Organizational Behaviour Chapter 7

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Organizational Behaviour Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A conscious process of making choices among alternatives with the intention of moving toward some desired state of affairs.

    • A.

      Problems with prolem identification

    • B.

      Rational choice paradigm

    • C.

      Decision making

    • D.

      Postdecisional justication

    • E.

      Subjective expected utility

    Correct Answer
    C. Decision making
    Explanation
    Decision making refers to the conscious process of selecting one option among several alternatives with the aim of achieving a desired outcome or goal. It involves analyzing the available options, considering the potential consequences, and making a choice based on rationality, personal preferences, and subjective expected utility. Decision making can be influenced by various factors such as problem identification, rational choice paradigm, postdecisional justification, and subjective expected utility.

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  • 2. 

    A deeply held perspective that people should or actually do make decisions based on pure logic or rationality. The model asumes pople are efficient and logical information processing machines. People cannot process the huge volume of information needed to identify the best solution. Focuses on logical thinking and completely ignores the fact that emotions also influence - perhaps even dominate - the decision-making process.

    • A.

      Rational choice paradigm

    • B.

      Subjective expected utility

    • C.

      Problems with problem identification

    • D.

      Intuition

    • E.

      Decision making

    Correct Answer
    A. Rational choice paradigm
    Explanation
    The rational choice paradigm is a deeply held perspective that assumes people make decisions based on pure logic and rationality. This model assumes that individuals are efficient and logical information processing machines. However, this explanation points out that people cannot process the vast amount of information needed to identify the best solution. It also highlights that emotions play a significant role in the decision-making process, which the rational choice paradigm completely ignores. Therefore, the rational choice paradigm is not a comprehensive or accurate representation of how decisions are made.

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  • 3. 

    A rational choice calculation of the expected satisfaction of positive emotion experienced by choosing a specific alternative in a decision.

    • A.

      Decision making

    • B.

      Subjective expected utility

    • C.

      Prospect theory

    • D.

      Rational choice paradigm

    • E.

      Prolems with problem identification

    Correct Answer
    B. Subjective expected utility
    Explanation
    Subjective expected utility refers to the calculation of the expected satisfaction or utility of positive emotion that an individual anticipates experiencing by choosing a specific alternative in a decision. This approach takes into account the individual's subjective preferences and beliefs about the outcomes and probabilities associated with each alternative. It is a rational choice calculation because it involves weighing the potential benefits and costs of different options in order to make a decision that maximizes expected satisfaction.

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  • 4. 

    Recognizing this will always be a challenge, but the process can be improved through awareness of these perceptual and diagnostic limitations. Keeping in mind that mental models restrict a person's perspective of the world is ideal. A second method is to discuss the situation with colleagues. Outsiders explore this information from their different mental models. Five of the most recognized concerns are stakeholder fraing, perceptual defence, mental models, decisive leadership, and solution-focused problems.

    • A.

      Escalation of commitment

    • B.

      Prolems with problem identification

    • C.

      Rational choice paradigm

    • D.

      Subjective expected utility

    • E.

      Decision making

    Correct Answer
    B. Prolems with problem identification
    Explanation
    The passage mentions that one of the recognized concerns in improving the process of recognizing challenges is "problems with problem identification." This suggests that there may be difficulties in accurately identifying and defining problems, which can hinder the decision-making process.

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  • 5. 

    Selecting a solution that is satisfactor or good enough rather than optimal or the best.

    • A.

      Employee involvement

    • B.

      Prolems with problem identification

    • C.

      Intution

    • D.

      Satisficing

    • E.

      Escalation of commitment

    Correct Answer
    D. Satisficing
    Explanation
    Satisficing refers to the act of selecting a solution that is satisfactory or good enough, rather than striving for the optimal or best solution. It is a decision-making strategy that focuses on finding a solution that meets the minimum requirements or criteria, rather than investing additional time and effort to find the absolute best solution. This approach is often used when there are time or resource constraints, or when the benefits of finding the optimal solution do not outweigh the costs. Satisficing allows for quicker decision-making and can be a practical approach in certain situations.

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  • 6. 

    Employees, clients, and other stakeholders with vested interests try to frame the situation by persuading decision makers that the available information points to a problem, an opportunity, or does not have any importance at all. This tends to short-circuit the decision maker's full assessment of the situation.

    • A.

      Mental models

    • B.

      Perceptual defence

    • C.

      Decisive leadership

    • D.

      Solution-focused problems

    • E.

      Stakeholder framing

    Correct Answer
    E. Stakeholder framing
    Explanation
    Stakeholder framing refers to the act of employees, clients, and other stakeholders influencing decision makers by presenting information in a way that supports their own interests or agenda. This can involve highlighting a problem or opportunity, or downplaying the importance of certain information. By doing so, stakeholders attempt to shape the decision maker's perception of the situation and potentially influence the outcome. This can potentially hinder the decision maker from conducting a comprehensive assessment of the situation, leading to biased or incomplete decision-making.

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  • 7. 

    People sometimes block out bad news as a coping mechanism. Their brain refuses to see information threatens their self-concept. Some people inherently avoid negative information, whereas others are more sensitive to it.

    • A.

      Decisive leadership

    • B.

      Mental models

    • C.

      Stakeholder framing

    • D.

      Perceptual defence

    • E.

      Solution-focused problems

    Correct Answer
    D. Perceptual defence
    Explanation
    Perceptual defense refers to the tendency of individuals to filter out or distort information that is threatening or inconsistent with their beliefs or self-concept. In the context of the given explanation, people block out bad news as a coping mechanism and their brain refuses to see information that threatens their self-concept. This aligns with the concept of perceptual defense, as individuals are defending themselves against negative information by blocking it out or distorting it.

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  • 8. 

    Visual or relational images in our mind of the external world - are vital to help us understand and navigated in our surrounding environment. Unfortunately, they also blind us from seeing unique problems or opportunities. If an idea doesn't fit the existing one of how things should work, then the idea is dismissed as unworkable or undesirable.

    • A.

      Mental models

    • B.

      Solution-focused problems

    • C.

      Decisive leadership

    • D.

      Mental models

    • E.

      Perceptual defence

    Correct Answer
    A. Mental models
    Explanation
    The passage discusses how visual or relational images in our mind, known as mental models, are important for understanding and navigating our environment. However, these mental models can also blind us from seeing unique problems or opportunities that do not fit our existing understanding of how things should work. This suggests that the correct answer is "mental models."

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  • 9. 

    People view leaders as more effective decision makers when they are decisive. This includes quickly forming an opinion whether an event signals a problem or opportunity.

    • A.

      Decisive leadership

    • B.

      Perceptual defence

    • C.

      Stakeholder framing

    • D.

      Solution-focused problems

    • E.

      Mental models

    Correct Answer
    A. Decisive leadership
    Explanation
    Decisive leadership is viewed as more effective because it involves making quick decisions and forming opinions about whether a situation is a problem or an opportunity. This shows that leaders are proactive and take charge, which is seen as a positive trait in decision-making. Being decisive also instills confidence in others and promotes efficiency in problem-solving.

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  • 10. 

    Provides comforting closure to the otherwise ambiguous and uncertain nature of problems. Some decision makers see problems as solutions that have worked well for them in the past, even though they were applied under different circumstances. Again, the familiarity of past solutions make the current problem less uncertain.

    • A.

      Stakeholder framing

    • B.

      Mental models

    • C.

      Decisive leadership

    • D.

      Perceptual defence

    • E.

      Solution-focused problems

    Correct Answer
    E. Solution-focused problems
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer, "solution-focused problems," is that some decision makers view problems as opportunities to apply solutions that have worked in the past. This approach provides a sense of comfort and closure, as it eliminates ambiguity and uncertainty. By focusing on solutions, decision makers can draw on their familiarity with past successful outcomes, making the current problem feel less uncertain. This mindset allows for a more decisive approach to problem-solving.

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  • 11. 

    A systematic process of thinking about alternative futures and what the organizations should do to anticipate and react to those environments. Systematically assessing alternatives. Decisions are influenced by both rational and emotional processes.

    • A.

      Prospect theory

    • B.

      Escalation of commitment

    • C.

      Intuition

    • D.

      Postdecisional justification

    • E.

      Scenario planning

    Correct Answer
    E. Scenario planning
    Explanation
    Making Choices More Effectively

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  • 12. 

    The ability to know when a problem or opportunity exists and to select the best course of action without conscious reasoning.

    • A.

      Intuiton

    • B.

      Scenario planning

    • C.

      Satisficing

    • D.

      Problems with problem identification

    • E.

      Decision making

    Correct Answer
    A. Intuiton
    Explanation
    Intuition and Making Choices

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  • 13. 

    The tendency for people to support their selected alternative in a decision by forgetting or downplaying the negative features of the selected alternative, emphasizing its positive features, and doing the opposite for alternatives not selected. Results from the need to maintain a positive self-concept. Inflates the decision maker's initial evaluation of the decision.

    • A.

      Postdecisional justification

    • B.

      Intuition

    • C.

      Scenario planning

    • D.

      Escalation of commitment

    • E.

      Prospect theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Postdecisional justification
    Explanation
    Postdecisional justification refers to the tendency for people to support their selected alternative in a decision by forgetting or downplaying its negative features and emphasizing its positive features. This behavior is driven by the need to maintain a positive self-concept and often leads to an inflated evaluation of the decision.

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  • 14. 

    The tendency to repeat an apparently bad decision or allocate more resources to a failing course of action.

    • A.

      Scenario planning

    • B.

      Satisficing

    • C.

      Escalation of commitment

    • D.

      Prospect theory

    • E.

      Postdecisional justification

    Correct Answer
    C. Escalation of commitment
    Explanation
    Escalation of commitment refers to the tendency of individuals or organizations to continue investing resources into a failing course of action. This behavior occurs when decision-makers become emotionally attached to their initial decision, despite evidence suggesting that it is not working. They may increase their commitment in hopes of turning the situation around or to avoid admitting failure. This can lead to a waste of resources and can be detrimental to the overall success of the decision-making process.

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  • 15. 

    An effect in which losing a particular amount is more disliked than gaining the same amount. The negative emotions we experience whne losing a particular amount are stronger than the positive emotions we experience when gaining the same amount. Consequently, we are more willing to take risks to avoid losses than to increase our gains.

    • A.

      Postdecisional justification

    • B.

      Escalation of commitment

    • C.

      Satisficing

    • D.

      Prospect theory

    • E.

      Activities that encourage creativity

    Correct Answer
    D. Prospect theory
    Explanation
    Causes of Escalating Commitment
    also calle prospect theory effect

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  • 16. 

    Individuals are motivated to maintain their course of action when they have a high need to justify their decision. Particularly evident when decision makers are personally identified with the project and have staked their reputation to some extent on the project's success.

    • A.

      Escalation of commitment

    • B.

      Prospect theory effect

    • C.

      Perceptual blinders

    • D.

      Closing costs

    • E.

      Self-justification

    Correct Answer
    E. Self-justification
    Explanation
    When individuals have a high need to justify their decision, they are more motivated to maintain their course of action. This is especially true when decision makers are personally identified with the project and have staked their reputation on its success. In order to protect their ego and maintain a positive self-image, individuals engage in self-justification, which involves rationalizing and defending their decision even when it may not be the most rational or beneficial choice. This helps explain why individuals may continue to invest time, resources, and effort into a project, even when it is not yielding the desired results.

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  • 17. 

    Escalation of commitment sometimes occurs because decision makers do not see the problems soon enough. They nonconsciously screen out or explain away negative information to protect self-esteem.

    • A.

      Perceptual blinders

    • B.

      Closing costs

    • C.

      Prospect theory

    • D.

      Self-justification

    • E.

      Postdecisional justification

    Correct Answer
    A. Perceptual blinders
    Explanation
    Perceptual blinders refer to the tendency of decision makers to overlook or ignore negative information that contradicts their initial decision. This can occur because decision makers want to protect their self-esteem or avoid admitting that they made a mistake. By screening out or explaining away negative information, decision makers can maintain their belief in the initial decision and continue to invest resources, leading to escalation of commitment.

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  • 18. 

    Even when a project's success is in doubt, decision makers will persist because the costs of ending the project are high or unknown.

    • A.

      Prospect theory

    • B.

      Closing costs

    • C.

      Self-justification

    • D.

      Subjective expected utility

    • E.

      Perceptual blinders

    Correct Answer
    B. Closing costs
    Explanation
    When a project's success is uncertain, decision makers may choose to persist because the costs of ending the project are high or unknown. This means that they are aware that terminating the project could result in financial losses or other negative consequences. Therefore, they decide to continue with the project in order to avoid these closing costs.

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  • 19. 

    This separation of roles minimizes the self-justification effect because the person responsible for evaluating the decision is not connected to the original decision. A second strategy is to publicly establish a preset level at which the decision is abandoned or re-evaluated. A third strategy is to find a source of systematic and clear feedback.

    • A.

      Scenario planning

    • B.

      Escalation of commitment

    • C.

      Employee involvement

    • D.

      Postdecisional justification

    • E.

      Evaluating decision outcomes more effectively

    Correct Answer
    E. Evaluating decision outcomes more effectively
    Explanation
    The given correct answer, "evaluating decision outcomes more effectively," suggests that by improving the evaluation of decision outcomes, the self-justification effect can be minimized. This means that by objectively and thoroughly assessing the results of a decision, without bias or personal attachment, individuals can make more informed judgments and be less likely to justify or stick to a decision that may not be working. By doing so, they can be more open to abandoning or re-evaluating a decision if necessary. Additionally, by seeking systematic and clear feedback, individuals can gain valuable insights and make better decisions in the future.

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  • 20. 

    The degree to which employees influence how their work is organized and carried out. Potentially improves decision quality by recognizing problems more quickly and defining them more accurately. Can also potentially improve the number and quality of solutions generated. Improves the likelihood of choosing the best alternative. Tends to strengthen employee commitment to the decision.

    • A.

      Evaluating decision outcomes more effectively

    • B.

      Creativity

    • C.

      Employee involvement

    • D.

      Activities that encourage creativity

    • E.

      Characteristics of creative people

    Correct Answer
    C. Employee involvement
    Explanation
    Employee Involvement in Decision Making

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  • 21. 

    The rational and emotional brain centres alert us to problems, they also influence our choice of alternatives. Emotions affect the evaluation of alternatives.

    • A.

      Emotions and making choices

    • B.

      Intuition and making choices

    • C.

      Activities that encourage creativity

    • D.

      Emotions change the decision evaluation process

    • E.

      Emotions as information when evaluating alternatives

    Correct Answer
    A. Emotions and making choices
    Explanation
    Evaluating and Choosing Alternatives

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  • 22. 

    The emotional marker process determines our preferences for each alternative. Our brain quickly attaches specific emotions to information about each alternative, and our preferred alternative is strongly influenced by those initial emotional markers.

    • A.

      Emotions and making choices

    • B.

      Solution-focused problems

    • C.

      Emotions form early preferences

    • D.

      Emotions as information when evaluating alternatives

    • E.

      Emotions change the decision evaluation process

    Correct Answer
    D. Emotions as information when evaluating alternatives
    Explanation
    Evaluating and Choosing Alternatives: Emotions and Making Choice

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  • 23. 

    Moods and specific emotions influence the process of evaluating alternatives. We pay more attention to details when in a negative mood because a negative mood signals that there is something wrong that requires attention. When in a positive mood, we pay less attention to details.

    • A.

      Emotions form early preferences

    • B.

      Emotions and making choices

    • C.

      Emotions as information when evaluating alternatives

    • D.

      Emotions change the decision evaluation process

    • E.

      Mental models

    Correct Answer
    D. Emotions change the decision evaluation process
    Explanation
    Evaluating and Choosing Alternatives: Emotions and Making Choice

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  • 24. 

    The way that emotions influence the evaluation of alternatives. Marketing experts have found out that we listen in on our emotions to provide guidance when making choices.

    • A.

      Emotions from early preferences

    • B.

      Emotions as information when evaluating alternatives

    • C.

      Decisive leadership

    • D.

      Emotions change the decision evaluation process

    • E.

      Emotions and making choices

    Correct Answer
    B. Emotions as information when evaluating alternatives
    Explanation
    Emotions can serve as valuable information when evaluating alternatives. When making decisions, individuals often rely on their emotions to guide them. Marketing experts have discovered that emotions play a significant role in the decision-making process. Emotions can influence how individuals perceive and evaluate different options, ultimately impacting their final choice. By considering emotions as a source of information, individuals can gain insights into their preferences and make more informed decisions.

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  • 25. 

    Some decisions are programmed, whereas others are nonprogrammed. Programmed decisions are less likely to need employee involvement because the solutions are already worked out from past incidents. In other words, the benefits of employee involvement increase with the novelty and complexity of the problem or opportunity.

    • A.

      Decision making

    • B.

      Decision commitment

    • C.

      Decision structure

    • D.

      Source of decision knowledge

    • E.

      Risk of conflict

    Correct Answer
    C. Decision structure
    Explanation
    Contigencies of Employee Involvement

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  • 26. 

    Subordinates should be involved in some level of decision making when the leader lacks sufficient information and subordinated have additional information to improve decision quality.  In complex decisions, employees are more likely to possess relevant information.

    • A.

      Source of decision knowledge

    • B.

      Decision structure

    • C.

      Risk of conflict

    • D.

      Decision commitment

    • E.

      Employee involvement

    Correct Answer
    A. Source of decision knowledge
    Explanation
    In this context, the correct answer is "source of decision knowledge". This means that when the leader lacks sufficient information, the subordinates can serve as a valuable source of knowledge to improve the quality of the decision. They may possess additional information or insights that the leader is not aware of, making their involvement in the decision-making process important. This aligns with the idea that involving employees in decision-making can lead to better outcomes, especially in complex decisions where multiple perspectives and information sources are necessary.

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  • 27. 

    Participating tends to improve employee commitment to the decision. If employees are unlikely to accept a decision made without their involvement, then some level of participation is usually necessary.

    • A.

      Source of decision knowledge

    • B.

      Decision commitment

    • C.

      Decision structure

    • D.

      Risk of conflict

    • E.

      Employee involvement

    Correct Answer
    B. Decision commitment
    Explanation
    Participating in the decision-making process tends to improve employee commitment to the decision. When employees are involved in making decisions, they are more likely to accept and support the final decision. This is because they feel a sense of ownership and responsibility towards the decision, as they had a say in it. On the other hand, if employees are not involved in the decision-making process, they may feel disconnected and less committed to the decision. Therefore, to ensure employee commitment, some level of participation is usually necessary.

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  • 28. 

    Employee goals and norms conflict with the organization's goals, then only a low level of employee involvement is advisable. Second, the degree of involvement depends on whether employees will reach agreement on the preferred solution. If conflict is likely, then high involvement would be difficult to achieve.

    • A.

      Risk of conflict

    • B.

      Activities that encourage creativity

    • C.

      Source of decision knowledge

    • D.

      Decision commitment

    • E.

      Decision structure

    Correct Answer
    A. Risk of conflict
    Explanation
    When employee goals and norms conflict with the organization's goals, there is a risk of conflict arising within the organization. In such situations, it is advisable to have a low level of employee involvement to minimize the chances of further conflicts. This is because high involvement would make it difficult to reach agreements on preferred solutions when there is already existing conflict. Therefore, the correct answer is "risk of conflict".

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  • 29. 

    Four of the main characteristics that give individuals more creative potential are intelligence, persistence, knowledge/experience, and a cluster of personality traits and values representing independent imagination.

    • A.

      Employee involvement

    • B.

      Characteristics of creative people

    • C.

      Creativity

    • D.

      Scenario planning

    • E.

      Activities that encourage creativity

    Correct Answer
    B. Characteristics of creative people
    Explanation
    The given answer, "characteristics of creative people," is the correct answer because the passage states that intelligence, persistence, knowledge/experience, and a cluster of personality traits and values contribute to an individual's creative potential. These characteristics are often associated with creative individuals who are able to think outside the box, come up with innovative ideas, and approach problems from different angles. Therefore, understanding the characteristics of creative people is important in understanding and fostering creativity.

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  • 30. 

    Encourages employees to redefine the problem. Revisiting old projects that have been set aside. Asking people unfamiliar with the issue. Includes associative play, ranging from art classes to impromptu storytelling and acting. Includes morphological analysis, which involves listing different dimensions of a system and the elements of each dimension, then looking at each combination. Various forms of cross-pollination occuring when people from different areas of the organization exchange ideas. Teams show off their products and make presentations to other teams in the organization. A similar effect is mixing together employees from different past projects so they share new knowledge with each other.

    • A.

      Creativity

    • B.

      Characteristics of creative people

    • C.

      Activities that encourage creativity

    • D.

      Emotions and making choices

    • E.

      Satisficing

    Correct Answer
    C. Activities that encourage creativity
    Explanation
    This passage describes various activities that encourage creativity, such as revisiting old projects, asking people unfamiliar with the issue, engaging in associative play, using morphological analysis, promoting cross-pollination, and showcasing products and presentations. These activities are meant to inspire employees to think outside the box, redefine problems, and generate new ideas.

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  • 31. 

    The development of original ideas that make a socially recognized contribution. Part of the desion-making process. We rely on creativity to find problems, identify alternatives, and implement solutions.

    • A.

      Creativity

    • B.

      Emotions and making choices

    • C.

      Activities that encourage creativity

    • D.

      Characteristics of creative people

    • E.

      Scenario planning

    Correct Answer
    A. Creativity
    Explanation
    Creativity refers to the development of original ideas that make a socially recognized contribution. It is an essential part of the decision-making process as it allows us to find problems, identify alternatives, and implement solutions. Creativity involves thinking outside the box and coming up with innovative solutions that may not have been considered before. It is a valuable skill that helps individuals and organizations adapt to changing circumstances and find unique ways to address challenges.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 07, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Krista_500
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