Socl Final Exam Review

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| By Megan Culbreth
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Socl Final Exam Review - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Write text here

  • 2. 

    The ____________ of society refers to the way society is organized.

    • A.

      Ethos

    • B.

      Culture

    • C.

      Structure

    • D.

      Sociological imagination

    Correct Answer
    C. Structure
    Explanation
    The term "structure" refers to the way society is organized. It encompasses the various institutions, organizations, and systems that shape and guide social interactions and behaviors. This includes the political, economic, educational, and social systems that exist within a society. The structure of society influences individuals' roles, relationships, and opportunities, and helps to maintain social order and stability.

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  • 3. 

    Which element of a social problem refers to the belief that a particular social condition is harmful to society?

    • A.

      Operational

    • B.

      Objective

    • C.

      Subjective

    • D.

      Theoretical

    Correct Answer
    C. Subjective
    Explanation
    The term "subjective" refers to the belief that a particular social condition is harmful to society. This means that the perception of harm is based on personal opinions, values, and experiences rather than objective facts or evidence. In the context of social problems, subjective views play a significant role in identifying and addressing issues, as they shape individuals' understanding of what needs to be addressed and how it should be addressed.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the five traditional social institutions?

    • A.

      Religion

    • B.

      Family

    • C.

      Prison

    • D.

      Politics

    Correct Answer
    C. Prison
    Explanation
    Prison is not considered one of the five traditional social institutions because it does not fulfill the criteria of being a fundamental and essential structure in society. The five traditional social institutions include religion, family, politics, education, and economy. These institutions play crucial roles in shaping and organizing society, whereas prison is a system designed for the punishment and rehabilitation of individuals who have committed crimes. While prisons are important for maintaining law and order, they are not considered on the same level as the other social institutions in terms of their overall impact and significance.

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  • 5. 

    Sociologists refer to the position a person holds in a group as his or her

    • A.

      Folkway.

    • B.

      Role.

    • C.

      Institution.

    • D.

      Status.

    Correct Answer
    D. Status.
    Explanation
    Sociologists use the term "status" to refer to the position or rank that an individual holds within a group. It is a social position that comes with certain expectations, rights, and responsibilities. Status can be achieved through individual efforts or ascribed based on factors such as age, gender, or social background. It plays a crucial role in shaping an individual's behavior, interactions, and social identity within the group.

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  • 6. 

    Symbolic interactionism emphasizes that

    • A.

      Societal institutions meet the needs of people in society.

    • B.

      The important symbols of society are distributed unequally.

    • C.

      Human behavior is influenced by meanings that are created through social interaction.

    • D.

      Institutional inequalities cause social problems.

    Correct Answer
    C. Human behavior is influenced by meanings that are created through social interaction.
    Explanation
    Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective that focuses on how individuals interact with one another and how they assign meanings to symbols and social interactions. This perspective suggests that human behavior is influenced by the meanings that individuals create through their social interactions. In other words, people's actions and behaviors are not solely determined by external factors or societal institutions, but rather by the subjective meanings they attach to these interactions. This perspective highlights the importance of understanding the social construction of reality and how individuals interpret and respond to their social environment.

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  • 7. 

    According to C. Wright Mills, the ____________ is the ability to see the connections between our personal lives and the social world.

    • A.

      Sociological imagination

    • B.

      Anomie

    • C.

      Functional perspective

    • D.

      Ascribed status

    Correct Answer
    A. Sociological imagination
    Explanation
    C. Wright Mills defines sociological imagination as the ability to understand and analyze the connections between our personal experiences and the broader social and historical context in which we live. It allows individuals to see beyond their own personal troubles and recognize the larger social issues and structures that shape their lives. By using sociological imagination, individuals can critically examine the impact of social forces on their personal lives and understand how their individual actions are influenced by societal factors.

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  • 8. 

    A social problem is a social condition that

    • A.

      A segment of society views as harmful to members of society and in need of remedy.

    • B.

      Results in conflict among various population segments of a society.

    • C.

      Everyone in a society agrees is problematic for the society.

    • D.

      Interferes with the functioning of society.

    Correct Answer
    A. A segment of society views as harmful to members of society and in need of remedy.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a segment of society views as harmful to members of society and in need of remedy." This explanation aligns with the definition of a social problem, which is a social condition that is perceived as harmful by a specific group within society and requires a solution or remedy. It acknowledges that not everyone in society may agree on what constitutes a social problem, but it emphasizes the subjective perception of harm and the need for intervention.

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  • 9. 

    Every status is associated with many _________, or the set of rights, obligations, and expectations associated with a status.

    • A.

      Institutions

    • B.

      Norms

    • C.

      Values

    • D.

      Roles

    Correct Answer
    D. Roles
    Explanation
    Roles are the set of rights, obligations, and expectations associated with a status. They define the behaviors and responsibilities expected from individuals occupying a particular status in society. While institutions, norms, and values also play a role in shaping social behavior, roles specifically refer to the expectations and behaviors associated with a particular status.

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  • 10. 

    The sociological imagination allows us to see the connections between private troubles and ________.

    • A.

      social institutions

    • B.

      Sociology

    • C.

      Social problems

    • D.

      Public issues

    Correct Answer
    D. Public issues
    Explanation
    The sociological imagination allows us to see the connections between private troubles and public issues. It enables individuals to understand how personal problems are influenced by larger social forces and structures. By examining the intersection of personal experiences with societal issues, individuals can gain a broader understanding of the social context in which they live and the impact of social institutions on their lives. This perspective helps to highlight the interconnectedness of individual experiences and larger social problems.

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  • 11. 

    Which perspective argues that the division of society into the "haves" and "have-nots" will create social problems?

    • A.

      Functionalist

    • B.

      Conflict

    • C.

      Interactionist

    • D.

      Anomie

    Correct Answer
    B. Conflict
    Explanation
    The conflict perspective argues that the division of society into the "haves" and "have-nots" will create social problems. According to this perspective, social inequality and power imbalances lead to conflict between different social groups. The "haves" who possess wealth and resources exploit and oppress the "have-nots," leading to social unrest, inequality, and social problems. This perspective emphasizes the importance of addressing and challenging social inequalities to create a more just and equitable society.

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  • 12. 

    Mental illness is considered a “hidden epidemic” because

    • A.

      Health care providers tend to misdiagnose mentally ill patients as physically ill.

    • B.

      Most mentally ill are institutionalized in hospitals or long-term care facilities.

    • C.

      The shame associated with mental problems discourages people from acknowledging them.

    • D.

      The mentally ill are more likely to stay at home and avoid contact with others.

    Correct Answer
    C. The shame associated with mental problems discourages people from acknowledging them.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the shame associated with mental problems discourages people from acknowledging them. This explanation suggests that mental illness is considered a "hidden epidemic" because individuals who are suffering from mental health issues may feel ashamed or stigmatized, leading them to hide their symptoms or avoid seeking help. This can result in underreporting and a lack of awareness about the true extent of mental illness in society.

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  • 13. 

    Medicaid is funded

    • A.

      By private insurance corporations.

    • B.

      Solely by the state government.

    • C.

      Solely by the federal government.

    • D.

      Jointly by federal and state governments.

    Correct Answer
    D. Jointly by federal and state governments.
    Explanation
    Medicaid is a government-funded healthcare program in the United States that provides medical assistance to low-income individuals and families. The correct answer is "jointly by federal and state governments" because Medicaid is funded through a partnership between the federal government and individual state governments. The federal government sets certain guidelines and regulations for the program and provides a significant portion of the funding, while the state governments contribute their own funds as well. This joint funding arrangement allows for the program to be implemented and sustained across the country, ensuring that eligible individuals have access to healthcare services.

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  • 14. 

    What is an example of how health problems impact poverty?

    • A.

      Lower-class individuals experience greater adversity and stress as a result of their deprived and difficult living conditions.

    • B.

      Individuals in higher social classes are less likely to be stigmatized for mental illness.

    • C.

      The higher social classes are more likely to be diagnosed and treated for mental illness.

    • D.

      Physical and mental health problems can limit one’s ability to pursue education and vocational training and/or employment

    Correct Answer
    D. Physical and mental health problems can limit one’s ability to pursue education and vocational training and/or employment
    Explanation
    Physical and mental health problems can limit one's ability to pursue education and vocational training and/or employment. This is because individuals with health problems may face difficulties in attending school, completing their studies, or participating in vocational training programs. Additionally, their health conditions may affect their ability to perform certain job tasks or maintain regular employment. As a result, these individuals may struggle to earn a stable income and escape poverty, thereby highlighting the impact of health problems on poverty.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is an argument in favor of a single-payer health care system?​

    • A.

      It would place power in the hands of the states rather than the federal government.

    • B.

      It would be a truly market based system.

    • C.

      It would keep the government out of the business of health care.

    • D.

      It would save money.

    Correct Answer
    D. It would save money.
    Explanation
    A single-payer health care system would save money because it eliminates the need for multiple private insurance companies, which often have high administrative costs. By streamlining the system and reducing administrative expenses, more resources can be directed towards providing healthcare services. Additionally, a single-payer system allows for negotiating lower prices for medications and medical procedures, further reducing costs. Overall, the cost savings achieved through a single-payer system can help make healthcare more affordable and accessible to a larger population.

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  • 16. 

    A symbolic interactionist is likely to study

    • A.

      How illness keeps people from performing their roles.

    • B.

      Health care as a market commodity in capitalistic systems.

    • C.

      The varying definitions of diseases and conditions across cultures.

    • D.

      How illness leads to other social problems in society.

    Correct Answer
    C. The varying definitions of diseases and conditions across cultures.
    Explanation
    A symbolic interactionist is likely to study the varying definitions of diseases and conditions across cultures because they focus on how individuals interpret and give meaning to their experiences. They are interested in understanding how cultural factors shape people's understanding and response to illness. By studying the different definitions of diseases and conditions across cultures, a symbolic interactionist can gain insights into how social interactions, language, and cultural norms influence the perception and management of health and illness.

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  • 17. 

    Deinstitutionalization in mental health care refers to the process of

    • A.

      Adding more private rooms, community dining facilities, and recreational areas in mental health hospitals.

    • B.

      Reducing costly and often neglectful institutional care and providing more humane services in the community.

    • C.

      Decreasing the numbers of doctors and other health care workers who practice in mental hospitals.

    • D.

      Providing more job training in mental health facilities that will prepare patients to obtain employment when they leave the health care facility.

    Correct Answer
    B. Reducing costly and often neglectful institutional care and providing more humane services in the community.
    Explanation
    Deinstitutionalization in mental health care refers to the process of reducing costly and often neglectful institutional care and providing more humane services in the community. This means shifting away from the traditional model of keeping individuals with mental illnesses in large, centralized mental health hospitals and instead providing care and support in community-based settings. This approach aims to improve the quality of care, promote independence and recovery, and reduce the stigma associated with institutionalization. It also recognizes the importance of integrating individuals with mental illnesses into society and providing them with the necessary support to lead fulfilling lives in their communities.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is NOT true regarding the health environment of Americans?

    • A.

      Americans tend to have unhealthy patterns of food consumption.

    • B.

      American communities are designed for automobiles rather than pedestrians.

    • C.

      Americans have the highest obesity rates of any industrialized nation.

    • D.

      Americans tend to work fewer hours and take more time off than workers in other industrialized nations.

    Correct Answer
    D. Americans tend to work fewer hours and take more time off than workers in other industrialized nations.
  • 19. 

    Which of the theoretical perspectives is most likely to study how changes in society affect health?

    • A.

      Symbolic interactionism

    • B.

      Conflict

    • C.

      Feminism

    • D.

      Structural-functionalism

    Correct Answer
    D. Structural-functionalism
    Explanation
    Structural-functionalism is the most likely theoretical perspective to study how changes in society affect health. This perspective focuses on the interdependence and functioning of different parts of society. It examines how social institutions and structures contribute to the overall stability and well-being of society. When studying health, structural-functionalism would analyze how changes in social structures, such as healthcare systems, economic conditions, or social norms, impact individuals' health outcomes and overall population health. This perspective emphasizes the importance of maintaining social equilibrium and understanding the role of various societal factors in shaping health patterns.

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  • 20. 

    What is the official name of the program commonly referred to as Obamacare?​

    • A.

      Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    • B.

      No Child Left Behind Act

    • C.

      Personal Health Protection and Rehabilitation Act

    • D.

      Universal Health Care Initiative

    Correct Answer
    A. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
    Explanation
    The official name of the program commonly referred to as Obamacare is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This act was signed into law in 2010 and aimed to provide affordable health insurance options for Americans, expand Medicaid, and implement various healthcare reforms. It is often referred to as Obamacare because it was a major healthcare initiative introduced during the Obama administration.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following was NOT cited in the textbook as a strategy to improve mental health care?​

    • A.

      ​improving access to mental health care

    • B.

      Providing mental health support for college students

    • C.

      Stigmatizing mental illness

    • D.

      Eliminating the negative label of mental illness

    Correct Answer
    C. Stigmatizing mental illness
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "stigmatizing mental illness." The other options, such as improving access to mental health care and providing mental health support for college students, were mentioned in the textbook as strategies to improve mental health care. Additionally, eliminating the negative label of mental illness was also mentioned as a strategy. However, stigmatizing mental illness was not cited as a strategy in the textbook.

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  • 22. 

    The structural-functional perspective is more likely than the conflict or symbolic interactionist perspective to view drug abuse as

    • A.

      due to the weakening of norms in society.

    • B.

      Learned through interaction in small groups.

    • C.

      A response to the inequality perpetuated by the capitalist system.

    • D.

      The consequence of a psychological predisposition to experience pleasure from drugs.

    Correct Answer
    A. due to the weakening of norms in society.
    Explanation
    The structural-functional perspective focuses on how society functions as a whole and how different parts of society work together to maintain stability. From this perspective, drug abuse can be seen as a result of the weakening of norms in society. Norms are the shared expectations and rules that guide behavior, and when they weaken or break down, individuals may turn to drug abuse as a way to cope or rebel against societal expectations. This perspective suggests that addressing the weakening of norms and promoting social cohesion can help prevent drug abuse.

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  • 23. 

    _______________ theories propose that some individuals are predisposed to drug abuse.

    • A.

      Biological

    • B.

      Symbolic interaction

    • C.

      Conflict

    • D.

      Psychological

    Correct Answer
    A. Biological
    Explanation
    Biological theories propose that some individuals are predisposed to drug abuse due to factors such as genetics, brain chemistry, and physiological differences. These theories suggest that certain individuals may have a biological vulnerability or susceptibility to developing substance abuse disorders. This can include factors such as inherited traits, imbalances in neurotransmitters, or differences in brain structure and function. Biological theories emphasize the importance of understanding the biological underpinnings of drug abuse and addiction in order to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.

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  • 24. 

    According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, people who use drugs do so because

    • A.

      They have been exploited and alienated by a capitalistic society.

    • B.

      They have learned to label the drug-using experience in positive terms.

    • C.

      They have a biological predisposition to drug addiction.

    • D.

      The society is in a state of anomie.

    Correct Answer
    B. They have learned to label the drug-using experience in positive terms.
    Explanation
    According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, people who use drugs do so because they have learned to label the drug-using experience in positive terms. This perspective emphasizes the role of social interactions and the meanings that individuals attach to their actions. Symbolic interactionists argue that individuals learn behaviors and attitudes through socialization processes, including the labeling of certain experiences as positive or negative. In the case of drug use, individuals may learn to view drug use in positive terms through their interactions with peers, media, or other influential factors. This perspective suggests that societal attitudes and labeling play a significant role in shaping individuals' drug-use behaviors.

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  • 25. 

    If an individual internalizes the label of a drug user, she is likely to

    • A.

      Substitute legal for illegal drugs.

    • B.

      Continue and sometimes escalate drug use.

    • C.

      seek treatment for drug abuse.

    • D.

      Quit using drugs of any kind.

    Correct Answer
    B. Continue and sometimes escalate drug use.
    Explanation
    If an individual internalizes the label of a drug user, it means they have accepted and identified themselves as a drug user. This acceptance can lead to a sense of resignation and normalization of drug use, causing them to continue and potentially increase their drug use. Internalizing the label may also contribute to a loss of motivation to seek treatment or quit using drugs altogether.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following perspectives is most concerned with the effects of labels like “crackhead”?

    • A.

      feminist

    • B.

      Functionalist

    • C.

      Conflict

    • D.

      Symbolic interactionist

    Correct Answer
    D. Symbolic interactionist
    Explanation
    The symbolic interactionist perspective is most concerned with the effects of labels like "crackhead." This perspective focuses on how individuals interpret and assign meaning to symbols and labels in their interactions with others. Symbolic interactionists would be interested in studying how being labeled as a "crackhead" affects a person's self-perception, social interactions, and opportunities in society. They would also examine how these labels are constructed and reinforced through social interactions and how they shape individuals' behaviors and identities.

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  • 27. 

    According to the conflict perspective, alcohol is legal because it

    • A.

      Is often consumed by those who have the power to define its acceptability.

    • B.

      Is one of the safest drugs available.

    • C.

      Plays an important role in relieving social stress.

    • D.

      Provides a pleasurable experience to people when they first try it.

    Correct Answer
    A. Is often consumed by those who have the power to define its acceptability.
    Explanation
    According to the conflict perspective, alcohol is legal because it is often consumed by those who have the power to define its acceptability. This perspective suggests that the laws and regulations surrounding alcohol are influenced by those in positions of power, such as politicians and business owners, who benefit from its consumption. These individuals have the ability to shape societal norms and determine what is considered acceptable behavior, including the use of alcohol. Therefore, the legality of alcohol is a result of the influence and consumption patterns of those who hold power in society.

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  • 28. 

    The most widely used and abused drug in America is

    • A.

      Tobacco.

    • B.

      Heroin.

    • C.

      Alcohol.

    • D.

      Marijuana.

    Correct Answer
    C. Alcohol.
    Explanation
    Alcohol is considered the most widely used and abused drug in America due to its legal status and widespread availability. It is socially accepted and easily accessible, leading to high rates of consumption and misuse. Alcohol abuse can have severe health and social consequences, including addiction, liver damage, impaired judgment, and increased risk of accidents and violence. While tobacco, heroin, and marijuana are also commonly used and abused, alcohol surpasses them in terms of overall usage and negative impact on individuals and society.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following drugs was legally available in the United States in the 1800s and early 1900s?

    • A.

      Rohypnol

    • B.

      Opium

    • C.

      meth

    • D.

      Ecstasy

    Correct Answer
    B. Opium
    Explanation
    Opium was legally available in the United States in the 1800s and early 1900s. During this time, opium was commonly used for medicinal purposes and was even available over the counter without a prescription. It was used as a painkiller, sedative, and to treat various ailments. However, its widespread use eventually led to addiction and abuse, prompting the government to regulate and eventually prohibit its use.

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  • 30. 

    How would conflict theorists explain the difference in sentencing between crack and cocaine?

    • A.

      More people use crack than cocaine.

    • B.

      People of the upper classes are more likely to use cocaine and have access to lawmaking power.

    • C.

      Crack is more dangerous than cocaine.

    • D.

      Cocaine is a part of our culture.

    Correct Answer
    B. People of the upper classes are more likely to use cocaine and have access to lawmaking power.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that conflict theorists would explain the difference in sentencing between crack and cocaine by highlighting the influence of social class and power dynamics. According to this perspective, people of the upper classes, who are more likely to use cocaine, also have greater access to lawmaking power. This power imbalance can result in differential treatment and sentencing, with crack, which is more commonly used by lower-income individuals, being punished more severely than cocaine. This explanation aligns with conflict theory's focus on societal inequalities and the role of power in shaping social institutions and outcomes.

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  • 31. 

    The most widely used illegal drug worldwide is

    • A.

      Opium.

    • B.

      Cocaine.

    • C.

      Amphetamines.

    • D.

      Cannabis.

    Correct Answer
    D. Cannabis.
    Explanation
    Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide due to its availability and popularity. It is commonly used for recreational purposes and has gained acceptance in some countries for medicinal use as well. The drug is derived from the Cannabis plant and contains psychoactive compounds that produce a range of effects, including relaxation, euphoria, and altered perception. Its widespread use can be attributed to factors such as cultural practices, ease of cultivation, and the perception of it being a relatively safe drug compared to others.

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  • 32. 

    A crime is​

    • A.

      A violation of a federal, state, or local criminal law.

    • B.

      ​the same as a felony.

    • C.

      A disagreement between two or more parties.

    • D.

      ​any violation of a community's standards.

    Correct Answer
    A. A violation of a federal, state, or local criminal law.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a violation of a federal, state, or local criminal law." This answer accurately defines a crime as an act that goes against the established laws at any level of government. Crimes can vary in severity and can include both felonies and misdemeanors, but the defining factor is that they involve breaking the law. This answer distinguishes a crime from other possibilities such as a disagreement between parties or a violation of community standards, which may not necessarily involve breaking a specific law.

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  • 33. 

    Due to shortcomings of the data, ________ may be a better indicator of what police are doing than what criminals are doing.

    • A.

      Self-report offender surveys

    • B.

      official crime statistics

    • C.

      Victimization surveys

    • D.

      Self-report arrest and release surveys

    Correct Answer
    B. official crime statistics
    Explanation
    Official crime statistics may be a better indicator of what police are doing than what criminals are doing due to the limitations of the data. Official crime statistics are based on reported crimes that have been processed by the police and entered into the criminal justice system. However, these statistics may not accurately reflect the actual crime rates as they are influenced by factors such as underreporting, police practices, and the prioritization of certain types of crimes. Therefore, official crime statistics may provide insights into police activity and response rather than an accurate representation of criminal behavior.

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  • 34. 

    The most common crime in all countries is

    • A.

      arson.

    • B.

      Theft.

    • C.

      Homicide.

    • D.

      Rape.

    Correct Answer
    B. Theft.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is theft because it is a crime that occurs frequently in all countries. Theft refers to the act of taking someone else's property without their permission, and it can happen in various forms such as burglary, pickpocketing, or shoplifting. This crime is prevalent worldwide due to various factors like economic disparities, lack of security measures, and opportunistic behavior. Additionally, theft is often considered a non-violent crime compared to other options like arson, homicide, or rape, which makes it more common across different countries.

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  • 35. 

    According to differential association theory, individuals

    • A.

      internalize the criminal label when others believe they are criminal.

    • B.

      Become criminal when they are blocked from achieving their goals legitimately.

    • C.

      Who have internalized society’s moral standards are unlikely to be criminal.

    • D.

      Learn the techniques and motivations for criminal behavior from others.

    Correct Answer
    D. Learn the techniques and motivations for criminal behavior from others.
    Explanation
    According to differential association theory, individuals learn the techniques and motivations for criminal behavior from others. This theory suggests that criminal behavior is not inherent, but rather acquired through social interactions and exposure to deviant norms and values. It posits that individuals become more likely to engage in criminal activities if they associate with others who engage in such behaviors, as they learn from these associations. This explanation aligns with the concept of social learning, where behavior is learned through observation, imitation, and reinforcement from others.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is an example of occupational crime?

    • A.

      Security fraud

    • B.

      Pilferage

    • C.

      Price fixing

    • D.

      Antitrust violations

    Correct Answer
    B. Pilferage
    Explanation
    Pilferage is an example of occupational crime because it involves stealing or theft by an employee within their workplace. This can include stealing office supplies, merchandise, or cash from the company. It is considered an occupational crime because it is committed by someone in a position of trust within the organization. Other options mentioned, such as security fraud, price fixing, and antitrust violations, are also types of white-collar crimes but are not specifically related to occupational crime.

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  • 37. 

    According to conflict theory, the more _______ in a society, the greater the crime rate in that society.

    • A.

      Social change

    • B.

      Wealth

    • C.

      Industrialization

    • D.

      Inequality

    Correct Answer
    D. Inequality
    Explanation
    According to conflict theory, the more inequality there is in a society, the greater the crime rate in that society. This is because conflict theorists argue that inequality creates social tensions and divisions, leading to frustration, anger, and a sense of injustice among those who are disadvantaged. This can result in higher rates of crime as individuals may resort to illegal means to address their grievances or to attain resources and opportunities that are denied to them due to the unequal distribution of wealth and power.

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  • 38. 

    All of the following are examples of corporate crime except

    • A.

      Security fraud.

    • B.

      Embezzlement.

    • C.

      Antitrust violations.

    • D.

      Price fixing.

    Correct Answer
    B. Embezzlement.
    Explanation
    Embezzlement is the act of dishonestly appropriating or misappropriating funds entrusted to one's care, typically by an employee. It is a form of white-collar crime committed within an organization. On the other hand, security fraud, antitrust violations, and price fixing are all examples of corporate crimes. Security fraud involves deceptive practices in the financial markets, antitrust violations refer to anti-competitive practices that harm consumers or other businesses, and price fixing is an agreement between competitors to set prices artificially. Therefore, embezzlement stands out as the answer as it does not involve corporate wrongdoing.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is NOT classified as larceny?

    • A.

      Bicycle theft.

    • B.

      Gambling.

    • C.

      Purse-snatching.

    • D.

      Shoplifting.

    Correct Answer
    B. Gambling.
    Explanation
    Larceny refers to the unlawful taking and carrying away of someone else's personal property with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of it. Bicycle theft, purse-snatching, and shoplifting all involve the unauthorized taking of someone's property and would be classified as larceny. However, gambling does not involve the physical taking of someone's property. It is a form of entertainment or activity where individuals voluntarily participate by placing bets or wagering money, but it does not involve the unlawful taking of someone else's property.

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  • 40. 

    The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), published annually by the FBI, contain crime data from

    • A.

      U.S. Census household surveys.

    • B.

      Sheriff and police departments.

    • C.

      Self-report offender surveys.

    • D.

      Victimization surveys.

    Correct Answer
    B. Sheriff and police departments.
    Explanation
    The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) published annually by the FBI collect crime data from sheriff and police departments. This means that the data included in the UCR comes from law enforcement agencies at the local, state, tribal, and federal levels. These agencies report crime statistics to the FBI, which compiles and analyzes the data to provide a comprehensive overview of crime trends in the United States. The UCR is an important tool for understanding and addressing crime at a national level.

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  • 41. 

    According to _______ theory, crime is likely to occur when legitimate means of acquiring culturally defined goals are limited by the structure of society.

    • A.

      Conflict

    • B.

      Labeling

    • C.

      Strain

    • D.

      Differential association

    Correct Answer
    C. Strain
    Explanation
    Strain theory suggests that crime is more likely to occur when individuals are unable to achieve their goals through legitimate means. This theory argues that when there is a disconnect between culturally defined goals and the means available to achieve them, individuals may resort to criminal behavior as a way to attain their goals. This can happen when the structure of society limits the opportunities for individuals to achieve success through legal means, leading to frustration and strain, which in turn increases the likelihood of criminal behavior.

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  • 42. 

    Critics of the U.S. poverty line argue that

    • A.

      Medicaid and public housing are inappropriately included in income estimates of a family.

    • B.

      Low-income families today spend far less than one-third of their income on food.

    • C.

      The U.S. poverty line accounts too much for regional differences and not enough for local variations in the cost of living.

    • D.

      The homeless are overrepresented among the poor.

    Correct Answer
    B. Low-income families today spend far less than one-third of their income on food.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that critics of the U.S. poverty line argue that low-income families today spend far less than one-third of their income on food. This implies that the current poverty line, which includes food expenses as a significant factor, may not accurately reflect the financial struggles faced by low-income families. Critics believe that other factors such as housing, healthcare, and transportation should be taken into account to provide a more comprehensive measure of poverty.

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  • 43. 

    A social system in which individuals get ahead and earn rewards based on their individual efforts and abilities is a​

    • A.

      Meritocracy.

    • B.

      ​gerontocracy.

    • C.

      Plutocracy.

    • D.

      Theocracy.

    Correct Answer
    A. Meritocracy.
    Explanation
    A social system in which individuals get ahead and earn rewards based on their individual efforts and abilities is known as a meritocracy. In this system, success and advancement are determined by one's merit and competence rather than factors such as wealth, social status, or family background. Individuals who work hard and demonstrate their skills and abilities are rewarded and given opportunities for growth and advancement. This system promotes fairness and equality by ensuring that everyone has an equal chance to succeed based on their own merits.

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  • 44. 

    The term ________ refers to the lack of resources that leads to hunger and physical deprivation

    • A.

      Lower class

    • B.

      Absolute poverty

    • C.

      Socioeconomic inequality

    • D.

      Relative poverty

    Correct Answer
    B. Absolute poverty
    Explanation
    Absolute poverty refers to the lack of resources that leads to hunger and physical deprivation. It is a condition where individuals or households do not have enough income or resources to meet their basic needs, such as food, shelter, and clothing. Unlike relative poverty, which is a measure of poverty in relation to the average income or standard of living in a society, absolute poverty focuses on the absolute level of deprivation and the inability to meet basic human needs.

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  • 45. 

    In which region of the United States are poverty rates the highest?​

    • A.

      ​the New England states

    • B.

      ​the Midwest

    • C.

      ​the Northeast

    • D.

      ​the South and West

    Correct Answer
    D. ​the South and West
    Explanation
    The poverty rates are the highest in the South and West regions of the United States. This can be attributed to various factors such as lower wages, higher unemployment rates, and limited access to education and healthcare. These regions often have a higher concentration of rural areas and minority populations, which can contribute to higher poverty rates. Additionally, the South and West regions have historically faced economic challenges and disparities compared to other regions in the country.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is an example of corporate welfare?

    • A.

      Severance pay and unemployment insurance

    • B.

      A large corporation donates money to a homeless shelter

    • C.

      Low-interest government loans, subsidies, and tax breaks to corporations

    • D.

      Employee assistance programs

    Correct Answer
    C. Low-interest government loans, subsidies, and tax breaks to corporations
    Explanation
    The correct answer is low-interest government loans, subsidies, and tax breaks to corporations. This is an example of corporate welfare because it involves the government providing financial assistance to corporations through loans with low interest rates, subsidies, and tax breaks. These benefits are given to corporations in order to support their growth and development, and can be seen as a form of government intervention in the economy to promote corporate interests.

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  • 47. 

    ________ poverty refers to a deficiency of material and economic resources compared with some other population.

    • A.

      Absolute

    • B.

      Relative

    • C.

      Comparative

    • D.

      Standardized

    Correct Answer
    B. Relative
    Explanation
    Relative poverty refers to a deficiency of material and economic resources compared with some other population. This means that individuals or groups are considered to be in relative poverty if their income or resources are significantly lower in comparison to the average income or resources of the larger population. It is a measure of poverty that takes into account the economic disparities within a society, highlighting the inequality between different social groups. Relative poverty is often used to assess the level of inequality and social exclusion within a society.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following is NOT associated with low income?

    • A.

      Lack of stress

    • B.

      divorce

    • C.

      Substance abuse

    • D.

      Child abuse

    Correct Answer
    A. Lack of stress
    Explanation
    The correct answer is lack of stress. This is because low income is often associated with high levels of stress due to financial challenges and limited resources. Lack of stress is not typically associated with low income as individuals with low income often face additional stressors related to their financial situation.

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  • 49. 

    Medicaid

    • A.

      Is federally subsidized food assistance for malnourished children.

    • B.

      Is federally subsidized medical services and hospitalization for the elderly.

    • C.

      Specializes in medical care for severely, chronically ill children.

    • D.

      Provides medical care for the poor through reimbursements to physicians and hospitals.

    Correct Answer
    D. Provides medical care for the poor through reimbursements to physicians and hospitals.
    Explanation
    Medicaid is a government program that provides medical care for individuals with low income and limited resources. It operates by reimbursing healthcare providers such as physicians and hospitals for the services they provide to eligible individuals. This helps to ensure that those who cannot afford healthcare services are still able to receive necessary medical care.

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  • 50. 

    The 2010 Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission ​

    • A.

      Allows corporations to spend unlimited amounts of money to support or oppose political candidates.

    • B.

      Creates a public interest group for immigrant issues.

    • C.

      Strictly regulates that no political candidate is allowed to spend more on the campaign than the opposition.

    • D.

      Provides campaign funds for low income political candidates.

    Correct Answer
    A. Allows corporations to spend unlimited amounts of money to support or oppose political candidates.
    Explanation
    The 2010 Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission allows corporations to spend unlimited amounts of money to support or oppose political candidates. This ruling overturned previous campaign finance laws and opened the door for corporations to have a significant influence on elections by using their financial resources to support candidates who align with their interests. This decision has been controversial, with critics arguing that it allows for the undue influence of money in politics and undermines the democratic process.

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