# Earth & Gravity Unit 1 Test Review Test 9/26

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• 1.

### Scientists do many types of work.  Their work often includes making field observations, conducting surveys, creating models, and carrying out experiments.  Which description characterizes an experiment?

• A.

Observation of plants or animals in their natural environment

• B.

Physical or mathematical representation of an object or process

• C.

An organized procedure to study something under controlled conditions

• D.

Collection of data from the unregulated world for comparative purposes

C. An organized procedure to study something under controlled conditions
Explanation
An experiment is an organized procedure to study something under controlled conditions. This involves manipulating variables and observing the effects in order to establish cause-and-effect relationships. It is different from other types of work mentioned in the question, such as field observations, surveys, and creating models, as it specifically involves controlling conditions to isolate and study specific factors.

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• 2.

### Raul wants to investigate how the angle of a ramp affects the speed of an object rolling down the ramp.  He can conduct his investigation in a number of different ways.  Which investigation should he perform?

• A.

Observe different bicylists riding down hills of varying steepness

• B.

Perform an experiment in a lab in which the angle of the ramp is controlled and the speed of a rolling cart is measured

• C.

Record the time it takes one bicyclist ot ride down hills of varying

• D.

Observe video of various objects rolling down hills and estimate the angle of the hill and the speed of the object.

B. Perform an experiment in a lab in which the angle of the ramp is controlled and the speed of a rolling cart is measured
Explanation
Performing an experiment in a lab in which the angle of the ramp is controlled and the speed of a rolling cart is measured would be the most appropriate investigation for Raul. This method allows for controlled variables and precise measurements, which would provide more accurate and reliable data for analyzing the relationship between the angle of the ramp and the speed of the object. The other options involve observing or estimating data, which may introduce more variability and potential inaccuracies in the results.

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• 3.

### Lida fills two balloons with the same amount of air.  Balloon 1 remains at room temperature.  Lida places balloon 2 in the freezer.  Balloon 2 (the one that went in the freezer) got smaller.  Which statement is a law that describes the results of Lida's balloon experiment?

• A.

Decreasing the amount of a gas decreases its temperature.

• B.

The volume of a gas increases when the temperature decreases

• C.

The volume of a gas decreases when the temperature descreases

• D.

Decreasing temperature decreases the volume of a gas because the molecules slow down

D. Decreasing temperature decreases the volume of a gas because the molecules slow down
Explanation
When the temperature decreases, the molecules in a gas slow down, resulting in a decrease in volume. This is known as Charles's Law, which states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature, assuming that pressure and amount of gas remain constant. As the temperature decreases, the gas molecules have less kinetic energy and move slower, causing them to occupy less space and the volume to decrease.

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• 4.

### Raul made a list of activites that are scientific and activites that are not scientific.  Which actvity should Raul classify as not scientific?

• A.

Sorting rocks by color and size

• B.

Measureing the height of a plant every day

• C.

Climbing to the top of a very tall mountain

• D.

Making notes about how many hours the sun shines each day

C. Climbing to the top of a very tall mountain
Explanation
Climbing to the top of a very tall mountain should be classified as not scientific because it does not involve any systematic observation, experimentation, or analysis to gather data or test a hypothesis. It is more of a physical activity or adventure rather than a scientific investigation.

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• 5.

### Bryce observes that the sun always rises in the east.  He talks with others and finds that everyone has the same observation.  Which statement is a scientific law? (remember a scientific law is a describption of what happens not a reason or explanation)

• A.

If the sun appears in the east, then I am in the Western Hemisphere

• B.

Why does the sun rise in the east?

• C.

The sun appears in the east because of Earth's rotation pattern

• D.

The sun rises in the east

D. The sun rises in the east
Explanation
A scientific law is a statement that describes a natural phenomenon or event that has been observed to occur consistently. In this case, the statement "The sun rises in the east" is a scientific law because it describes the consistent observation that the sun always appears to rise in the east. It does not provide a reason or explanation for why this happens, but simply states the observed pattern.

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• 6.

### Scientists use different types of tools to investigate how and why things happen.  Here are some examples of these tools. A diagram of a food chain in the EvergladesA plastic replica of the human diegestive systema mathematical equation for finding the speed of an objectWhich word describes all of these examples

• A.

Models

• B.

Experiments

• C.

Observations

• D.

Hypothesis

A. Models
Explanation
The word "models" describes all of these examples because they are all representations or simulations of something. A diagram of a food chain, a plastic replica of the human digestive system, and a mathematical equation are all tools that scientists use to create models that help them understand and explain how and why things happen. These models can be used to make predictions, test hypotheses, and analyze data.

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• 7.

### Three different lab groups perform experiments to determine the density of the samples of iron.  They have all rounded the density to the nearest whole number.  Density = mass / volumegroup     Mass of iron (g)     Volume of iron (cm3)     Denisty of rion (g/cm3)1                   32                                4                                   82                   48                                6                                   83                     ?                                5                                   8What is the mass of iron for group 3?

• A.

5 g

• B.

8 g

• C.

64 g

• D.

40 g

D. 40 g
Explanation
The density of iron is calculated by dividing the mass of iron by its volume. In this case, the density is rounded to the nearest whole number. The density for group 3 is given as 6 g/cm3. To find the mass of iron for group 3, we can rearrange the density formula to solve for mass: mass = density x volume. Plugging in the values, we get mass = 6 g/cm3 x 8 cm3 = 48 g. However, since the density is rounded to the nearest whole number, the mass is also rounded to the nearest whole number, which gives us the answer of 40 g.

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• 8.

### Shelby wants to make sure she understands the components of a good scientific investigation.  She knows that it should be controlled and have a large sample size.  Also, she thinks that the results should be commmunicated to other scientists.  Which is another component that is necessary for a good investigation?

• A.

It must be conducted in a big lab

• B.

It must be run by a university scientist

• C.

It must be able to be replicated by other scientists

• D.

It must be done with expensive equipment

C. It must be able to be replicated by other scientists
Explanation
A good scientific investigation must be able to be replicated by other scientists. This means that the methods and procedures used in the investigation should be clearly described and detailed so that other researchers can follow and replicate the study to obtain similar results. Replication is an important aspect of scientific research as it helps to validate the findings and ensure that they are reliable and accurate. It also allows for further exploration and verification of the results, contributing to the overall body of scientific knowledge.

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• 9.

### A friend who knows a lot about science reads in a book that a piece of black paper will get warmer in sunlight than a piece of white paper.  Which of these is a scientific reaction to this information?

• A.

• B.

Design an experiment to show whether the statement is correct or incorrect.

• C.

Believe the statement because it is written ina book, so you can trust it to be true.

• D.

Tell your friend that the statement makes no sense because color does not affect temperature.

B. Design an experiment to show whether the statement is correct or incorrect.
Explanation
The correct answer is to design an experiment to show whether the statement is correct or incorrect. This is a scientific reaction because it involves testing the validity of the statement through empirical evidence. It demonstrates critical thinking and the application of the scientific method to verify or refute the claim made in the book.

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• 10.

### Bronson Tells Travis his theory about why sea turtles nest on the beach instead of in the ocean.  he says "The turtle eggs would sink to the bottom of the ocean, and the baby turtles would drown."  Bronson says his uncle, a fisherman, told Bronson this information.  Travis tells Bronson that his theory is not scientific.  Why does Bronson's idea not meet the requirements to be a scientific theory?

• A.

Bronson's idea is aleady a scientific law.

• B.

Bronson's idea is not supported by scientific evidence.

• C.

Bronson's idea is a good guess that can be tested by experiments.

• D.

Bronson and his uncle are not scientists.

B. Bronson's idea is not supported by scientific evidence.
Explanation
Bronson's idea does not meet the requirements to be a scientific theory because it lacks scientific evidence. A scientific theory is based on empirical evidence and is supported by observations, experiments, and data. However, Bronson's idea is only based on what his uncle, a fisherman, told him, which does not qualify as scientific evidence. Therefore, his idea cannot be considered a scientific theory.

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• 11.

### Universtiy of Miami scientists developed a new type of wound dressing that keeps bacteria out of the wound.  What is a conclusion that you can make from this information?

• A.

Scientific discoverises always lead to new technologies.

• B.

Scientists often respond ot the needs in our society.

• C.

• D.

Scientists may make discoveries that have no impact on society.

B. Scientists often respond ot the needs in our society.
Explanation
The conclusion that can be made from the information provided is that scientists often respond to the needs in our society. This is evident from the fact that the scientists at the University of Miami developed a new type of wound dressing that addresses the problem of bacterial infection in wounds. This shows that they recognized the need for a solution to this problem and took action to develop a new technology to meet that need.

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• 12.

### Which would be a good source of information

• A.

A publiciation that is 15 years old

• B.

A scientist who is trying to sell a new acne cream

• C.

• D.

A place that depends on its reputation - like a university site

D. A place that depends on its reputation - like a university site
Explanation
A university site would be a good source of information because universities are known for their credibility and expertise in various fields. They have a reputation for conducting rigorous research and providing reliable information. Therefore, a university site can be trusted to provide accurate and trustworthy information on a wide range of topics.

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• 13.

### Scientists that make contributions to scientific knowledge come from ...

• A.

Universities

• B.

Government agencies

• C.

All kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interest, and goals.

• D.

Only people who take a lot of science classes

C. All kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interest, and goals.
Explanation
Scientists that make contributions to scientific knowledge come from all kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interests, and goals. This means that they can come from universities, government agencies, or any other background as long as they have the necessary skills and passion for scientific research. It is not limited to only people who take a lot of science classes, as there are many different paths to becoming a scientist.

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• 14.

### Scientists have to be creative in ...

• A.

Designing experiments

• B.

Explaining observations

• C.

Making up good stories to support their data

• D.

Both a and b

D. Both a and b
Explanation
Scientists have to be creative in designing experiments because they need to come up with innovative ways to test their hypotheses and gather data. They have to think outside the box and devise methods that can accurately measure and analyze the variables they are studying. Additionally, scientists also have to be creative in explaining observations, as they often encounter unexpected results or phenomena that require them to think critically and develop new theories or explanations. Therefore, the correct answer is both a and b.

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• 15.

### Science is different from other forms of studies because

• A.

They study the natural world and testable ideas

• B.

They do experiments

• C.

There is a lot of reading involved

• D.

Only certain people can be scientists

A. They study the natural world and testable ideas
Explanation
Science is different from other forms of studies because it involves the study of the natural world and testable ideas. Unlike other forms of studies, science relies on empirical evidence and experimentation to understand and explain phenomena. This distinguishes it from fields that may rely more on theoretical or abstract concepts. While reading is certainly involved in science, it is not the defining characteristic that sets it apart. Additionally, science is not limited to a select group of individuals; anyone can engage in scientific inquiry and contribute to our understanding of the natural world.

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• 16.

### What are some types of scientific explanations?

• A.

Sales pitches

• B.

Unreplicated experiments

• C.

Theories, Models and Laws

• D.

Anything that you hear from a scientist who works at a university

C. Theories, Models and Laws
Explanation
The correct answer is Theories, Models and Laws. This is because theories, models, and laws are all types of scientific explanations that are based on evidence, observations, and experiments. Theories are broad explanations that explain a wide range of phenomena and are supported by a large body of evidence. Models are simplified representations of complex systems or processes that help scientists understand and make predictions. Laws are concise statements that describe a fundamental principle or relationship that has been repeatedly observed and verified through experiments. These types of scientific explanations are essential for understanding and advancing scientific knowledge.

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• 17.

### What is a scientific theory?

• A.

Any hunch that you have.

• B.

A well supported explanation about the natural world.

• C.

The basis for the metric system

• D.

It is similar to a hypothesis that has not been tested.

B. A well supported explanation about the natural world.
Explanation
A scientific theory is a well-supported explanation about the natural world. Unlike a hunch, it is based on extensive evidence and has been thoroughly tested and supported by multiple experiments and observations. It is different from a hypothesis, which is an educated guess that has not yet been tested. The metric system is unrelated to the concept of a scientific theory.

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• 18.

### Scientific laws are

• A.

A basic principle of nature that always occurs under certain conditions

• B.

Etternal and unchanging

• C.

The same as a law of society

• D.

Both a and b

D. Both a and b
Explanation
Scientific laws are a basic principle of nature that always occurs under certain conditions and are eternal and unchanging. This means that they are fundamental principles that describe how the natural world operates and are consistent throughout time. These laws are based on empirical evidence and have been repeatedly tested and verified. Therefore, scientific laws are both a basic principle of nature and are eternal and unchanging.

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• 19.

### The law of intertia, the law of gravity, the law of superpostion, and Boyle's law are all examples of

• A.

Scientific laws

• B.

Explain how solids react

• C.

Explain how liquids react

• D.

Models and theories

A. Scientific laws
Explanation
The given correct answer is "scientific laws". The law of inertia, the law of gravity, the law of superposition, and Boyle's law are all examples of scientific laws. Scientific laws are statements or principles that describe or predict a natural phenomenon, based on repeated observations and experiments. They are widely accepted and have been validated through empirical evidence. These laws provide a framework for understanding and explaining various phenomena in the natural world, and they form the foundation of scientific knowledge and understanding.

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• 20.

### A good scientific theory can

• A.

Be as good as a hunch

• B.

Be talked about by many people

• C.

Change and adapt with new information

• D.

Be used to support a thesis

C. Change and adapt with new information
Explanation
A good scientific theory should be able to change and adapt with new information. This is because science is a constantly evolving field, and new discoveries and evidence can challenge or modify existing theories. A theory that can adapt and incorporate new information shows that it is open to scrutiny and can be refined over time. This allows for the advancement of scientific knowledge and ensures that theories are based on the most accurate and up-to-date information available.

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• 21.

### Why should scientific experiments be replicated?

• A.

So other people can ride your coat tails

• B.

For more money

• C.

To validate the findings; give it more support

• D.

They should not be replicated

C. To validate the findings; give it more support
Explanation
Scientific experiments should be replicated to validate the findings and provide more support. Replication allows other researchers to independently verify the results, increasing the confidence in the findings. It helps to ensure that the results are not due to chance or specific conditions, but rather are reliable and consistent. Replication also allows for the identification of any potential errors or flaws in the original study, leading to a more robust and accurate understanding of the phenomenon being studied.

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• 22.

### What are some ways to confirm that an investigation is valid?

• A.

Peer review and replication

• B.

Checking for it in a publication

• C.

Checking the sell by date

• D.

Having others do the same expeirment

A. Peer review and replication
Explanation
Peer review and replication are important ways to confirm the validity of an investigation. Peer review involves having other experts in the field critically evaluate the research methods, data, and conclusions of the investigation. This helps to ensure that the study has been conducted properly and that the findings are reliable. Replication involves repeating the experiment or study using the same methods and procedures to see if the same results are obtained. This helps to establish the reliability and generalizability of the findings. Both peer review and replication are essential steps in the scientific process to ensure the validity of research.

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• 23.

### What is the first step of the scientific method?

• A.

Hypothesis

• B.

Research

• C.

Communicate results

• D.

Problem or questions

D. Problem or questions
Explanation
The first step of the scientific method is to identify the problem or questions that need to be addressed. This involves recognizing a specific issue or curiosity that requires investigation. By clearly defining the problem or questions, scientists can then proceed to formulate hypotheses, conduct research, and communicate their findings.

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• 24.

### What is the 2nd part of the scientific method?

• A.

Problem or question

• B.

Research

• C.

Hypothesis

• D.

Communicate results

B. Research
Explanation
The second part of the scientific method is research. After identifying a problem or question, the next step is to gather information and data related to the topic. This involves conducting background research, reviewing existing literature, and gathering relevant information from reliable sources. Research helps to establish a foundation of knowledge and understanding before formulating a hypothesis or making any conclusions. It allows scientists to explore the existing body of knowledge and build upon previous findings to develop new insights and theories.

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• 25.

### What is the 3rd part of the scientific method?

• A.

Hypothesis

• B.

Research

• C.

Plan and do an experiment

• D.

Analyze data

A. Hypothesis
Explanation
The third part of the scientific method is the hypothesis. In this step, a scientist formulates a testable explanation or prediction based on observations and research. The hypothesis serves as a proposed solution to the problem or question being investigated. It is an essential part of the scientific process as it guides the researcher in designing and conducting experiments to gather data and test the validity of the hypothesis.

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• 26.

### What is the 4th part of the scientific method?

• A.

Hypothesis

• B.

Research

• C.

Plan and do an expeirment

• D.

Analyze data

C. Plan and do an expeirment
Explanation
The 4th part of the scientific method is to plan and do an experiment. This step involves designing and carrying out an experiment to test the hypothesis formulated in the previous step. By planning and conducting an experiment, scientists can gather data and evidence to support or refute their hypothesis. This step is crucial in the scientific method as it allows for the collection of empirical evidence that can be analyzed and used to draw conclusions.

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• 27.

### What can scientists use to analyze their results?

• A.

Data tables

• B.

Bar graphs

• C.

Line graphs

• D.

All of them can be used

D. All of them can be used
Explanation
Scientists can use data tables, bar graphs, and line graphs to analyze their results. Data tables allow scientists to organize and compare their data in a structured format, making it easier to identify patterns and trends. Bar graphs are useful for visually representing categorical data and comparing different variables. Line graphs, on the other hand, are effective for showing changes over time or continuous data. By using all of these tools, scientists can gain a comprehensive understanding of their results and make accurate interpretations.

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• 28.

### What is the final step of the scientific method?

• A.

Conclusion / communicate results

• B.

• C.

Plan and do an experiment

• D.

Research

A. Conclusion / communicate results
Explanation
The final step of the scientific method is to draw a conclusion or communicate the results. After conducting an experiment and analyzing the data, scientists interpret the findings and determine whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted. This step involves summarizing the results, discussing their implications, and drawing logical conclusions based on the evidence gathered. Communicating the results is also important as it allows other scientists to review and replicate the study, contributing to the overall advancement of scientific knowledge.

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• 29.

### Check all of the things that have been improved in the past 100 years

• A.

Technology

• B.

Agriculture

• C.

Medicines

• D.

Famine and starvation

A. Technology
B. Agriculture
C. Medicines
Explanation
In the past 100 years, there have been significant improvements in technology, agriculture, and medicines. Technological advancements have revolutionized various industries, improving efficiency, communication, and overall quality of life. Agriculture has seen advancements in farming techniques, machinery, and crop yield, leading to increased food production and improved food security. The field of medicine has made tremendous progress with the development of new drugs, vaccines, and medical procedures, leading to better healthcare outcomes and increased life expectancy. These improvements have had a positive impact on society and have contributed to overall human development and well-being.

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• 30.

### How do scientists know about the world around us?

• A.

• B.

They look it up in a book or on the internet

• C.

They don't know about the real world, who really does?

• D.

The make observations, have testable ideas, research, and collect empirical evidence

D. The make observations, have testable ideas, research, and collect empirical evidence
Explanation
Scientists know about the world around us by making observations, formulating testable ideas, conducting research, and collecting empirical evidence. This process allows them to gather data and information that can be used to understand and explain various phenomena in the natural world. By systematically studying and analyzing the evidence, scientists can gain knowledge and insights about the world and its workings. This scientific method is a fundamental approach used by scientists to acquire knowledge and advance our understanding of the world.

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