A&p Chapter 18 Endocrine System

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Endocrine System Quizzes & Trivia

The endocrine system is defined as the collection of glands of living organisms, which are essential for secreting hormones. Most processes in living organisms are aided by hormones. The A&P chapter 18 endocrine systems quiz below tests on this subject.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A FUNCTION OF A HORMONE

    • A.

      REGULATES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND VOLUME OF THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

    • B.

      REGULATES METABOLISM

    • C.

      REGULATES GRANDULAR SECRETIONS

    • D.

      PRODUCES ELECTROLYTES

    Correct Answer
    D. PRODUCES ELECTROLYTES
    Explanation
    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes in the body. They do not directly produce electrolytes, but they can regulate the balance of electrolytes in the body by influencing their absorption, excretion, or distribution. Therefore, "Produces electrolytes" is not a function of a hormone.

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  • 2. 

    WHEN A HORMONE IS PRESENT IN EXCESSIVE LEVELS, THE NUMBER OF TARGET-CELL RECEPTORS MAY DECREASE. THIS IS CALLED

    • A.

      RECEPTOR RECOGNITION

    • B.

      CIRCULATING HORMONE

    • C.

      UP REGULATION

    • D.

      DOWN REGULATION

    Correct Answer
    D. DOWN REGULATION
    Explanation
    When a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease. This is called down regulation. Down regulation is a mechanism by which cells decrease the number of receptors on their surface in response to high levels of a hormone. This occurs to prevent overstimulation of the cell and maintain homeostasis. By reducing the number of receptors, the cell becomes less responsive to the hormone, allowing for a balance to be maintained in the body.

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  • 3. 

    THESE HORMONES ACT ON NEIGHBORING CELLS WITHOUT ENTERING THE BLOOD STREAM

    • A.

      LOCAL HORMONES

    • B.

      PARACRINES

    • C.

      AUTOCRINES

    • D.

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

    Correct Answer
    D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that these hormones act on neighboring cells without entering the bloodstream. Local hormones, paracrines, and autocrines are all types of hormones that function in this way. Local hormones act locally on nearby cells, paracrines act on cells in the immediate vicinity, and autocrines act on the same cells that secreted them. Therefore, all of the options mentioned (local hormones, paracrines, and autocrines) are correct answers.

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  • 4. 

    THESE ARE LIPID SOLUBLE HORMONES DERIVED FROM CHOLESTEROL

    • A.

      STEROIDS

    • B.

      THYROID HORMONES

    • C.

      NITRIC OXIDE

    • D.

      AMINE HORMONES

    Correct Answer
    A. STEROIDS
    Explanation
    Steroids are lipid soluble hormones derived from cholesterol. They are characterized by their ability to easily pass through cell membranes and bind to intracellular receptors. This allows them to directly affect gene expression and protein synthesis within the target cells. Steroid hormones include hormones such as cortisol, estrogen, and testosterone. They play important roles in various physiological processes including metabolism, reproduction, and immune response.

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  • 5. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A MAJOR EICONSANOID

    • A.

      PROSTAGLANDINS

    • B.

      LEUKOTRIENES

    • C.

      GLOPROTEINS

    • D.

      BOTH A & B

    Correct Answer
    D. BOTH A & B
    Explanation
    Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are both major eicosanoids. Eicosanoids are signaling molecules derived from arachidonic acid, and they play important roles in inflammation, immune response, and other physiological processes. Prostaglandins are involved in regulating inflammation, blood flow, and smooth muscle contraction, while leukotrienes are primarily involved in the immune response and inflammation. Both prostaglandins and leukotrienes are important mediators of various physiological and pathological processes in the body.

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  • 6. 

    WHAT  IS A MAJOR DIFF IN THE ACTION OF A WATER SOLUBLE HORMONE VS A LIPID SOLUBLE HORMONE

    • A.

      HOW THEY DIFFUSE THROUGH BLOOD

    • B.

      HOW THE mRNA IS TRANSCRIBED

    • C.

      THE USE OF A SECOND MESSENGER

    • D.

      ONLY ONE TYPE NEEDS A HORMONE RECEPTOR

    Correct Answer
    C. THE USE OF A SECOND MESSENGER
    Explanation
    The major difference in the action of a water-soluble hormone versus a lipid-soluble hormone is the use of a second messenger. Water-soluble hormones cannot pass through the cell membrane, so they bind to receptors on the cell surface. This binding activates a second messenger inside the cell, which then triggers a series of intracellular signaling cascades. On the other hand, lipid-soluble hormones can pass through the cell membrane and bind to receptors inside the cell. This binding directly affects gene transcription and protein synthesis, without the need for a second messenger.

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  • 7. 

    WHEN ONE HORMONE OPPOSING THE ACTION OF ANOTHER HORMONE IS IT CALLED

    • A.

      SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS

    • B.

      PERMISSIVE EFFECTS

    • C.

      ANTAGONISTIC EFFECTS

    • D.

      CIRCULATING

    Correct Answer
    C. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECTS
    Explanation
    When one hormone opposes the action of another hormone, it is called antagonistic effects. Antagonistic effects occur when two hormones have opposite effects on the same target tissue or organ. This means that one hormone will counteract or inhibit the actions of the other hormone. This interaction is important for maintaining balance and homeostasis in the body.

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  • 8. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A WAY HORMONE SECRETION IS REGULATED

    • A.

      SIGNALS FROM NERVOUS SYSTEM

    • B.

      CHEMICAL CHANGES IN BLOOD

    • C.

      SIGNALS FROM THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    • D.

      BOTH A & B

    Correct Answer
    C. SIGNALS FROM THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Explanation
    Hormone secretion is regulated by signals from the nervous system and chemical changes in the blood. The peripheral nervous system is a part of the nervous system, so it also plays a role in regulating hormone secretion. Therefore, signals from the peripheral nervous system are not a way hormone secretion is not regulated.

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  • 9. 

    WHAT CONTROLS THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

    • A.

      CHEMICAL SIGNALS FROM THE BLOOD

    • B.

      THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    • C.

      ACTION OF HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES

    • D.

      ACTION OF POTENTIALS FROM THE THALAMUS

    Correct Answer
    C. ACTION OF HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the action of hypothalamic hormones. The hypothalamus, located in the brain, produces and releases various hormones that regulate the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. These hormones, known as releasing hormones or inhibiting hormones, travel through the blood and stimulate or suppress the release of specific hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. This control mechanism ensures that the anterior pituitary gland produces and releases the right amount of hormones to regulate various bodily functions.

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  • 10. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES STIMULATES GROWTH

    • A.

      HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE

    • B.

      PROLACTIN

    • C.

      THYROTROPIN

    • D.

      FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE

    Correct Answer
    A. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE
    Explanation
    Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is the correct answer because it is the hormone responsible for stimulating growth in the body. HGH is produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland and plays a vital role in the growth and development of bones, muscles, and organs. It promotes cell division and multiplication, as well as the production of insulin-like growth factors, which further contribute to growth. HGH levels are highest during childhood and adolescence when growth is most rapid, and decrease with age.

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  • 11. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES STIMULATES MILK PRODUCTION

    • A.

      LEUTINIZING HORMONE

    • B.

      PROLACTIN

    • C.

      THYROTROPIN

    • D.

      MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE

    Correct Answer
    B. PROLACTIN
    Explanation
    Prolactin is the anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production. It is produced and secreted by the lactotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. Prolactin levels increase during pregnancy and after childbirth, leading to the initiation and maintenance of lactation. It acts on the mammary glands, promoting the development of alveoli and milk production. Leutinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for ovulation and the production of sex hormones. Thyrotropin (TSH) stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) regulates skin pigmentation.

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  • 12. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES STIMULATES CORTISOL PRODUCTION

    • A.

      LEUTINIZING HORMONE

    • B.

      PROLACTIN

    • C.

      INSULIN LIKE GROWTH FACTORS

    • D.

      ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE

    Correct Answer
    D. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE
    Explanation
    ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE stimulates cortisol production. Cortisol is a hormone that is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress. It plays a crucial role in regulating various body functions, including metabolism, immune response, and blood pressure. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE is released by the anterior pituitary gland and acts on the adrenal cortex to stimulate the production and secretion of cortisol.

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  • 13. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES STIMULATES SEX CELL PRODUCTION 

    • A.

      LEUTINIZING HORMONE

    • B.

      TSH

    • C.

      CORTICOTROPIN

    • D.

      GROWTH HORMONE

    Correct Answer
    A. LEUTINIZING HORMONE
    Explanation
    The correct answer is LEUTINIZING HORMONE. Leutinizing hormone, also known as LH, is a hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the production of sex cells. It plays a crucial role in the reproductive system by triggering ovulation in females and the production of testosterone in males. LH is regulated by the hypothalamus and is essential for maintaining fertility and normal reproductive function.

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  • 14. 

    THE PARS DISTALIS AND THE PARS TUBERALIS COMPRISE

    • A.

      ANTERIOR PITUITARY

    • B.

      HYPOTHALAMUS

    • C.

      POSTERIOR PITUITARY

    • D.

      ADRENAL GLAND

    Correct Answer
    A. ANTERIOR PITUITARY
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer is that the pars distalis and the pars tuberalis are two parts of the anterior pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary gland is responsible for producing and releasing several hormones that regulate various bodily functions. The hypothalamus, on the other hand, is a separate structure located in the brain that controls the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. The posterior pituitary gland is another part of the pituitary gland that releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus. The adrenal gland is a separate organ located above the kidneys and is not directly related to the pars distalis and the pars tuberalis.

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  • 15. 

    HOW MANY HORMONES DO THE FIVE TYPES OF ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS SECRETE

    • A.

      5

    • B.

      7

    • C.

      10

    • D.

      12

    Correct Answer
    B. 7
    Explanation
    The five types of anterior pituitary cells secrete a total of seven hormones. Each type of cell is responsible for producing and releasing a specific hormone. These hormones include growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and lactation.

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  • 16. 

    WHICH TYPE OF ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELL SECRETES HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE

    • A.

      THYROTROPHS

    • B.

      GONADOTROPHS

    • C.

      SOMATOTROPHS

    • D.

      LACTOTROPHS

    Correct Answer
    C. SOMATOTROPHS
    Explanation
    Somatotrophs are the type of anterior pituitary cells that secrete human growth hormone. These cells are responsible for the production and release of growth hormone, which plays a crucial role in stimulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration in humans.

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  • 17. 

    WHICH HORMONES DOES THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY PRODUCE

    • A.

      PROLACTIN AND HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE

    • B.

      MELATONIN STIMULATING HORMONE AND OXYTOCIN

    • C.

      OXYTOCIN AND ANTIDIRUETIC HORMONE

    • D.

      PROLACTIN AND ACTH

    Correct Answer
    C. OXYTOCIN AND ANTIDIRUETIC HORMONE
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "OXYTOCIN AND ANTIDIRUETIC HORMONE." The posterior pituitary gland produces oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Oxytocin is responsible for stimulating contractions during childbirth and promoting the release of breast milk. ADH, also known as vasopressin, helps regulate the body's water balance by reducing urine production and increasing water reabsorption in the kidneys. These hormones play crucial roles in reproductive and fluid balance functions in the body.

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  • 18. 

    THE AMOUNT OF ADH THAT IS SECRETED VARIES WITH

    • A.

      BLOOD OSMOTIC PRESSURE

    • B.

      BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS

    • C.

      OXYGEN CONTENT OF BLOOD

    • D.

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

    Correct Answer
    A. BLOOD OSMOTIC PRESSURE
    Explanation
    The correct answer is BLOOD OSMOTIC PRESSURE. ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is responsible for regulating the water balance in the body by controlling the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. The secretion of ADH is influenced by the osmotic pressure of the blood, which is the concentration of solutes in the blood. When the blood osmotic pressure is high, indicating dehydration or high solute concentration, ADH is secreted to increase water reabsorption and decrease urine output. Conversely, when the blood osmotic pressure is low, indicating overhydration or low solute concentration, ADH secretion is decreased, leading to increased urine output.

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  • 19. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING HORMONES OPPOSES THE ACTION OF PARATHYROID HORMONE?

    • A.

      TESTESTERONE

    • B.

      INSULIN

    • C.

      CALCITONIN

    • D.

      CALCITRIOL

    Correct Answer
    C. CALCITONIN
    Explanation
    Calcitonin is the hormone that opposes the action of parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone is responsible for increasing blood calcium levels, while calcitonin works to decrease blood calcium levels. Therefore, calcitonin opposes the action of parathyroid hormone by promoting the uptake of calcium into the bones and inhibiting its release from the bones. This helps to regulate calcium levels in the body and maintain homeostasis.

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  • 20. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A MEANS OF SYNTHESIXING AND SECRETING T3 AND T4

    • A.

      IODINE TRAPPING

    • B.

      OXIDATION OF IODIDE

    • C.

      COUPLING OF T1 AND T2

    • D.

      HYDROLYSIS OF CALCIUM

    Correct Answer
    D. HYDROLYSIS OF CALCIUM
  • 21. 

    PARATHYROID HORMONE IS THE MAJOR REGULATOR OF WHICH IONS IN THE BLOOD

    • A.

      CALCIUM

    • B.

      SODIUM

    • C.

      POTASSIUM

    • D.

      CHLORIDE

    Correct Answer
    A. CALCIUM
    Explanation
    Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of calcium ions in the blood. It helps to maintain the balance of calcium levels by increasing the release of calcium from bones, enhancing the absorption of calcium from the intestines, and reducing the excretion of calcium through the kidneys. This hormone plays a crucial role in regulating bone health, nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting.

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  • 22. 

    COMPLETE LOSS OF THE ALDOSTERONE WILL LEAD TO DEATH DUE TO

    • A.

      DECREASED HEART RATE

    • B.

      DECREASED AIRWAY DILATION

    • C.

      DEHYDRATION

    • D.

      KIDNEY FAILURE

    Correct Answer
    C. DEHYDRATION
    Explanation
    Complete loss of aldosterone will lead to dehydration. Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that helps regulate the balance of water and electrolytes in the body. It acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water, while promoting the excretion of potassium. Without aldosterone, the kidneys would not be able to retain enough water, leading to excessive fluid loss and dehydration. Dehydration can have severe consequences on various bodily functions and can ultimately result in death if left untreated.

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  • 23. 

    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A GLUCOCORTICOID EFFECT

    • A.

      PROTEIN AND FAT BREAKDOWN

    • B.

      GLUCOSE FORMATION

    • C.

      IMMUNE SUPPRESSION

    • D.

      INCREASE IN BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION

    Correct Answer
    D. INCREASE IN BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids are hormones that have various effects on the body. They can increase protein and fat breakdown, promote glucose formation, and suppress the immune system. However, they do not have a direct effect on increasing blood cell production. This is typically regulated by other hormones, such as erythropoietin. Therefore, the correct answer is "increase in blood cell production."

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  • 24. 

    WHICH BLOOD GLUCOSE LOWERING HORMONE IS PRODUCED BY THE PANCREATIC ISLET CELLS

    • A.

      INSULIN

    • B.

      PLASMA PROTEINS

    • C.

      BLOOD CLOTTING FACTORS

    • D.

      THYROID HORMONES

    Correct Answer
    A. INSULIN
    Explanation
    Insulin is the correct answer because it is the hormone produced by the pancreatic islet cells that helps lower blood glucose levels. Insulin plays a crucial role in regulating glucose metabolism by facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells, promoting its storage as glycogen, and inhibiting the production of glucose by the liver. Insufficient insulin production or impaired insulin function can lead to high blood glucose levels, which is characteristic of diabetes.

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  • 25. 

    WHICH HORMONE PROMOTES METABOLIC RATE

    • A.

      INSULIN

    • B.

      ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE

    • C.

      GLUCAGON

    • D.

      THYROID HORMONE

    Correct Answer
    D. THYROID HORMONE
    Explanation
    The thyroid hormone is responsible for promoting metabolic rate. It plays a crucial role in regulating the body's metabolism by controlling the rate at which cells convert nutrients into energy. This hormone increases the metabolic rate by stimulating the production of heat and promoting the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. It also affects various organs and tissues, influencing their growth and development. Overall, the thyroid hormone is essential for maintaining a healthy and balanced metabolism.

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  • 26. 

    WHICH HORMONE IS STIMULATED BY DECREASES IN BLOOD GLUCOSE

    • A.

      INSULIN

    • B.

      LEUTINIZING HORMONE

    • C.

      GLUCAGON

    • D.

      CALCITONIN

    Correct Answer
    C. GLUCAGON
    Explanation
    Glucagon is the hormone that is stimulated by decreases in blood glucose levels. When blood glucose levels drop, the pancreas releases glucagon, which signals the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. This helps to increase blood glucose levels and maintain a stable balance.

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  • 27. 

    WHICH OF BELOW HORMONES IS PART OF THE BODY'S LONG TERM RESPONSE TO STRESS

    • A.

      INSULIN CLUCAGON THYROID HORMONE

    • B.

      HGH INSULIN ALDOSTERONE

    • C.

      CORTISOL HGH THYROID HORMONE

    • D.

      CALCITONIN THYROID HORMONE INSULIN

    Correct Answer
    C. CORTISOL HGH THYROID HORMONE
    Explanation
    Cortisol, HGH, and thyroid hormone are all part of the body's long-term response to stress. Cortisol is a stress hormone that helps regulate blood pressure, blood sugar levels, and inflammation. HGH (human growth hormone) is released during times of stress to promote tissue repair and growth. Thyroid hormone is involved in regulating metabolism, energy production, and body temperature, which are all affected by stress. These hormones work together to help the body adapt and cope with stress over an extended period of time.

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  • 28. 

    THE RESPONSES OF THE BODY TO LONG TERM STRESS DOES NOT INCLUDE WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING RESPONSES

    • A.

      LIPOLYSIS

    • B.

      GLYCOGENESIS

    • C.

      GLUCONEOGENESIS

    • D.

      INCREASED HEART RATE

    Correct Answer
    D. INCREASED HEART RATE
    Explanation
    Long-term stress triggers various physiological responses in the body, such as lipolysis (breakdown of fats for energy), glycogenesis (storage of glucose as glycogen), and gluconeogenesis (production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources). However, increased heart rate is not a response specifically associated with long-term stress. While increased heart rate can occur during acute stress or in response to certain stimuli, it is not a consistent or characteristic response to long-term stress.

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  • 29. 

    THIS IS AN AMINE HORMONE DERIVED FROM SERATONIN

    • A.

      MELATONIN

    • B.

      MELANIN

    • C.

      GLUCOSE

    • D.

      GLUCOCORTICOID

    Correct Answer
    A. MELATONIN
    Explanation
    Melatonin is a hormone that is derived from serotonin. It is primarily produced by the pineal gland in the brain and helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle. Serotonin, on the other hand, is a neurotransmitter that is involved in various functions including mood regulation, appetite, and sleep. Melatonin is often referred to as the "sleep hormone" because it helps to promote sleep and regulate the body's internal clock. Therefore, Melatonin is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 30. 

    THIS GLAND SECRETES hGH TSH AND FSH AMONG OTHER HORMONES

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      I

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    The gland that secretes hGH, TSH, and FSH among other hormones is gland B.

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  • 31. 

    THE HORMONES FROM THE GLAND HELP REGULATE METABOLISM

    • A.

      C

    • B.

      D

    • C.

      A

    • D.

      G

    Correct Answer
    A. C
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that hormones from the gland play a role in regulating metabolism. This implies that the gland in question is likely an endocrine gland, as endocrine glands are responsible for producing and releasing hormones into the bloodstream to regulate various bodily functions, including metabolism. Therefore, option C, which suggests that the gland is an endocrine gland, is the correct answer.

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  • 32. 

    THIS GLAND'S HORMONES HELP REGULATES BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS

    • A.

      B

    • B.

      A

    • C.

      H

    • D.

      I

    Correct Answer
    D. I
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "I". The question is asking for the gland whose hormones help regulate blood calcium levels. The gland that performs this function is the parathyroid gland. The parathyroid gland produces parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate calcium levels in the blood. PTH increases blood calcium levels by stimulating the release of calcium from bones and increasing the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys.

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  • 33. 

    THIS GLAND PRODUCES STRESS REDUCING STEROID HORMONES

    • A.

      D

    • B.

      G

    • C.

      H

    • D.

      I

    Correct Answer
    C. H
    Explanation
    The correct answer is H. This gland refers to the adrenal gland, which produces stress-reducing steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. These hormones help regulate the body's response to stress and maintain balance in various physiological processes.

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  • 34. 

    WHICH STEP REPRESENTS THE SYNTHESIS OF TGB

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      6

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    The synthesis of TGB is represented by step 2.

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  • 35. 

    WHICH STEP REPS COUPLING OF T1 AND T2

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      6

    Correct Answer
    C. 5
  • 36. 

    WHICH LEVEL SECRETES MAINLY ALDOSTERONE

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A because the question is asking which level secretes mainly aldosterone. Since no further information is provided, we can assume that the levels mentioned (A, B, C, and D) refer to different organs or glands. Therefore, level A is the one that secretes mainly aldosterone.

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  • 37. 

    WHICH LAYER SECRETES ANDROGENS

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    C. C
  • 38. 

    WHICH CELL SECRETES GLUCAGON

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B. In the question, it is asking which cell secretes glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that is released by the alpha cells of the pancreas. These cells are located in the islets of Langerhans within the pancreas. Glucagon plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. Therefore, the correct answer is B because the alpha cells of the pancreas secrete glucagon.

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  • 39. 

    WHICH CELL SECRETES THE BLOOD GLUCOSE-REDUCING HORMONE

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    C. C
    Explanation
    Cell C is the correct answer because it secretes the blood glucose-reducing hormone. This suggests that cell C is likely a type of endocrine cell, such as a beta cell in the pancreas, which produces and releases insulin. Insulin is responsible for reducing blood glucose levels by promoting the uptake of glucose into cells and the storage of excess glucose as glycogen. Therefore, the hormone secreted by cell C is likely insulin, which plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels.

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  • 40. 

    WHICH CELL SECRETES SOMATOSTATIN

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    D. D
    Explanation
    The correct answer is D. In the given question, it is asking which cell secretes somatostatin. Since the options are not provided, it is difficult to give a specific explanation for why D is the correct answer. However, somatostatin is primarily secreted by the delta cells of the pancreas and also by certain cells in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is likely that option D represents a cell type that secretes somatostatin.

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