Biological Evolution Quiz With Different Theories

35 Questions | Total Attempts: 52

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Biological Evolution Quiz With Different Theories

Over time, different scholars have come up with different theories to describe the origin of man. The quiz below specifically focuses on the Biological change in the heritable characteristics of man. All the best and enjoy.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    On average, how much of your genetic material do you share with a full sibling?
    • A. 

      25%

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      75%

    • D. 

      100%

  • 2. 
    More chromosomes results in more possible combinations of alleles in offspring.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    Mutations that cause evolution of sexually reproducing populations such as humans occur during which process?
    • A. 

      Mistakes made during replication phase of mitosis of non-germ line cells

    • B. 

      Mistakes made during transcription of DNA into mRNA

    • C. 

      Mistakes made during translation of mRNA into proteins

    • D. 

      Mistakes made during replication phase of meiosis

  • 4. 
    Environments induce specific types of mutations that enable organisms to better survive in that environment.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 5. 
    Which of the following is the most accurate statement about mutation rates?
    • A. 

      All organisms have about the same mutation rate

    • B. 

      Selection tends to favor organisms with very low mutations rates

    • C. 

      Selection tends to favor organisms with very high mutation rates

    • D. 

      Mutation is a hallmark of successful populations and different environments and life histories select for different mutation rates

  • 6. 
    When comparing homologous genes of different species for a highly conserved proteins such as ATP synthase; where would we expect to see the most variation and why?
    • A. 

      At the third position in codons because they have a higher mutation rate

    • B. 

      At the third position in codons because these mutations are most often neutral and not subject to purifying selection

    • C. 

      At the second position in codons because they have a higher mutation rate

    • D. 

      At the second position in codons because these mutations are most often neutral and not subject to purifying selection

  • 7. 
    A population has a genotype frequency of AA: 0.1  Aa: 0.8  aa: 0.1    This population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    What is the most likely form of natural selection that could cause the genotype frequency in the question above?
    • A. 

      Directional Selection

    • B. 

      Underdominance

    • C. 

      Diversifying Selection

    • D. 

      Overdominance

    • E. 

      There is no selection on this population

  • 9. 
    How many generations would it take for a population that was not at Hardy Weinberg equilibrium to reach equilibrium if we removed all evolutionary forces?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      10

    • C. 

      1/2Ne

    • D. 

      4Nµ

  • 10. 
    Which of the following examples would be most subject to inbreeding depression?
    • A. 

      A population of 14 humans isolated on a remote island with no contact with the rest of the human species

    • B. 

      A nearly extinct species of seal with only 40 individuals remaining

    • C. 

      A protozoan that can only reproduce asexually

    • D. 

      A plant that is isolated from all other members of its species, but can still produce viable offspring via self-fertilization

  • 11. 
    What mating tendency would help to reduce the amount of inbreeding depression in a population?
    • A. 

      Dissasortative mating

    • B. 

      Rapid reduction in population size

    • C. 

      Self-fertilization

    • D. 

      Selection of mates based on geographic proximity

  • 12. 
    What three things can affect the speed at which an advantageous allele becomes fixed in a population? (mark all three correct answers)
    • A. 

      Genetics

    • B. 

      Initial frequency of the allele

    • C. 

      The strength of selection

    • D. 

      Ratio of males to females

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is an example of positive frequency dependent selection?
    • A. 

      Aposematic coloration, such as the bright colors of poison dart frogs

    • B. 

      A disadvantageous allele right next to an advantageous allele on a chromosome

    • C. 

      Sneaker males, such as in some species of dung beetle

    • D. 

      Sickle cell anemia in humans

  • 14. 
    Which of the following things would cause a population to not be in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium? (mark all that apply)
    • A. 

      Selection for advantageous alleles

    • B. 

      Small population size

    • C. 

      More than four chromosomes

    • D. 

      Dissasortative mating

    • E. 

      Immigration from outside populations

  • 15. 
    All populations we work with in evolutionary biology correspond to species boundaries
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Due to large sections of non-coding DNA, the degeneracy of the genetic code and effective neutrality of nonsynonymous mutations most mutations in eukaryotes have no selective advantage or disadvantage.  The above statement is a description of _________.
    • A. 

      Coalescent theory

    • B. 

      Neutral theory

    • C. 

      Compensatory mutations

    • D. 

      The population genetics theorem.

  • 17. 
    What is the main evolutionary force acting on mutations that have no selective advantage or disadvantage?
    • A. 

      Sexual selection

    • B. 

      Purifying selection

    • C. 

      Genetic drift

    • D. 

      Frameshift disquilibrium

  • 18. 
    In the black spruce example we discussed in class, why was there a difference between the diversity of nuclear genes and the diversity of mitochondrial genes in parts of the population that had undergone a leading edge expansion?
    • A. 

      There had been much more variation in the wind blown pollen that fertilized this population than in the seeds which do not disperse as far.

    • B. 

      Heavy grazing by herbivores had selectively reduced the different varieties of mitochondria

    • C. 

      Black spruces mitochondria are a relatively recent addition to their cells and have not had time to diversify

    • D. 

      The mitochondria have a very low rate of evolution when compared to the nuclear genes

  • 19. 
    Which of the following describes an effect of demography on the Heterozygosity of a population?
    • A. 

      Coefficients of selection < 1/2Ne greatly reduce the Heterozygosity

    • B. 

      High mutation rates greatly reduce the Heterozygosity

    • C. 

      Recent bottleneck events greatly reduce the Heterozygosity

    • D. 

      Random mating will greatly reduce the Heterozygosity

  • 20. 
    What is the saturation point for two homologous sequences of DNA found in two separate species?
    • A. 

      10% divergent

    • B. 

      50% divergent

    • C. 

      75% divergent

    • D. 

      100% divergent

  • 21. 
    What two factors are needed to estimate the average coalescent time of a neutral allele? (Mark both answers.)
    • A. 

      K, the breeding strategy

    • B. 

      µ, the mutation rate

    • C. 

      ε, the average genetic load

    • D. 

      Ne, the effective population size

  • 22. 
    Because most mutation is effectively neutral we can use the accumulation of mutations between different species to estimate how long ago they shared a common ancestor.  This is known as a ____________________.
    • A. 

      Molecular clock

    • B. 

      Recombinatorial meiotic event

    • C. 

      Stochastic estimation

    • D. 

      Paleolithic genesis

  • 23. 
    Which of the following would not contribute to an effective population size (Ne) that was smaller than the census population size (N)?
    • A. 

      Unequal sex ratio

    • B. 

      Morality of some individuals prior to reproduction

    • C. 

      Small geographic distribution

    • D. 

      Sterility of individuals with genetic abnormalitites

  • 24. 
    The graph below shows the allele frequencies of two different neutral alleles in two different populations of eukaryotic diploid organisms.  Which line represents the population with the smaller effective populations size (Ne)?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

  • 25. 
    Because they are single celled and relatively simple, all protozoa have smaller genomes than humans.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False