct Answer
    C. Pancreatic lipase
    Explanation
    Pancreatic lipase is the correct answer because it is an enzyme that breaks down lipids (fats) into smaller molecules. Since whipped cream is high in fat content, pancreatic lipase would be the most useful enzyme in digesting it. The other enzymes listed, such as pancreatic amylase, aminopeptidase, pepsin, and deoxyribonuclease, are not specifically involved in breaking down fats and would not be as effective in digesting whipped cream.

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  • 8. 

    In order from the small intestine to the anus, the major regions of the lare intestine are

    • A.

      Ascending colon-transverse colon-descending colon-cecum-rectum-anal canal

    • B.

      Cecum-ascending canal-transverse colon-descending colon-rectum-anal canal

    • C.

      Ascending colon-transverse colon-descending colon-cecum-anal canal-rectum

    • D.

      Cecum-ascending colon-transverse colon-descending colon-anal canal-rectum

    • E.

      Ascending colon-transverse colon-descending colon-anal canal-cecum-rectum

    Correct Answer
    B. Cecum-ascending canal-transverse colon-descending colon-rectum-anal canal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cecum-ascending colon-transverse colon-descending colon-rectum-anal canal. This is the correct order of the major regions of the large intestine from the small intestine to the anus. The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, rectum, and finally the anal canal.

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  • 9. 

    The enterogastric reflex

    • A.

      Is stimulated by the presence of chyme in the stomach

    • B.

      Is stimulated by the presence of chyme in the duodenum

    • C.

      Results in decreased contraction of the pyloric sphincter

    • D.

      Increases gastric emptying

    • E.

      Is the result of parasympathetic stimulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Is stimulated by the presence of chyme in the duodenum
    Explanation
    The enterogastric reflex is a reflex that is stimulated by the presence of chyme in the duodenum. This reflex helps to regulate the movement of food from the stomach into the small intestine. When chyme is present in the duodenum, the enterogastric reflex causes the pyloric sphincter, which is the muscle that controls the opening between the stomach and the small intestine, to contract and restrict the flow of chyme into the small intestine. This helps to slow down gastric emptying and allows for proper digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

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  • 10. 

    If glucose is not immediately needed for ATP production _______________ may occur.

    • A.

      Glycogenesis

    • B.

      Glycogenolysis

    • C.

      Gluconeogenesis

    • D.

      Glycolysis

    • E.

      Glucolysis

    Correct Answer
    D. Glycolysis
    Explanation
    If glucose is not immediately needed for ATP production, glycolysis may occur. Glycolysis is the process by which glucose is broken down to produce ATP. It is the first step in cellular respiration and occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. During glycolysis, glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvate, and a small amount of ATP is generated. This process does not require oxygen and can occur in the absence of oxygen.

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  • 11. 

    A high level of LDL accompanied by a low level of HDL is considered

    • A.

      Beneficial because LDL can deposit triglycerides in adipose cells for storage until the triglycerides are needed for cellular metabolism

    • B.

      Beneficial because LDL help remove cholesterol from the blood

    • C.

      Beneficial because LDL are required for insertion of cholesterol into cell membranes

    • D.

      Deleterious because HDL prevent accumulation of cholesterol in the blood

    • E.

      Deleterious because LDL remove too much cholesterol from the blood

    Correct Answer
    D. Deleterious because HDL prevent accumulation of cholesterol in the blood
    Explanation
    A high level of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) is considered deleterious because it can lead to the accumulation of cholesterol in the blood, which can contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, a low level of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) is also considered deleterious because HDL helps remove cholesterol from the blood, preventing its accumulation. Therefore, a high level of LDL accompanied by a low level of HDL is considered deleterious as it increases the risk of cholesterol accumulation in the blood.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following statements about the process of deamination is false?

    • A.

      Required for protein anabolism

    • B.

      Required for oxidation of amino acids in the Krebs cycle

    • C.

      Removes amino groups from amino acids

    • D.

      Occurs in hepatocytes

    • E.

      Results in the formation of ammonia

    Correct Answer
    A. Required for protein anabolism
    Explanation
    Deamination is the process of removing the amino group from an amino acid. It is not required for protein anabolism, which is the process of building proteins. Instead, deamination is necessary for the oxidation of amino acids in the Krebs cycle and occurs in hepatocytes. It results in the formation of ammonia, which can then be converted into urea for excretion.

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  • 13. 

    Amino Acids may

    • A.

      Be converted into other amino acids

    • B.

      Be converted into glucose

    • C.

      Be converted into fatty acids

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Amino acids can undergo various metabolic processes in the body. They can be converted into other amino acids through transamination reactions, where the amino group of one amino acid is transferred to a keto acid to form a new amino acid. Amino acids can also be converted into glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis, which occurs primarily in the liver. Additionally, certain amino acids can be converted into fatty acids through a series of biochemical reactions. Therefore, all of the given options are correct as amino acids can indeed be converted into other amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids.

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  • 14. 

    For adequate absorption, all of the folowing require ingestion with other lipids except Vitamin

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      C

    • C.

      D

    • D.

      E

    • E.

      K

    Correct Answer
    B. C
    Explanation
    Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins, meaning they require the presence of fats or lipids in order to be properly absorbed by the body. Ingesting these vitamins without any lipids would result in inadequate absorption. However, vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, which means it can be absorbed by the body without the need for lipids. Therefore, vitamin C does not require ingestion with other lipids for adequate absorption.

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  • 15. 

    Blood pH may be slightly elevated during digestion of a large meal because there is

    • A.

      Active transport hydrogen ions into the blood from the stomach

    • B.

      Active transport of hydrogen ions into the stomach from the blood

    • C.

      Chloride ion diffusion into the stomach from the blood

    • D.

      Potassium ion diffusion into the stomach from the blood

    • E.

      Loss of bicarbonate ions from the parietal cells into the blood

    Correct Answer
    E. Loss of bicarbonate ions from the parietal cells into the blood
    Explanation
    During digestion of a large meal, the stomach produces hydrochloric acid to break down food. This acid is secreted by the parietal cells in the stomach lining. In order to maintain the balance of acidity in the stomach, bicarbonate ions are released from the parietal cells into the blood. This loss of bicarbonate ions from the parietal cells into the blood causes a slight elevation in blood pH.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following enzymes is not matched correctly with its substrate

    • A.

      Pancreatic amylase: starch

    • B.

      Trypsin: oligo- and disaccharides

    • C.

      Carboxypeptidase: proteins

    • D.

      Pancreatic lipase: triglycerides

    • E.

      Ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease: nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    B. Trypsin: oligo- and disaccharides
    Explanation
    The correct answer is trypsin: oligo- and disaccharides. Trypsin is an enzyme that specifically breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. It does not act on oligo- and disaccharides, which are carbohydrates. The other enzymes listed are correctly matched with their respective substrates. Pancreatic amylase breaks down starch, carboxypeptidase breaks down proteins, pancreatic lipase breaks down triglycerides, and ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease break down nucleic acids.

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  • 17. 

    The enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine secrete

    • A.

      Lysozyme

    • B.

      Secretin, CCK and GIP

    • C.

      Alkaline mucus

    • D.

      Brush-border enzymes

    • E.

      Chylomicrons

    Correct Answer
    B. Secretin, CCK and GIP
    Explanation
    The enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine secrete secretin, CCK, and GIP. These hormones play important roles in the digestive process. Secretin stimulates the release of pancreatic enzymes and bicarbonate, which helps neutralize stomach acid. CCK stimulates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder. GIP, or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas in response to the presence of glucose in the small intestine. Together, these hormones aid in the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

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  • 18. 

    Insulin is needed for carbohdrate metabolism because it

    • A.

      Is required for the breakdown of complex carbohydrates

    • B.

      Transports glucose in the bloodstrea

    • C.

      Acts as a glucose receptor molecule on the cell surface

    • D.

      Is part of an active transport mechanism required for entry of glucose into cells

    • E.

      Increases the insertion of a particular type of glucose transport protein into the cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    E. Increases the insertion of a particular type of glucose transport protein into the cell membrane
    Explanation
    Insulin is needed for carbohydrate metabolism because it increases the insertion of a particular type of glucose transport protein into the cell membrane. This allows for the efficient uptake of glucose into cells, which is essential for its metabolism and energy production. Without insulin, the transport protein would not be inserted into the cell membrane, leading to impaired glucose uptake and metabolism.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following places the evens of glucose catabolim in the correct oder?

    • A.

      Glycolysis, formation of acetyl coA, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain reactions

    • B.

      Glycolsis, Krebs cycle, fomation of acetyl coA, electron transport chin reactions

    • C.

      Glycolysis anaerobic respiration, Krebs cycle, electron transport of chain reactions

    • D.

      Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, anaerobic respiration, electron transport of chain reactions

    • E.

      Formation of acetyl coA, glycolysis, electron transport chain reactions

    Correct Answer
    A. Glycolysis, formation of acetyl coA, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain reactions
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "glycolysis, formation of acetyl coA, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain reactions." This is the correct order of events in glucose catabolism. Glycolysis is the first step in the breakdown of glucose, followed by the formation of acetyl coA. Acetyl coA then enters the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, where further breakdown and energy production occur. Finally, the electron transport chain reactions take place, which generate the majority of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation.

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  • 20. 

    Vitamins may do which of the following?

    • A.

      Serve as coenzymes

    • B.

      Provide energy

    • C.

      Serve as building materials within the body

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Serve as coenzymes
    Explanation
    Vitamins can serve as coenzymes, which are molecules that help enzymes carry out their functions. Coenzymes are necessary for many metabolic processes in the body, including the breakdown of nutrients and the production of energy. However, vitamins themselves do not provide energy directly, nor do they serve as building materials within the body. Therefore, the correct answer is "serve as coenzymes."

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 11, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Ktdelilah
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