Biological Evolution Exam 2

42 Questions | Total Attempts: 96

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Biological Evolution Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Where did modern humans originate?
    • A. 

      In Europe

    • B. 

      In Africa

    • C. 

      In Asia

    • D. 

      As a large population across the entire old world

  • 2. 
    What evidence refutes the multiregional hypothesis regarding the origin of modern humans?
    • A. 

      Human populations from Africa have much more mitochondrial diversity than populations from other areas of the world.

    • B. 

      There is evidence of introgression between modern humans and other hominin species.

    • C. 

      Not all hominin species are part of the direct lineage leading to modern humans.

    • D. 

      Fossils of homonin species dating to nearly 2 million years ago can be found at various sites across the old world.

  • 3. 
    What are the odds that you are genetically identical to a full sibling who is not your monozygotic (identical) twin?
    • A. 

      1 out of 23

    • B. 

      1 out of 32.6

    • C. 

      1 out of 7.1 billion

    • D. 

      > 1 out of 76 trillion

  • 4. 
    Why did it take so long to unify the ideas of natural selection and Mendelian genetics?
    • A. 

      Darwin’s ideas were superseded by Lamarck’s until Weismann’s cell theory disproved the likelihood of common spontaneous generation.

    • B. 

      Mathematical model of sufficient complexity couldn’t be developed before the advent of modern computers.

    • C. 

      The importance of Mendel’s work on genetic inheritance was largely ignored for nearly 80 years.

    • D. 

      The ideas are too disparate and common ground was impossible until the theory of uniformitarianism provided a way to merge the two.

  • 5. 
    Which of the following best describes the hypothesis of Thomas Malthus and his work on population growth when applied to the human population over the last two hundred years?
    • A. 

      The human population, unlike most populations, doesn’t grow exponentially and so we have avoided the problem of not having enough resources for our population.

    • B. 

      The “green revolution” has allowed our agricultural production to keep up with the exponential growth of the human population.

    • C. 

      Wars, famines and genocide have prevented the human population from growing exponentially.

    • D. 

      Because of disease and it’s impact on the early homonin species we are only now beginning to experience the conflict between population size and resource availability.

  • 6. 
    What are the two key components of cell theory? (mark both answers)
    • A. 

      All living organisms are made up of cells

    • B. 

      Cell frequently spontaneously generate from dead, organic matter

    • C. 

      All cells come from the division of other, pre-existing cells

    • D. 

      Meiosis generates much less complexity of cell than mitosis

    • E. 

      Eukaryotic cells are much better adapted to harsh enviroments than bacteria cells

  • 7. 
    Because the genetic code is degenerate _______________.
    • A. 

      It's necessary that cells have proof-reading mechanisms to prevent rampant mutation

    • B. 

      Human genes can be inserted into bacterial genomes

    • C. 

      Multiple codons are synonymous: they code for the same amino acids

    • D. 

      Cells with too many mutation go through apoptosis

  • 8. 
    The lower the mutational rate of a species the more successful it is.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    On average, which of the following types of point mutations would have the largest effect on the phenotype of an organism?
    • A. 

      An in/del in the protein coding sequence of a gene

    • B. 

      A synonymous substitution in the coding sequence of a gene

    • C. 

      An in/del in the non protein coding sequence of an organisms genome

    • D. 

      A missense substitution in the coding sequence of a gene

  • 10. 
    Which of the following mutations would be the most likely to lead to the creation of paralogous gene copies?
    • A. 

      A synonymous substitution in the coding sequence of a gene

    • B. 

      Translocation

    • C. 

      Inversion

    • D. 

      Duplication

  • 11. 
    The phenotype of an organism is determined by both its genotype and its ______________.
    • A. 

      Environment

    • B. 

      Population size

    • C. 

      Cellular dispersal rate

    • D. 

      Adaptation coefficient

  • 12. 
    In a protein coding sequence which position of the codon tends to accumulate the most mutations?
    • A. 

      First

    • B. 

      Second

    • C. 

      Third

    • D. 

      Fourth

  • 13. 
    Most natural populations have high levels of genetic diversity.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 14. 
    A trait that is affected by many different genes is ____________.
    • A. 

      Pleiotropic

    • B. 

      Polygenic

    • C. 

      Always in H-W equilibrium

    • D. 

      Not subject to natural selection

  • 15. 
    What are the three components of a population that must be present for evolution via natural selection? (mark all three)
    • A. 

      Variation between individuals in the population

    • B. 

      Fitness difference between genetic variants

    • C. 

      Effective population size larger than census population size

    • D. 

      Meiotic cell division in at least some cells

    • E. 

      Some of the variation must be heritable

  • 16. 
    Having leaves modified into species is an adaptation
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    • C. 

      Impossible to tell without further information. Adaptations are determined by the environment, so what might be an adaptation in one area could be detrimental in another.

  • 17. 
    Evidence from long running selection experiments in E. coli bacteria suggests that two independent, but identical evolutionary experiments would _____________________.
    • A. 

      Have significantly different outcomes due to the unpredictability of mutations

    • B. 

      Have the exact same outcome

    • C. 

      Have significantly different outcomes due to low fidelity of RNA translation

    • D. 

      Violate the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

  • 18. 
    Which of the following is the best example of antagonistic pleiotropy?
    • A. 

      When two organisms compete for the same resource rather than sharing.

    • B. 

      A mutation in a gene that allows a bacterium to resist an antibiotic, but makes it grow slightly slower.

    • C. 

      An individual that has a higher level of fitness due to an exaptation.

    • D. 

      Two species adapted to different environments due to a different number of chromosomes.

  • 19. 
    Which of the following statements best describes the ability of an owl to turn its head 180° around? 
    • A. 

      This is an exaptation for its nocturnal life style.

    • B. 

      This is not an adaptation and is present in all birds.

    • C. 

      This is an adaptation that compensates for the trade-off imposed by good binocular vision.

    • D. 

      This is a pleiotropic effect of genes that control the development of feather morphology.

  • 20. 
    How many different groups of animals have independently evolved true flight?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      5

  • 21. 
    What is the best way to assess whether or not two complex structures are homologous?
    • A. 

      Look at the fine details of the structure to see how similar they truly are.

    • B. 

      Determine which genes are responsible for the development of the structure.

    • C. 

      Estimate the genome size of each organism, if they are not significantly different in size than the structures are most likely homologous.

    • D. 

      Map the evolutionary origin of the structures onto a well-supported phylogeny.

  • 22. 
    Which group serves as the best model for the evolution of the complex eye and why?
    • A. 

      Crustaceans, because their eyes have multiple lenses that work together to convey information to the brain.

    • B. 

      Annelids, because they are able to regenerate their eyes when they lose them.

    • C. 

      Vertebrates, because they have the most complex eye of any animal.

    • D. 

      Mollusks, because different species have photoreceptors that vary greatly in complexity and these demonstrate some of the intermediate steps from simple to complex.

  • 23. 
    What is the result of co-option of an already present gene to perform an additional new function?
    • A. 

      This results in pleiotropy of the gene and an additional constraint on its evolution.

    • B. 

      This results in a shift of the genetic code with a tendency to have fewer synonymous mutations.

    • C. 

      This results in a reduction in the structure and complexity of the chromosomes.

    • D. 

      This results in increased genetic diversity and is the first step towards speciation.

  • 24. 
    Which of the following would not violate H-W equilibrium?
    • A. 

      Natural selection for one allele

    • B. 

      A small population size

    • C. 

      Immigration of individuals with a particular genotype

    • D. 

      Non-random mating

    • E. 

      Independent assortment of alleles during meiosis

  • 25. 
    You randomly sample one thousand individuals from a population of butterflies (sexually reproducing, diploid animals) and find the following distribution of genotypes: AA: 160Aa: 480aa: 360What are the allele frequencies for this population?
    • A. 

      A: 0.3 a: 0.7

    • B. 

      A: 0.5 a: 0.5

    • C. 

      A: 0.9 a: 0.1

    • D. 

      A: 0.4 a: 0.6