Cells: The Living Units

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| By Sweetyboo203
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Cells: The Living Units - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    what is the importance of the glycocalyx in cell interactions?

    • A.

      The relative concentration of the substance in different areas determines the direction of diffusion

    • B.

      Diffusion is driven by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • C.

      The sugar residues of the glycocalyx provide recognizable biological markers for the cells to recognize each other

    • D.

      The heart has desmasomes that secure cardiac cells together

    Correct Answer
    C. The sugar residues of the glycocalyx provide recognizable biological markers for the cells to recognize each other
    Explanation
    The glycocalyx plays a crucial role in cell interactions because the sugar residues present on its surface act as recognizable biological markers. These markers allow cells to identify and recognize each other, facilitating various cellular processes such as cell adhesion, cell signaling, and immune response. The glycocalyx helps ensure proper cell-cell communication and coordination, ultimately contributing to the overall functioning and organization of tissues and organs.

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  • 2. 

    which two types of cell junctions would you expect to find between muscle cells of the heart?

    • A.

      Diffusion is driven by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • B.

      Junction occures from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration

    • C.

      Meditated diffusion the difusing substance attatches to a membrane (protien) carrier that moves it across the membrane

    • D.

      The heart has desmasomes (anchoring junctions) that secure cardiac cells together as the heart works and gap junctions (communicating junctions) that allow ions to flow from cardiac cell to cardiac cell

    Correct Answer
    D. The heart has desmasomes (anchoring junctions) that secure cardiac cells together as the heart works and gap junctions (communicating junctions) that allow ions to flow from cardiac cell to cardiac cell
    Explanation
    The heart has desmosomes, which are anchoring junctions that secure cardiac cells together as the heart works. These junctions help maintain the structural integrity of the heart and prevent the cells from separating during contraction. Additionally, the heart has gap junctions, which are communicating junctions that allow ions to flow from one cardiac cell to another. This electrical coupling between cells allows for coordinated contraction of the heart muscle, ensuring efficient pumping of blood.

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  • 3. 

    What is the energy source for all types of diffusion?

    • A.

      Diffusion is driven by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • B.

      Diffusion is slowed by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • C.

      Diffusion is hydrolized by kinetic energy of the molecules

    • D.

      Diffusion is synthesized by kinetic energy of the molecules

    Correct Answer
    A. Diffusion is driven by kinetic energy of the molecules
    Explanation
    Diffusion is the process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This movement is driven by the kinetic energy of the molecules. As the molecules move randomly, they collide with each other and with the surrounding environment, causing them to spread out and distribute evenly. This kinetic energy provides the necessary force for the molecules to overcome any barriers and move freely, resulting in the process of diffusion. Therefore, the correct answer is that diffusion is driven by the kinetic energy of the molecules.

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  • 4. 

    what are the two types of facilitated diffusion and how do they differ?

    • A.

      Ionic and covalent bonding

    • B.

      The channel

    • C.

      In carrier

    • D.

      Open and closed gateways

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. The channel
    C. In carrier
    Explanation
    1. the channel- mediated diffusion, the diffusing substance moves through a membrane channel
    2. in carrier- mediated diffusion, the diffusing substance attaches to a membrane (protein) carrier that moves it across the membrane.

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  • 5. 

    what determines the direction of any diffusion process?

    • A.

      The relative concentration of the substance in different areas determines the direction of diffusion

    • B.

      Diffusion happens when the solute has a low water concentration

    • C.

      Diffusion occurs while you are sleeping

    • D.

      Diffusion occurs from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The relative concentration of the substance in different areas determines the direction of diffusion
    D. Diffusion occurs from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the relative concentration of the substance in different areas determines the direction of diffusion. Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This occurs because particles naturally move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated in order to achieve equilibrium. Therefore, the direction of diffusion is determined by the difference in concentration between two areas.

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  • 6. 

    what happens when the Na+ -k+ pump is phosphorylated, when k+ binds to the pump protein

    • A.

      Phosphorylation of the Na+ -K+ pump causes the pump protein to denature therefore it closes the pump and allows energy to be recycled

    • B.

      Cholesterol is taken in by receptor-mediated endocytosis

    • C.

      Diffusion of ions, mainly the diffusion of K+ from the cell through leakage channels, establishes the resting membrane potential

    • D.

      Phosphorylation of the Na+ -k+ pump causes the pump protein to change shape so that it "pumps" Na+ across the membrane. K+ binding to the pump protein triggers the release of phosphate and the pump protein returns to its original shape

    Correct Answer
    D. Phosphorylation of the Na+ -k+ pump causes the pump protein to change shape so that it "pumps" Na+ across the membrane. K+ binding to the pump protein triggers the release of phosphate and the pump protein returns to its original shape
    Explanation
    Phosphorylation of the Na+ -K+ pump causes a change in shape of the pump protein, enabling it to actively transport Na+ ions across the membrane. When K+ binds to the pump protein, it triggers the release of the phosphate group, allowing the pump protein to return to its original shape. This process is essential for the proper functioning of the Na+ -K+ pump in maintaining the concentration gradients of Na+ and K+ ions across the cell membrane.

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  • 7. 

    what process establishes the resting membrane potential?

    • A.

      Cholesterol is taken in by receptor-mediated endocytosis

    • B.

      Diffusion of ions, maily the diffusion of K+ from the cell through leakage channels, establishes the resting membrane potential

    • C.

      The plasma membrane expands as a result of exocytosis

    • D.

      Phagocity cells engulfing debris

    Correct Answer
    B. Diffusion of ions, maily the diffusion of K+ from the cell through leakage channels, establishes the resting membrane potential
    Explanation
    The resting membrane potential is established through the diffusion of ions, mainly the diffusion of K+ from the cell through leakage channels. This process involves the movement of K+ ions down their concentration gradient, resulting in a negative charge inside the cell and a positive charge outside the cell. This creates an electrical potential across the cell membrane, known as the resting membrane potential, which is essential for various cellular processes such as nerve conduction and muscle contraction.

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  • 8. 

    which vascular transport process allows a cell to take in cholesterol from the extracellular fluid?

    • A.

      Liglands

    • B.

      The plasma membrane expands as a result of exocytosis

    • C.

      Cholesterol is taken in by receptor-mediated endycytosis

    • D.

      The nucleoli

    Correct Answer
    C. Cholesterol is taken in by receptor-mediated endycytosis
    Explanation
    Cholesterol is taken in by receptor-mediated endocytosis. This process involves the binding of cholesterol to specific receptors on the cell surface. The receptors then form a vesicle around the cholesterol and bring it into the cell. This allows the cell to take in cholesterol from the extracellular fluid and regulate its levels within the cell.

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  • 9. 

    as a cell grows, it's plasma membrane expands. does this membrane expansion involve endocytosis or exocytosis?

    Correct Answer
    exocytosis
    Explanation
    As a cell grows, its plasma membrane expands. This expansion involves exocytosis, which is the process of releasing molecules or particles from inside the cell to the outside. In this case, the cell is adding more membrane material to its surface, allowing it to grow and accommodate its increased size.

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  • 10. 

    is the inside of teh plasma membrane negative or positive relative to its outside in a polarized membrane?

    Correct Answer
    negative
    Explanation
    The inside of the plasma membrane is negative relative to its outside in a polarized membrane because of the presence of negatively charged molecules, such as proteins and phospholipids, on the inner surface of the membrane. These negatively charged molecules attract positively charged ions, such as potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+), causing an imbalance of charges across the membrane. This difference in charge creates an electrical potential across the membrane, with the inside being negative and the outside being positive.

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  • 11. 

    phagocytic cells gather in the lungs, particularly in the lungs of smokers. what is the connection?

    Correct Answer
    engulf debris
    Explanation
    phagocity cells engulf debris, and a smokers lungs would be laden with carbon particles and other debris from smoke inhalation.

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  • 12. 

    what term is used to indicate signaling chemicals the bind to membrane receptors?which type of membrane receptor is more important in directing intracellular events by promoting formation of second messengers? 

    • A.

      Liglands

    • B.

      R protien

    • C.

      G protien

    • D.

      Metabolism

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Liglands
    C. G protien
    Explanation
    1. signaling chemicals taht bind to membrane receptors are called liglands.
    2. G protein linked receptors direct intracellular events by promoting formation of second messengers

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  • 13. 

    which organelle is the major site of ATP synthesis?

    Correct Answer(s)
    mitochondria
    Explanation
    The mitochondria is the major site of ATP synthesis. This organelle is responsible for producing ATP through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Within the mitochondria, electrons are transferred through a series of protein complexes, generating a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This gradient is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP. Therefore, the mitochondria plays a crucial role in cellular energy production and is often referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell.

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  • 14. 

    what are three organells involved in protein synthesis?

    • A.

      Rough er

    • B.

      Bibosome

    • C.

      Gogli aparatus

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      Only two of these, one is missing

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    the ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. the rough er provides a site for bibosome attatchment and its cisterns package in vesicles the proteins made on the ribosomes for transport to the Golgi apparatus. the Golgi apparatus modifies and packages the proteins it receives for various destinations with in or outside the cell.

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  • 15. 

    how are microtubules and microfilaments related functionally?

    • A.

      They maintain cell shape

    • B.

      They are involved in organelle movements with in the cell and/or movements of the cell as a whole

    • C.

      They increase the cells surface area for absorption

    • D.

      They both vacation in Hawaii annually

    Correct Answer
    B. They are involved in organelle movements with in the cell and/or movements of the cell as a whole
    Explanation
    Microtubules and microfilaments are both components of the cytoskeleton, which provides structural support to the cell. They are involved in various cellular processes, including organelle movements within the cell and the overall movements of the cell itself. Microtubules are responsible for the movement of organelles such as vesicles and chromosomes, while microfilaments play a role in cell migration and contraction. Therefore, the correct answer is that microtubules and microfilaments are functionally related to organelle movements within the cell and/or movements of the cell as a whole.

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  • 16. 

    of microfilaments, microtubles, or intermediate filaments, which is most important in maintaining cell shape?

    • A.

      Microtubles

    • B.

      Microfilaments

    • C.

      Intermediate filaments

    • D.

      None of them are more important than the other two.

    Correct Answer
    C. Intermediate filaments
    Explanation
    intermediate filaments are the most important cytoskeletal elements in maintaining cell shape.

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  • 17. 

    if a cell ejects or looses it's nucleus, what is its fate and why?

    • A.

      It free floats through the body

    • B.

      It is doomed to die

    • C.

      It will be unable to make proteins

    • D.

      It will remain inactive until a protein picks it up and moves it to the right location

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. It is doomed to die
    C. It will be unable to make proteins
    Explanation
    proteins include the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions

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  • 18. 

    what is the role of the nuceoli?

    • A.

      They provide the means to pack DNA in a compact orderly way

    • B.

      Regulation and balance

    • C.

      Nuceoli are the site of synthesis of ribosomal subunits

    • D.

      Growth

    Correct Answer
    C. Nuceoli are the site of synthesis of ribosomal subunits
    Explanation
    The nucleoli are responsible for the synthesis of ribosomal subunits. Ribosomes are essential cellular structures involved in protein synthesis. The nucleoli play a crucial role in assembling the components necessary for ribosome formation, including ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins. These components are then transported out of the nucleoli to other parts of the cell, where they combine to form functional ribosomes. Therefore, the nucleoli are involved in the production of ribosomes, which are essential for protein synthesis and cellular growth.

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  • 19. 

    what are the events occuring in prophase that are undone in telophase?

    • A.

      Nucleoli disappear

    • B.

      Spindle forms

    • C.

      Coil forms

    • D.

      Nuclear envelop breaks up

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Nucleoli disappear
    B. Spindle forms
    D. Nuclear envelop breaks up
    Explanation
    During prophase, the nucleoli disappear as they are dispersed throughout the nucleus. The spindle forms, which consists of microtubules that help separate the chromosomes. Additionally, the nuclear envelope breaks up, allowing the spindle to interact with the chromosomes. In telophase, these events are undone as the nucleoli reappear, the spindle disassembles, and the nuclear envelope reforms around the separated chromosomes.

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  • 20. 

    durring what phase of the cell cycle is DNA synthasized?

    • A.

      S Phase

    • B.

      G Phase

    • C.

      G2 Phase

    • D.

      S2 Phase

    Correct Answer
    A. S Phase
    Explanation
    During the S phase of the cell cycle, DNA synthesis occurs. This phase is also known as the synthesis phase. In this phase, the cell replicates its DNA in preparation for cell division. The DNA is duplicated to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is crucial for cell growth and development. The other phases mentioned, G phase, G2 phase, and S2 phase, do not involve DNA synthesis.

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  • 21. 

    if one of the DNA strands being replicated "reads" CGAATG, what will be the base sequence of the corresponding DNA strand?

    • A.

      TTACGG

    • B.

      AATGCG

    • C.

      GCTTAC

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. GCTTAC
    Explanation
    The base sequence of the corresponding DNA strand can be determined by using the complementary base pairing rule. In DNA, adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G). Therefore, the base sequence of the corresponding DNA strand to CGAATG would be GCTTAC, as each base is paired with its complementary base.

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  • 22. 

    what is the importance of the histone proteins present in the nucleus

    • A.

      They give coded instructions for protein synthesis

    • B.

      They make an entry site for TRNA at the ribosmoe

    • C.

      Provide the means to pack DNA in a compact orderly way

    • D.

      Play a role in gene regulation

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Provide the means to pack DNA in a compact orderly way
    D. Play a role in gene regulation
    Explanation
    Histone proteins are important because they provide the means to pack DNA in a compact and orderly way. They help to organize DNA into a structure called chromatin, which allows for efficient storage and transmission of genetic information. Additionally, histones play a crucial role in gene regulation. They can modify the accessibility of DNA, determining whether certain genes are turned on or off. This regulation is essential for controlling gene expression and ensuring that the right genes are activated at the right time in different cell types and developmental stages.

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  • 23. 

    what is the role of DNA in transcription?

    • A.

      It attatches to misfolded, damaged or unneeded proteins tagging them for destruction

    • B.

      DNA provides the coded instructions (is the template) for protein synthesis. Via the mRNA synthesized on it

    • C.

      It tranesports nutrients, gasses, horomones and other substances through out the body

    • D.

      It is a process of programed cell death

    Correct Answer
    B. DNA provides the coded instructions (is the template) for protein synthesis. Via the mRNA synthesized on it
    Explanation
    DNA plays a crucial role in transcription by providing the instructions for protein synthesis. During transcription, the DNA molecule acts as a template for the synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. This process allows for the accurate transfer of genetic information from the DNA to the proteins, which are essential for various cellular functions.

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  • 24. 

    what are two body fluids that inhabit the extracellular space?

    • A.

      Blood plasma

    • B.

      Intersigital fluid

    • C.

      Ubiquiting

    • D.

      Apoptosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Blood plasma
    B. Intersigital fluid
    Explanation
    1.) blood plasma is extracellular fluid that transports nutrients, gasses, hormones and other substances through out the body.
    2.) intersigital fluid is an important transport and dissolving medium

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  • 25. 

    what is the importance of ubiquitin in the life of a cell?

    • A.

      It is a process of programed cell death

    • B.

      It includes structures and functions common to all cells

    • C.

      It attaches to miss-folded damaged, or unneeded proteins, tagging them for destruction by proteasomes.

    • D.

      It provides the coded instructions (is the template) for protein synthesis

    Correct Answer
    C. It attaches to miss-folded damaged, or unneeded proteins, tagging them for destruction by proteasomes.
    Explanation
    Ubiquitin is a small protein that plays a crucial role in protein degradation within a cell. It attaches to misfolded, damaged, or unneeded proteins, marking them for destruction by proteasomes. This process helps maintain cellular homeostasis by eliminating abnormal or unnecessary proteins.

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  • 26. 

    what is the wear and tear theory of aging?

    • A.

      Attributes aging to little chemical insults

    • B.

      Free radicals which have cumulative detrimental effects

    • C.

      Negative feedback mechanism

    • D.

      If you work to hard, your face will wrinkle more than it normally would have if you would have relaxed more in life.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Attributes aging to little chemical insults
    B. Free radicals which have cumulative detrimental effects
    Explanation
    The wear and tear theory of aging suggests that aging is caused by the accumulation of small chemical insults and free radicals in the body over time. These insults and free radicals have cumulative detrimental effects on the body, leading to the aging process. This theory implies that the more exposure one has to these insults and free radicals, the faster the aging process will occur. It does not mention any negative feedback mechanism or the impact of working too hard on the wrinkling of the face.

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  • 27. 

    which of the following is true concerning the meaning of a "generalized cell"?

    • A.

      It is the cell concept that includes structures and functions common to all cells

    • B.

      Cells are generally located all over the body

    Correct Answer
    A. It is the cell concept that includes structures and functions common to all cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that a "generalized cell" refers to the concept of a cell that includes structures and functions that are common to all cells. This means that it represents the basic characteristics and features that are shared by all types of cells, regardless of their specific functions or locations in the body.

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  • 28. 

    what is apoptosis and what is its importance in the body?

    • A.

      It attaches to miss-folded, damaged or unneeded proteins

    • B.

      It tags them for destruction by proteasomes

    • C.

      It is a process of programed cell death

    • D.

      It rids the body of cells that are stressed, damaged, old, or no longer needed.

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. It is a process of programed cell death
    D. It rids the body of cells that are stressed, damaged, old, or no longer needed.
    Explanation
    Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that plays a crucial role in the body. It is responsible for eliminating cells that are stressed, damaged, old, or no longer needed. The process involves attaching to misfolded, damaged, or unneeded proteins and tagging them for destruction by proteasomes. This helps maintain the overall health and functionality of the body by getting rid of dysfunctional or unnecessary cells.

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  • 29. 

    what basic structure do all cellular membranes share?

    • A.

      They consist of a single layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded

    • B.

      They consist of a double layer of phospholipids for which proteins are created

    • C.

      None of these

    • D.

      They consist of a double layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded

    Correct Answer
    D. They consist of a double layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded
    Explanation
    All cellular membranes share a basic structure consisting of a double layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded. This structure, known as the phospholipid bilayer, forms the foundation of all cell membranes. The phospholipids arrange themselves in a bilayer with their hydrophobic tails facing inward and their hydrophilic heads facing outward, creating a barrier that separates the internal and external environments of the cell. Proteins are embedded within this phospholipid bilayer, serving various functions such as transport, signaling, and structural support. This shared structure is fundamental to the integrity and functionality of cellular membranes.

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  • 30. 

    the ____ is the structural and functional unit of life

    Correct Answer
    cell
    Explanation
    The cell is considered the structural and functional unit of life because it is the smallest unit of life that can carry out all the necessary functions for an organism to survive. Cells are responsible for performing various tasks such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and responding to stimuli. They are also capable of self-regulation and maintaining homeostasis. Additionally, cells can differentiate into specialized types to perform specific functions in multicellular organisms. Overall, the cell is the fundamental building block of life and is essential for the existence and functioning of all living organisms.

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  • 31. 

    the activity of an _______ depends on the activities of its cells.

    Correct Answer
    organism
    Explanation
    The question states that the activity of an organism depends on the activities of its cells. This suggests that the cells within an organism are responsible for carrying out various functions and processes that contribute to the overall activity of the organism. Without the functioning and coordination of its cells, an organism would not be able to perform essential tasks such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli. Therefore, the correct answer is "organism" as it encompasses the concept of the collective activity of cells within a living entity.

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  • 32. 

    the activities of cells depend on their _____ and _______ ________ of subcellular structures.

    Correct Answer
    form
    relative numbers
    Explanation
    The activities of cells depend on their form and relative numbers of subcellular structures. The form of a cell refers to its shape and structure, which can determine its function and ability to carry out specific activities. The relative numbers of subcellular structures refer to the abundance or scarcity of different organelles within the cell, which can also influence its activities. Both form and relative numbers play crucial roles in determining how cells function and interact with their environment.

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  • 33. 

    ________ of life, has a cellular basis.

    Correct Answer
    continuity
    Explanation
    Continuity of life refers to the uninterrupted existence and progression of living organisms. This concept implies that life is not a series of separate events but rather a continuous process. The statement "has a cellular basis" further supports this idea by emphasizing that life is sustained and maintained through the functioning of cells. Cells are the fundamental units of life and carry out essential processes such as metabolism, growth, and reproduction. Therefore, the correct answer, continuity, implies that life is an ongoing and interconnected phenomenon that depends on the continuous activity of cells.

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  • 34. 

    why do phospholipids, which form the greater part of membranes, organize into a bilayer tail-to-tailin a watery environment?

    • A.

      Hydrophobic regions (heads of phospholipids) orient away from each other

    • B.

      Hydrophobic regions (tails of phospholipids) orient toward each other

    • C.

      Hydrophilic regions (phospholipid heads) orient to the aqueous fluid inside and outside the cell

    • D.

      Hydrophilic regions (phospholipid tails) orient to the aqueous fluid outside and inside the cell

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Hydrophobic regions (tails of phospholipids) orient toward each other
    C. Hydrophilic regions (phospholipid heads) orient to the aqueous fluid inside and outside the cell
    Explanation
    Phospholipids, which are the main components of membranes, form a bilayer tail-to-tail in a watery environment because of their structure. Phospholipids have hydrophobic regions (tails) and hydrophilic regions (heads). In a watery environment, the hydrophobic tails orient towards each other to avoid contact with water, which is a polar molecule. This arrangement allows the hydrophilic heads to face the aqueous fluid inside and outside the cell, creating a stable and protective barrier.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 18, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Sweetyboo203
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