Ultimate Quiz On DNA Replication And Mutation! Trivia Questions

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| By Eric Folks
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Eric Folks
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Quizzes Created: 11 | Total Attempts: 13,212
Questions: 16 | Attempts: 348

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Ultimate Quiz On DNA Replication And Mutation! Trivia Questions - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Identify the type of mutation.   Original DNA Sequence: CTC/GCA/AGA/TTT   Copied DNA Sequence: CTC/GCA/ACG/ATT/T  

    • A.

      Deletion

    • B.

      Insertion

    • C.

      Substitution

    • D.

      Inversion

    Correct Answer
    B. Insertion
    Explanation
    The copied DNA sequence has an extra nucleotide "C" inserted between "ACG" and "ATT". This extra nucleotide disrupts the original sequence, resulting in a shift in the reading frame. This type of mutation is known as an insertion, where one or more nucleotides are added to the DNA sequence.

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  • 2. 

    Identify the type of mutation.   Original DNA Sequence: ATC/TGG/TTC/CGC   Copied DNA Sequence: ACT/TGG/TTC/CGC

    • A.

      Deletion

    • B.

      Insertion

    • C.

      Substitution

    • D.

      Chromosomal deletion

    Correct Answer
    C. Substitution
    Explanation
    The given DNA sequences show a change in one nucleotide, where the original DNA sequence has a base "A" at the first position and it has been replaced by a "C" in the copied DNA sequence. This type of mutation is known as a substitution mutation, where one nucleotide is substituted for another.

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  • 3. 

    Identify the type of mutation.   Original DNA Sequence: AGA/TTA/TTC/GGC/CTC   Copied DNA Sequence: AGA/TAA/TTC/GGC/CTC  

    • A.

      Deletion

    • B.

      Insertion

    • C.

      Substitution

    • D.

      Chromosomal deletion

    Correct Answer
    C. Substitution
    Explanation
    The copied DNA sequence differs from the original DNA sequence at one position, where the base "T" is substituted with "A". This type of mutation is called a substitution, where one base is replaced with another.

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  • 4. 

    Identify the type of mutation.   Original DNA Sequence: CAA/CTA/GTA/ACC/TCT   Copied DNA Sequence: CAA/CTA/TAA/CCT/CT    

    • A.

      Deletion

    • B.

      Insertion

    • C.

      Substitution

    • D.

      Chromosomal deletion

    Correct Answer
    A. Deletion
    Explanation
    The original DNA sequence has the codon "GTA" at position 3, but in the copied DNA sequence, this codon is missing. This indicates that a deletion mutation has occurred, where a nucleotide is deleted from the DNA sequence.

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  • 5. 

    Of the mutations below which has the most potential to have no effect on the protein?

    • A.

      Deletion

    • B.

      Insertion

    • C.

      Substiution

    • D.

      Chromosomal inversion

    Correct Answer
    C. Substiution
    Explanation
    A substitution mutation involves the replacement of one nucleotide with another in the DNA sequence. This type of mutation has the most potential to have no effect on the protein because it may result in the same amino acid being coded for by the altered DNA sequence. Since proteins are made up of amino acids, if the substitution mutation does not change the amino acid sequence, the protein structure and function may remain unaffected. In contrast, deletion, insertion, and chromosomal inversion mutations are more likely to disrupt the reading frame or alter the protein sequence, leading to functional changes or even non-functional proteins.

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  • 6. 

    An insertion mutation is...

    • A.

      When a new nucleotide is added to the gene sequence

    • B.

      When a nucleotide is removed from the gene sequence

    • C.

      When a section of a chromosome is added

    • D.

      When a section of a chromosome is flipped

    Correct Answer
    A. When a new nucleotide is added to the gene sequence
    Explanation
    An insertion mutation refers to the addition of a new nucleotide to the gene sequence. This type of mutation can occur during DNA replication or as a result of external factors such as radiation or chemicals. The addition of a new nucleotide can disrupt the normal reading frame of the gene, leading to changes in the resulting protein or its function. Insertion mutations can have various effects on an organism, ranging from no impact to severe genetic disorders, depending on the location and extent of the mutation.

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  • 7. 

    An deletion mutation is...

    • A.

      When a new nucleotide is added to the gene sequence

    • B.

      When a nucleotide is removed from the gene sequence

    • C.

      When a section of a chromosome is added

    • D.

      When a section of a chromosome is flipped

    Correct Answer
    B. When a nucleotide is removed from the gene sequence
    Explanation
    A deletion mutation is a type of genetic mutation where a nucleotide is removed from the gene sequence. This can lead to a shift in the reading frame and alter the amino acid sequence during protein synthesis. Deletion mutations can have various effects on an organism, ranging from no noticeable impact to causing genetic disorders or diseases.

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  • 8. 

    What type of mutation does the illustration below represent?

    • A.

      Inversion

    • B.

      Deletion

    • C.

      Duplication

    Correct Answer
    B. Deletion
    Explanation
    The illustration represents a deletion mutation. This type of mutation involves the loss of a segment of DNA, resulting in the deletion of one or more nucleotides. In the given options, inversion refers to a mutation where a segment of DNA is reversed, and duplication refers to a mutation where a segment of DNA is duplicated. However, the illustration does not depict either of these mutations, but rather a deletion.

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  • 9. 

    You will have to fill out the missing information on your paper and identify the mutation type. YOU WILL NEED YOUR CODON CHART. 1. What effect did the above mutation have on the protein sequence?   Original Mutated DNA:  TACATTGGAATC   mRNA:   Amino Acid Sequence:   DNA:  TACATCGGAATC   mRNA:   Amino Acid Sequence:   Mutation Type:

    • A.

      It had no affect and was a inversion mutation

    • B.

      It continued to code for STOP with either nucleotide sequence; it was a substitution mutation

    • C.

      The original sequence possessed a STOP codon while the new sequence did not stop the process but included tryptophan; it was a deletion mutation

    • D.

      The original sequence possessed a STOP codon while the new sequence did not stop the process but included tryptophan; it was an insertion mutation

    Correct Answer
    B. It continued to code for STOP with either nucleotide sequence; it was a substitution mutation
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that the mutation had no effect on the protein sequence and it was a substitution mutation. This is because both the original and mutated DNA sequences have the same amino acid sequence, indicating that the mutation did not change the protein sequence. Additionally, the fact that only one nucleotide was changed suggests that it was a substitution mutation, where one nucleotide is replaced by another.

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  • 10. 

    You will have to fill out the missing information on your paper and identify the mutation type. YOU WILL NEED YOUR CODON CHART.   2.  Predict what you might see in an individual if this mutation was present in the gene that coded for the enzyme lactase.  (Remember lactase helps to break down the sugar in milk) *The table is the same   Original Mutated DNA:  TAC/ATT/GGA/ATC   mRNA:   Amino Acid Sequence:   DNA:  TAA/ATC/GGA/ATC   mRNA:   Amino Acid Sequence:   Mutation Type:

    • A.

      The enzyme would not have the correct shape and therefore not function properly

    • B.

      This would have no affect

    • C.

      More of the enzyme would be made

    Correct Answer
    A. The enzyme would not have the correct shape and therefore not function properly
    Explanation
    If the mutation is present in the gene that codes for the enzyme lactase, the enzyme would not have the correct shape and therefore not function properly. This is because the mutation causes a change in the DNA sequence, which in turn leads to a change in the mRNA sequence and ultimately the amino acid sequence of the enzyme. Since the shape of a protein is determined by its amino acid sequence, any alteration in this sequence can result in a misfolded protein. In the case of lactase, a misfolded enzyme would not be able to properly break down the sugar in milk, leading to lactose intolerance.

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  • 11. 

    What does the structure labeled Y represent?

    • A.

      Exon

    • B.

      Intron

    • C.

      Operon

    • D.

      Interferon

    Correct Answer
    A. Exon
    Explanation
    The structure labeled Y represents an exon. Exons are the coding regions of a gene that are transcribed and translated into proteins. They contain the genetic information necessary for protein synthesis. In contrast, introns are non-coding regions that are transcribed but not translated. Operons are a set of genes that are regulated together and interferon is a type of protein involved in the immune response.

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  • 12. 

    What does the structure labeled X represent?

    • A.

      Exon

    • B.

      Intron

    • C.

      Operon

    • D.

      Interferon

    Correct Answer
    B. Intron
    Explanation
    The structure labeled X represents an intron. Introns are non-coding sequences of DNA that are found within genes. They are transcribed into RNA along with the exons, but they are removed during the process of RNA splicing, leaving only the exons to be translated into protein. In contrast, exons are the coding sequences of DNA that are expressed in the final RNA product. Operons are a group of genes that are transcribed together, and interferon is a type of protein involved in the immune response.

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  • 13. 

    Cell mutations within a DNA sequence are...

    • A.

      Unnatural events that are harmful to genetic diversity

    • B.

      Unnatural events that always affect the organism

    • C.

      Natural events that produce genetic diversity in organism

    • D.

      Natural events that always affect the organism

    Correct Answer
    C. Natural events that produce genetic diversity in organism
    Explanation
    Cell mutations within a DNA sequence are natural events that produce genetic diversity in organisms. Mutations are changes that occur in the DNA sequence, and they can happen spontaneously during DNA replication or as a result of external factors such as radiation or chemicals. These mutations can lead to variations in the genetic information, which can then be passed on to future generations. This genetic diversity is important for the survival and adaptation of species, as it allows for the potential development of new traits and abilities.

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  • 14. 

    The type of chromosomal mutation above is...

    • A.

      Translocation

    • B.

      Duplication

    • C.

      Deletion

    • D.

      Insertion

    Correct Answer
    A. Translocation
    Explanation
    Translocation is a type of chromosomal mutation where a segment of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in rearrangement of genetic material and can lead to various genetic disorders. In this case, the given question does not provide any specific information about the chromosomal mutation, but based on the options provided, translocation is the most appropriate answer as it involves the movement of genetic material between chromosomes.

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  • 15. 

    Mutatated DNA in somatic cells occurs frequently but this modified DNA canNOT be passed on to offspring because...

    • A.

      Modified DNA in somatic cells is recessive

    • B.

      Offspring typically reject modified DNA

    • C.

      Only gamete cells (egg and sperm) carry genetic material to offspring

    • D.

      Offspring mutations happen only when somatic cells are diseased

    Correct Answer
    C. Only gamete cells (egg and sperm) carry genetic material to offspring
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that only gamete cells (egg and sperm) carry genetic material to offspring. This means that any mutations or modifications in somatic cells, which are non-reproductive cells, will not be passed on to the next generation. Offspring inherit genetic material only from the gamete cells, which are responsible for transmitting genetic information from the parents to the offspring during reproduction. Therefore, any mutations or modifications in somatic cells will not be inherited by the offspring.

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  • 16. 

    Which of these statements does NOT describe introns?

    • A.

      Not expressed

    • B.

      Non-translated

    • C.

      Removed by splicing

    • D.

      Expressed

    Correct Answer
    D. Expressed
    Explanation
    Introns are NOT expressed because they remain in the nucleus. They do NOT undergo translation into a protein because they never go to the ribosome so they can NOT be expressed in the organism.

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