Organizational Theory Chapter 1

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Organizational Theory Chapter 1 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     a closed systems management perspective that focuses on the total organization and grows from the insights of practitioners

    • A.

      Ambidextrous Approach

    • B.

      Adminstrative Principle

    • C.

      Bureaucratic control

    • D.

      Chaos Theory

    Correct Answer
    B. Adminstrative Principle
    Explanation
    The administrative principle refers to a management perspective that focuses on the overall organization and is developed based on the experiences and insights of practitioners. This approach emphasizes the need for effective coordination, planning, and decision-making within the organization. It aims to create a structured and efficient system that maximizes productivity and achieves organizational goals. This perspective is often associated with the work of Henri Fayol, who identified the key functions of management and provided principles for effective administration.

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  • 2. 

    A perspective that emphasizes management on an impersonal, rational basis through such elements as clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal recordkeeping, and uniform application of standard rules

    • A.

      Balanced scorecard

    • B.

      Business intelligence

    • C.

      Bureaucratic organizations

    • D.

      Bureaucratic control

    Correct Answer
    C. Bureaucratic organizations
    Explanation
    The correct answer is bureaucratic organizations. Bureaucratic organizations are characterized by a management perspective that emphasizes impersonal and rational practices. This includes clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal recordkeeping, and the uniform application of standard rules. Bureaucratic organizations rely on hierarchical structures and standardized procedures to ensure efficiency and control.

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  • 3. 

    A scientific theory that suggests that relationships in complex, adaptive systems are made up of numerous interconnections that create unintended effects and render the environment unpredictable

    • A.

      Stakeholder approach

    • B.

      Bounded rationality perspective

    • C.

      Change process

    • D.

      Chaos theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Chaos theory
    Explanation
    Chaos theory is a scientific theory that proposes that complex systems, such as relationships in adaptive systems, are composed of multiple interconnections. These interconnections give rise to unintended effects and make the environment unpredictable. Therefore, chaos theory is the most suitable explanation for the given statement.

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  • 4. 

    A system that is autonomous, enclosed, and not dependent on its environment.

    • A.

      Hawthorne Studies

    • B.

      Closed system

    • C.

      Coercive forces

    • D.

      Stakeholder approach

    Correct Answer
    B. Closed system
    Explanation
    A closed system refers to a system that operates independently and is not influenced by external factors or its environment. In the context of the Hawthorne Studies, this term might be used to describe an organization or workplace that is self-contained and does not rely on external forces or factors for its functioning. It suggests that the system has its own internal dynamics and processes that are not affected by external pressures or influences.

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  • 5. 

    Traits that characterize the whole organization, including its size, technology, environment, and goals.

    • A.

      Contextual dimensions

    • B.

      Subsystems

    • C.

      Contingency decision-making framework

    • D.

      Decision learning

    Correct Answer
    A. Contextual dimensions
    Explanation
    Contextual dimensions refer to the various characteristics of an organization that define its overall environment and context. These dimensions include the organization's size, technology, environment, and goals. By understanding these contextual dimensions, decision-makers can better analyze and evaluate the organization's needs and challenges, and make informed decisions that align with the organization's unique context. This helps in creating a contingency decision-making framework that takes into account the specific circumstances and requirements of the organization, leading to more effective decision-making.

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  • 6. 

    A theory meaning one thing depends on other things; the organization's situation dictates the correct management approach.

    • A.

      Decision premises

    • B.

      Continuous process production

    • C.

      Decision support system

    • D.

      Contingency

    Correct Answer
    D. Contingency
    Explanation
    Contingency refers to a theory that suggests that one thing depends on other factors or circumstances. In the context of management, it means that the correct approach to managing an organization depends on its specific situation. This theory acknowledges that there is no one-size-fits-all management approach and emphasizes the need for flexibility and adaptability. It recognizes that different situations may require different management strategies and decision-making processes. Therefore, contingency theory emphasizes the importance of analyzing and understanding the unique circumstances of an organization before determining the most suitable management approach.

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  • 7. 

    The degree to which an organization achieves its goals.

    • A.

      Effectiveness

    • B.

      Structural dimensions

    • C.

      Learning organization

    • D.

      External adaptation

    Correct Answer
    A. Effectiveness
    Explanation
    Effectiveness refers to the degree to which an organization is successful in achieving its goals. It measures the extent to which an organization is able to produce desired outcomes and fulfill its purpose. It encompasses various aspects such as efficiency, productivity, and overall performance. By focusing on effectiveness, organizations can evaluate their strategies, processes, and resources to ensure they are aligned with their goals and objectives. This enables them to make necessary adjustments and improvements to enhance their performance and ultimately achieve their desired outcomes.

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  • 8. 

    A series of experiments on worker productivity begun in 1924 at the ___________ plant of Western Electric Company in Illinois; attributed

    • A.

      Meso theory

    • B.

      Hawthorne Studies

    • C.

      Mediating technology

    • D.

      Multifocused grouping

    Correct Answer
    B. Hawthorne Studies
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Hawthorne Studies. The Hawthorne Studies refer to a series of experiments conducted at the Western Electric Company's plant in Illinois in 1924. These studies aimed to understand the relationship between worker productivity and environmental factors such as lighting and work conditions. The studies found that productivity increased not only when changes were made to the environment but also when workers were involved in the decision-making process. This highlighted the importance of social and psychological factors in influencing worker productivity, leading to the development of the human relations approach in management.

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  • 9. 

    An organization in which everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems, enabling the organization to continuously experiment, improve, and increase its capability.

    • A.

      Scientific management

    • B.

      Life cycle

    • C.

      Level of analysis

    • D.

      Learning organization

    Correct Answer
    D. Learning organization
    Explanation
    A learning organization is an organization where all members actively participate in identifying and solving problems. This engagement allows the organization to continuously experiment, improve, and enhance its capabilities. In a learning organization, there is a focus on continuous learning and development, where individuals and teams are encouraged to share knowledge, collaborate, and adapt to change. This approach enables the organization to stay innovative, agile, and responsive to its environment.

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  • 10. 

    An analysis in systems theory, the subsystem on which the primary focus is placed; four levels of analysis normally characterize organizations.

    • A.

      Stakeholder approach

    • B.

      Contingency

    • C.

      Level of analysis

    • D.

      Multifocused grouping

    Correct Answer
    C. Level of analysis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "level of analysis". In systems theory, organizations are typically analyzed at four different levels: individual, group, organization, and environment. The level of analysis refers to the specific subsystem that is the primary focus of the analysis. This means that when analyzing an organization, the level of analysis determines which aspect or subsystem of the organization is being studied in detail.

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  • 11. 

    A new approach to organization studies that integrates both micro and macro levels of analysis

    • A.

      Multidomestic strategy

    • B.

      Multidomestic company

    • C.

      Meso theory

    • D.

      Legitimacy

    Correct Answer
    C. Meso theory
    Explanation
    Meso theory refers to a new approach in organization studies that combines both micro and macro levels of analysis. This means that it focuses on understanding organizations by examining both individual-level factors (micro) and broader societal and environmental factors (macro). Meso theory recognizes that organizations are influenced by both internal dynamics and external forces, and seeks to provide a more comprehensive understanding of organizational behavior and outcomes. It bridges the gap between micro and macro perspectives, allowing researchers to examine how individual actions and organizational structures interact with larger social, economic, and political contexts.

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  • 12. 

    A system that must interact with the environment to survive.

    • A.

      Organizational ecosystem

    • B.

      Normative forces

    • C.

      Closed system

    • D.

      Open system

    Correct Answer
    D. Open system
    Explanation
    An open system refers to a system that must interact with the environment to survive. Unlike a closed system, which operates independently and does not require any external inputs, an open system relies on external resources, feedback, and interactions to function effectively. In the context of an organizational ecosystem, an open system implies that the organization is responsive to its external environment, adapting and evolving based on external forces such as market demands, customer feedback, and industry trends. This flexibility allows the organization to remain dynamic and adaptable in a changing environment, increasing its chances of survival and success.

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  • 13. 

    A system formed by the interaction of a community of organizations and their environment, usually cutting across traditional industry lines.

    • A.

      Organizational environment

    • B.

      Organization theory

    • C.

      Organized anarchy

    • D.

      Organizational innovation

    Correct Answer
    B. Organization theory
    Explanation
    Organization theory is the correct answer because it refers to the study of how organizations function and interact with their environment. It explores topics such as organizational structure, behavior, and decision-making processes. This theory helps us understand how organizations adapt and respond to changes in their external environment, and how they can effectively achieve their goals.

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  • 14. 

    The adoption of an idea or behavior that is new to an organization's industry, market, or general environment

    • A.

      Organizational behavior

    • B.

      Organizational environment

    • C.

      Nonroutine technology

    • D.

      Official goals

    Correct Answer
    A. Organizational behavior
    Explanation
    Organizational behavior refers to the actions and attitudes of individuals within an organization. The adoption of an idea or behavior that is new to an organization's industry, market, or general environment can be considered a part of organizational behavior. This can include new practices, strategies, or ways of thinking that are introduced and embraced by individuals within the organization. It involves the study of how individuals and groups interact, communicate, and make decisions within the organization, and how these behaviors can impact the overall functioning and success of the organization.

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  • 15. 

    A classical approach that claims decisions about organization and job design should be based on precise, scientific procedures.

    • A.

      Rule of law

    • B.

      Service technology role

    • C.

      Strategy and structure changes

    • D.

      Scientific management

    Correct Answer
    D. Scientific management
    Explanation
    Scientific management is a classical approach that emphasizes making decisions about organization and job design based on precise, scientific procedures. This approach focuses on using systematic methods to analyze and improve work processes, with the goal of maximizing efficiency and productivity. It involves breaking down tasks into small, manageable components, standardizing processes, and using time and motion studies to identify the most efficient ways of performing tasks. By relying on scientific principles and data-driven analysis, scientific management aims to optimize organizational performance.

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  • 16. 

    Any group within or outside an organization that has a stake in the organization's performance.

    • A.

      Stakeholder approach

    • B.

      Sources of intergroup conflict

    • C.

      Stakeholder

    • D.

      Strategy

    Correct Answer
    C. Stakeholder
    Explanation
    A stakeholder is any group within or outside an organization that has a vested interest or stake in the organization's performance. This means that stakeholders have a concern or are affected by the organization's actions, decisions, and outcomes. They can include employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers, government agencies, and the local community. The stakeholder approach involves considering the interests and needs of these various groups when making decisions and formulating strategies. Understanding and managing stakeholders is crucial for the success and sustainability of an organization.

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  • 17. 

    Also called the constituency approach, this perspective assesses the satisfaction of stakeholders as an indicator of the organization's performance.

    • A.

      Sequential interdependence

    • B.

      Stakeholder approach

    • C.

      Sociotechnical systems approach

    • D.

      Scientific management

    Correct Answer
    B. Stakeholder approach
    Explanation
    The stakeholder approach, also known as the constituency approach, focuses on assessing the satisfaction of stakeholders as a measure of an organization's performance. This approach recognizes that the success of an organization is not solely determined by financial metrics, but also by the satisfaction of various stakeholders such as employees, customers, suppliers, and the community. By considering the needs and expectations of these stakeholders, organizations can better understand their overall performance and make necessary improvements to meet their expectations.

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  • 18. 

    Descriptions of the internal characteristics of an organization

    • A.

      Struggle for existence

    • B.

      Skunkworks

    • C.

      Subcultures

    • D.

      Structural dimensions

    Correct Answer
    D. Structural dimensions
    Explanation
    Structural dimensions refer to the elements that make up the internal characteristics of an organization. These elements include the organization's hierarchy, formalization, centralization, and specialization. They provide a framework for understanding how the organization is structured and how tasks, authority, and communication are distributed within the organization. By analyzing the structural dimensions, one can gain insights into how the organization operates and how it may adapt to changes in its environment.

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  • 19. 

    Divisions of an organization that perform specific functions for the organization's survival; organizational subsystems perform the essential functions of boundary spanning, production, maintenance, adaptation, and management.

    • A.

      Switching structures

    • B.

      Subcultures

    • C.

      Subsystems

    • D.

      Social audit

    Correct Answer
    C. Subsystems
    Explanation
    Subsystems are divisions within an organization that have specific functions necessary for the organization's survival. These subsystems perform essential tasks such as boundary spanning, production, maintenance, adaptation, and management. They work together to ensure the smooth functioning and overall success of the organization. Subsystems are crucial for effective coordination and collaboration within the organization, allowing each division to focus on its specific role while contributing to the larger goals of the organization.

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  • 20. 

    A set of interacting elements that acquires inputs from the environment, transforms them, and discharges outputs to the external environment.

    • A.

      System

    • B.

      Learning organization

    • C.

      Subcultures

    • D.

      Simple-complex dimension

    Correct Answer
    A. System
    Explanation
    A system refers to a collection of interconnected components or elements that receive inputs from the environment, process or transform them in some way, and produce outputs that are then released back into the external environment. This concept highlights the interdependence and interactions between the different parts of a system, as well as its ability to adapt and respond to changes in its environment.

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  • 21. 

    A narrowly defined piece of work assigned to a person.

    • A.

      Symptoms of structural deficiency

    • B.

      Tacit knowledge

    • C.

      Values-based leadership

    • D.

      Task

    Correct Answer
    D. Task
    Explanation
    A task refers to a narrowly defined piece of work assigned to a person. It can be seen as a specific activity or assignment that someone is responsible for completing. This term is often used in project management or work environments to describe a specific job or duty that needs to be accomplished. Tasks can vary in complexity and duration, and they are typically assigned to individuals based on their skills and expertise.

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