Biology 101-09 Practice Questions

80 Questions | Total Attempts: 1322

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Purdue University Calumet Biology 101-09 Practice Final Exam Questions


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A major function of the mitochondrial inner membrane is the conversion of energy from electrons to the stored energy of the phosphate bond in ATP. To accomplish this function, this membrane must have all of the following features except
    • A. 

      Proteins to accept electrons from NADH

    • B. 

      The electron transport chain of proteins.

    • C. 

      High permeability to protons

    • D. 

      Proton pumps embedded in the membrane

    • E. 

      Integral, transverse ATP synthase

  • 2. 
    In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from
    • A. 

      The stroma into the thylakoid compartment

    • B. 

      The light reactions to the Calvin cycle

    • C. 

      The matrix to the stroma

    • D. 

      The stroma to the chlorophyll

    • E. 

      The intermembrane space to the matrix

  • 3. 
    The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law?
    • A. 

      The energy content of an organism is constant

    • B. 

      Organisms are unable to transform energy

    • C. 

      Life does not obey the first law of thermodynamics

    • D. 

      The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity

    • E. 

      The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment

  • 4. 
    Consider the following: Succinic acid dehydrogenase catalyzes the reaction of succinic acid to fumaric acid. The reaction is inhibited by malonic acid, which resembles succinic acid by cannot be catalyzed by succinic dehydrogenase. Increasing the ratio of succinic acid to malonic acid reduces the inhibitory effect of malonic acid. Which of the following is correct?
    • A. 

      Succinic acid dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and fumaric acid is the substrate

    • B. 

      Fumaric acid is the product and malonic acid is a non competitive inhibitor

    • C. 

      Succinic acid dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and malonic acid is the substrate

    • D. 

      Malonic acid is the product, and fumaric acid is a competitive inhibitor

    • E. 

      Succinic acid is the substrate, and fumaric acid is the product

  • 5. 
    The next questions are based on the following information. A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X→Y→Z→A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.Substance A functions as
    • A. 

      A coenzyme

    • B. 

      An intermediate

    • C. 

      A competitive inhibitor

    • D. 

      The substrate

    • E. 

      An allosteric inhibitor

  • 6. 
    Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be
    • A. 

      To test for CO2 fixation in the dark

    • B. 

      To determine if they have thylakoids in the chloroplasts

    • C. 

      To test for production of either sucrose or starch

    • D. 

      To test for liberation of O2 in the light

    • E. 

      To do experiments to generate an action spectrum

  • 7. 
    Use the following information to answer the question below. Thomas Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments to algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.An outcome of this experiment was to help determine
    • A. 

      The relationship between heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms

    • B. 

      The relationship between wavelengths of light and the rate of aerobic respiration

    • C. 

      The relationship between the concentration of carbon dioxide and the rate of photosynthesis

    • D. 

      The relationship between wavelengths of light and the oxygen released during photosynthesis

    • E. 

      The relationship between wavelengths of light and the amount of heat released

  • 8. 
    Correct statements regarding ATP includeI. ATP serves as a main energy shuttle inside cells.II. ATP drives endergonic reaction in the cell by the enzymatic transfer of the phosphate group to specific reactants.III. The regeneration of ATP from ADP and phosphate is an endergonic reaction
    • A. 

      I only

    • B. 

      II only

    • C. 

      III only

    • D. 

      I and III only

    • E. 

      I, II, and III

  • 9. 
    Because bundle-sheath cells are relatively protected from atmospheric oxygen, the level of __________ is held to a minimum in C4 plants.
    • A. 

      Photosynthesis

    • B. 

      Photorespiration

    • C. 

      Glycolysis

    • D. 

      Decarboxylation of malic acid

    • E. 

      Oxidative phosphorylation

  • 10. 
    The question below is based on the stages of glucose oxidation listed below.A. stage I: glycolysisB. stage II: oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoAC. stage III: Krebs cycleD. stage IV: oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)Carbon dioxide is release during which stage(s)?
    • A. 

      Stage III only

    • B. 

      Stages III and IV

    • C. 

      Stages I, II, and III

    • D. 

      Stages II and III

    • E. 

      Stages II, III, and IV

  • 11. 
    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?
    • A. 

      Fermentation and glycolysis

    • B. 

      Glycolysis and the oxidation of pyrubate to acetyl CoA

    • C. 

      The citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

    • D. 

      Oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

    • E. 

      Oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation

  • 12. 
    Which of the following statements regarding events in the functioning of photosystem II is false?
    • A. 

      The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water

    • B. 

      The excitation is pased along to a molecule of P680 chlorophyll in the photosynthetic unit

    • C. 

      The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+

    • D. 

      Light energy excites electrons in an antenna pigment in a photosynthetic unit

    • E. 

      The splitting of water yields molecular oxygen as a by-product

  • 13. 
    CAM plants can keep stomates closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they
    • A. 

      Use the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which outcompetes rubisco for CO2

    • B. 

      Fix CO2 into organic acids during the night

    • C. 

      Fix CO2 into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells

    • D. 

      Use photosystems I and II at night

    • E. 

      Fix CO2 into pyruvic acid in the mesophyll cells

  • 14. 
    A young relative of yours has never had much energy. He goes to a doctor for help and is sent to the hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanation of his condition>
    • A. 

      His cells contain something that inhibits oxygen use in his mitochondria

    • B. 

      His cells cannot move NADH from glycolysis into the mitochondria

    • C. 

      His cells have a defective electron transport chain, so glucose goes to lactate instead of to acetyl CoA

    • D. 

      His cells lack the enzyme in glycolysis that forms pyruvate

    • E. 

      His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane

  • 15. 
    The electron transport chain energy is used to pump H+ ions into which location?
    • A. 

      Cytosol

    • B. 

      Mitochondrial outer membrane

    • C. 

      Mitochondrial inner membrane

    • D. 

      Mitochondrial intermembrance space

    • E. 

      Mitochondrial matrix

  • 16. 
    Chemical equilibrium is relatively rare in living cells. Which of the following could be an example of a reaction at chemical equilibrium in a cell?
    • A. 

      A chemical reaction in which both the reactants and products are only used in a metabolic pathway that is completely inactive

    • B. 

      An endergonic reaction in a active metabolic pathway where the energy for that reaction is supplied only by heat from the environment

    • C. 

      A chemical reaction in which the entropy change in the reaction is just balanced by an opposite entropy change in the cell's surroundings

    • D. 

      A reaction in which the free energy at equilibrium is higher than the energy content at any point away from equilibrium

    • E. 

      There is no possibility of having chemical equilibrium in any living cell

  • 17. 
    All of the following statements are true except:
    • A. 

      Thylakoid membranes contain the photosynthetic pigments

    • B. 

      The O2 released during photosynthesis comes from water

    • C. 

      Glyceraldehyde phosphate is produced only in the light reactions of photosynthesis

    • D. 

      When chlorophyll is reduced, it gains electrons

    • E. 

      The light reactions of photosynthesis provide the energy for the Calvin cycle

  • 18. 
    Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?
    • A. 

      The reduction of NADP+

    • B. 

      The synthesis of ATP

    • C. 

      The flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I

    • D. 

      The splitting of water

    • E. 

      The absorption of light energy by chlorophyll

  • 19. 
    All of the following statements are representative of the second law of thermodynamics except
    • A. 

      Systems tend to rearrange themselves toward greater entropy

    • B. 

      Every time energy changes form, there is a decrease in entropy

    • C. 

      Highly organized systems require energy for their maintenance

    • D. 

      Energy transfers are always accompanied by some loss

    • E. 

      Heat energy represents lost energy to most systems

  • 20. 
    All of the following statements are correct regarding the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis except:
    • A. 

      One of the end products is glyceraldehyde phosphate

    • B. 

      The 5-carbon sugar RuBP is constantly being regenerated

    • C. 

      These reactions begin soon after sundown and end before sunrise

    • D. 

      The energy source utilized is the ATP and NADPH obtained through the light reaction

  • 21. 
    A new flower species has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are not being absorbed by this pigment?
    • A. 

      Green and yellow

    • B. 

      Blue, green, and red

    • C. 

      Blue and violet

    • D. 

      Red and yellow

    • E. 

      Green, blue and violet

  • 22. 
    During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?
    • A. 

      Food→NADH→electron transport chain→oxygen

    • B. 

      Food→Krebs cycle→ATP→NAD+

    • C. 

      Food→glycolysis→Krebs cycle→NADH→ATP

    • D. 

      Glucose→ATP→oxygen

    • E. 

      Glucose→ATP→electron transport chain→NADH

  • 23. 
    ATP is often an allosteric inhibitor of key enzymes in catabolic pathways. Which of the following statements in inconsistent with the role of ATP?
    • A. 

      When ATP Levels are low in the cell, there is no inhibition of the catabolic pathway and ATP production is at a maximum

    • B. 

      Increasing availability of ATP increases the energy available to drive endergonic reactions

    • C. 

      When ATP levels are high in the cell, it is an indication that energy supply from catabolic reactions exceeds energy demand by anabolic reactions

    • D. 

      The binding of ATP to allosteric sites on enzymes of the catabolic pathway decreases the production of ATP by the pathway.

    • E. 

      ATP couples energy prodcution in catabolic pathways to energy demand in anabolic pathways.

  • 24. 
    Muscle cells in oxygen deprivation convert pyruvate to ________ and in this step gain
    • A. 

      Lactate...ATP

    • B. 

      Alcohol...ATP

    • C. 

      Lactate...NAD+

    • D. 

      Alcohol...CO2

    • E. 

      ATP...NAD+

  • 25. 
    Which of the following is true regarding catabolic pathways?
    • A. 

      They lead to the synthesis of catabolic compounds

    • B. 

      They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers

    • C. 

      They release energy as the degrade polymers to monomers

    • D. 

      They do not depend on enzymes

    • E. 

      Both A and B are correct

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