Plate Tectonics Earthquakes And Volcanoes Quiz Yr 9 Science

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Plate Tectonics Earthquakes And Volcanoes Quiz Yr 9 Science - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Classify each of the plate boundaries shown on the figure and identify the type of boundary shown.

  • 2. 

    If the boundary shown at A occured on land instead of the ocean floor, what would be the long-term result?

  • 3. 

    Compare and contrast the three different types of convergent boundaries.

  • 4. 

    Describe the process of sea floor spreading.

  • 5. 

    A boundary between two plates that are moving toward each other is called?

    • A.

      Divergent Boundary.

    • B.

      Convergent Boundary.

    • C.

      Subduction Boundary.

    • D.

      Deep-sea trench.

    Correct Answer
    B. Convergent Boundary.
    Explanation
    A convergent boundary is a boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving towards each other. At this boundary, the plates collide or come together, resulting in the formation of mountain ranges, volcanic activity, and earthquakes. This is in contrast to a divergent boundary, where the plates move away from each other, or a transform boundary, where the plates slide past each other horizontally. A subduction boundary refers to a specific type of convergent boundary where one plate is forced beneath the other, and a deep-sea trench is a topographic feature that can be associated with a subduction zone.

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  • 6. 

    A boundary between two lithospheric plates that are moving apart is called?

    • A.

      A rift.

    • B.

      Rift valley.

    • C.

      Divergent Boundary.

    • D.

      Convergent Boundary.

    Correct Answer
    C. Divergent Boundary.
    Explanation
    A boundary between two lithospheric plates that are moving apart is called a divergent boundary. At these boundaries, the plates are moving away from each other, creating a gap in the Earth's crust. This movement results in the upwelling of magma from the mantle, forming new crust and creating features such as mid-ocean ridges or rift valleys on land. Divergent boundaries are associated with volcanic activity and the formation of new crust.

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  • 7. 

    True or false. Data indicates that earthquakes and volcanic activity do not occur radomly throughout the world?

    • A.

      True.

    • B.

      False.

    Correct Answer
    A. True.
    Explanation
    The statement is true because data shows that earthquakes and volcanic activity do not occur randomly throughout the world. Instead, they are concentrated along specific tectonic plate boundaries, such as the Pacific Ring of Fire. These boundaries are where the Earth's crust is broken into several large pieces, and the movement and interaction of these plates result in seismic and volcanic activity. Therefore, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are more likely to occur in these areas rather than randomly distributed across the globe.

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  • 8. 

    In the end Alfred Wegener became?

    • A.

      Rich.

    • B.

      Went to jail.

    • C.

      Was not successful in defending the continental drift hypothesis.

    • D.

      Was murdered.

    Correct Answer
    C. Was not successful in defending the continental drift hypothesis.
    Explanation
    Alfred Wegener was not successful in defending the continental drift hypothesis. This implies that he faced challenges and opposition in convincing others of his theory. Despite his efforts, he was unable to gain widespread acceptance for his ideas during his lifetime.

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  • 9. 

    What was Wegener's evidence that continental drift actually happened?

    • A.

      Fossils of Mesosaurus.

    • B.

      Similarities in the shapes of Africa and South America.

    • C.

      Distinctive rock formations.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    Wegener's evidence that continental drift actually happened includes fossils of Mesosaurus, similarities in the shapes of Africa and South America, and distinctive rock formations. These pieces of evidence support the idea that the continents were once connected and have since moved apart. The presence of the same fossil species on separate continents suggests that they were once part of the same landmass. The matching shapes of Africa and South America further indicate that they were once joined together. Additionally, the presence of similar rock formations on different continents provides further evidence for continental drift.

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  • 10. 

    The theory that describes the formation, movements, and interactions of these plates is called?

    • A.

      Plate tectonics.

    • B.

      The Lithosphere.

    • C.

      Rift Valley.

    • D.

      Volcanoes.

    Correct Answer
    A. Plate tectonics.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is a theory that explains the formation, movements, and interactions of Earth's lithospheric plates. These plates are large pieces of Earth's crust that float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere beneath them. Plate tectonics describes how these plates move and interact with each other, leading to phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges. It helps scientists understand the dynamic nature of Earth's surface and how it has changed over time.

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  • 11. 

    Who discovered the continental drift in 1912?

    • A.

      Obama.

    • B.

      Alfred Wegener.

    • C.

      Albert Einstein.

    • D.

      JJ Thompson.

    Correct Answer
    B. Alfred Wegener.
    Explanation
    Alfred Wegener is the correct answer because he is the scientist who proposed the theory of continental drift in 1912. He suggested that the continents were once joined together in a supercontinent called Pangaea and have since drifted apart. This theory revolutionized our understanding of Earth's geological history and laid the foundation for the modern theory of plate tectonics. Wegener's work was groundbreaking and paved the way for further scientific research in the field of geology.

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  • 12. 

    Measurements have shown that the flow of heat leaving the rocks along the mid-ocean ridges is __________ _________

    • A.

      Normal.

    • B.

      Unusually low.

    • C.

      Unusually high.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    C. Unusually high.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Unusually high." This is because measurements have indicated that the flow of heat leaving the rocks along the mid-ocean ridges is higher than expected or normal. This suggests that there is a significant amount of heat being generated in the Earth's interior, contributing to the high heat flow observed.

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  • 13. 

    What are the two types of Magnetism on the ocean floor?

    • A.

      Normal Polarity, and Reversed Polarity.

    • B.

      South Polarity, and North Polarity.

    • C.

      West Polarity, and South Polarity.

    • D.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    A. Normal Polarity, and Reversed Polarity.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Normal Polarity and Reversed Polarity. This refers to the two types of magnetism observed on the ocean floor. Normal Polarity occurs when the magnetic field lines are oriented in the same direction as the Earth's current magnetic field, while Reversed Polarity occurs when the magnetic field lines are oriented in the opposite direction. These magnetic anomalies are important for studying the history and movement of tectonic plates.

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  • 14. 

    In the early 1500's, explorers using maps noted the remarkable fit between which continents?

    • A.

      North America and Africa.

    • B.

      South America and Australia.

    • C.

      Africa and South America.

    • D.

      Africa and the Haiti.

    Correct Answer
    C. Africa and South America.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Africa and South America. In the early 1500s, explorers using maps observed that the coastlines of Africa and South America seemed to fit together like puzzle pieces. This suggested that the two continents were once connected or had a common origin. This observation later contributed to the development of the theory of continental drift and the concept of Pangaea, a supercontinent that existed millions of years ago.

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  • 15. 

    A long chain of volcanic mountains on the ocean floor with a deep central valley is called?

    • A.

      Mid-ocean ridge.

    • B.

      Continental drift.

    • C.

      Age of the ocean floor.

    • D.

      Normal polarity.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mid-ocean ridge.
    Explanation
    A long chain of volcanic mountains on the ocean floor with a deep central valley is called a mid-ocean ridge. This geological feature is formed by the movement of tectonic plates, where magma rises from the mantle and creates new crust. As the magma cools and solidifies, it forms underwater mountains and a central valley. The mid-ocean ridge is an important site for studying plate tectonics and is where new oceanic crust is continuously being formed. Continental drift refers to the movement of continents over time, while age of the ocean floor and normal polarity are not relevant to the given description.

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  • 16. 

    Deep valleys at the center of a mid-ocean ridge is called?

    • A.

      Rift valley.

    • B.

      Rifts.

    • C.

      Deep-sea trench.

    • D.

      Subduction boundary.

    Correct Answer
    A. Rift valley.
    Explanation
    A deep valley at the center of a mid-ocean ridge is called a rift valley. Mid-ocean ridges are underwater mountain ranges formed by tectonic plates moving apart, creating a gap. The rift valley is the result of the diverging plates pulling apart and causing the crust to thin and break, forming a depression. This depression is characterized by steep walls and a flat floor, and it is often filled with volcanic activity and hydrothermal vents. The term "rift valley" accurately describes this geological feature and is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 17. 

    Another word for crack is?

    • A.

      Crack.

    • B.

      Split.

    • C.

      Rift.

    • D.

      Rift valley.

    Correct Answer
    C. Rift.
    Explanation
    The word "crack" is a noun that refers to a narrow opening or fissure. The word "rift" is also a noun that means a crack or split, especially in the ground. Therefore, "crack" and "rift" can be used interchangeably to describe a narrow opening or fissure. The other options, "split" and "rift valley," do not have the same exact meaning as "crack" and are not synonyms for it.

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  • 18. 

    The boundary between the plates is called a?

    • A.

      Subduction boundary.

    • B.

      Convergent boundary.

    • C.

      Plate.

    • D.

      Divergent boundary.

    Correct Answer
    A. Subduction boundary.
    Explanation
    A subduction boundary refers to the area where two tectonic plates collide, and one plate is forced beneath the other, usually forming a deep ocean trench. This process is known as subduction. Therefore, the boundary between the plates is called a subduction boundary.

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  • 19. 

    A deep trench that forms along a boundary is called?

    • A.

      Sea deep trench.

    • B.

      Trench.

    • C.

      Deep-sea trench.

    • D.

      Subduction trench.

    Correct Answer
    C. Deep-sea trench.
    Explanation
    A deep trench that forms along a boundary is called a deep-sea trench. This term specifically refers to a trench that occurs in the ocean floor, often as a result of tectonic plate subduction. These trenches are characterized by their extreme depth and steep sides, and they are typically associated with areas of intense geological activity. The term "deep-sea trench" distinguishes these features from other types of trenches that may occur on land or in other environments.

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  • 20. 

    What is the boundary that can occur at the convergence of two oceanic plates or at the convergence of an oceanic plate with a continental plate?

    • A.

      Divergent boundary.

    • B.

      Convergent boundary.

    • C.

      Subduction boundary.

    • D.

      Transform boundary.

    Correct Answer
    C. Subduction boundary.
    Explanation
    A subduction boundary can occur at the convergence of two oceanic plates or at the convergence of an oceanic plate with a continental plate. In this type of boundary, one tectonic plate is forced beneath the other into the mantle, resulting in the formation of a subduction zone. This process is responsible for the creation of deep ocean trenches, volcanic arcs, and the recycling of old oceanic crust.

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  • 21. 

    Mt.Shasta is a example of what type of boundary?

    • A.

      Subduction boundary

    • B.

      Divergent boundary

    • C.

      Convergent boundary.

    • D.

      Transform boundary.

    Correct Answer
    A. Subduction boundary
    Explanation
    Mt. Shasta is an example of a subduction boundary because it is located along the Cascadia Subduction Zone in northern California. Subduction boundaries occur when one tectonic plate is forced beneath another plate, resulting in the formation of a volcanic arc. Mt. Shasta is a stratovolcano that formed as a result of the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate. This subduction process creates intense pressure and heat, leading to the formation of magma and volcanic activity.

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  • 22. 

    Name two examples of a divergent boundary.

    • A.

      Islands of indonesia and western coast of south america.

    • B.

      Himalayas and san andreas fault.

    • C.

      Mid-atlantic ridge and east pacific rise.

    • D.

      San andreas fault and mid-ocean ridges.

    Correct Answer
    C. Mid-atlantic ridge and east pacific rise.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mid-atlantic ridge and east pacific rise. These are two examples of a divergent boundary, where two tectonic plates are moving away from each other. At the mid-atlantic ridge, the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate are moving apart, creating a gap where new crust is formed. Similarly, at the east pacific rise, the Pacific Plate and the Nazca Plate are moving apart, leading to the formation of new crust. These divergent boundaries are characterized by volcanic activity, earthquakes, and the creation of new oceanic crust.

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  • 23. 

    A collision boundary is when.......

    • A.

      The boundary that forms when two continents collide and are welded into a single, larger continent.

    • B.

      The boundary between the plates.

    • C.

      A boundary between two lithospheric plates that are moving apart.

    • D.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    A. The boundary that forms when two continents collide and are welded into a single, larger continent.
    Explanation
    A collision boundary refers to the boundary that forms when two continents collide and are welded into a single, larger continent. This occurs when the tectonic plates carrying the continents converge, causing a collision between them. The intense pressure and compression during this collision result in the formation of a new boundary where the two continents are fused together. This process is responsible for the creation of mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas, when the Indian and Eurasian plates collided.

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  • 24. 

    A boundary between two plates that are sliding past eachother is called?

    • A.

      Collision boundary.

    • B.

      Fusion boundary.

    • C.

      Sliding boundary.

    • D.

      Transform boundary.

    Correct Answer
    D. Transform boundary.
    Explanation
    A boundary between two plates that are sliding past each other is called a transform boundary. This type of boundary is characterized by horizontal movement, where the plates slide horizontally past each other in opposite directions. Transform boundaries are commonly associated with earthquakes, as the plates can become locked and then suddenly release energy when they finally slip past each other. This type of boundary is different from collision boundaries, fusion boundaries, and sliding boundaries, which involve different types of plate interactions.

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  • 25. 

    Mantle convection is?

    • A.

      Heat from Earth's inner and outer cores and is transferred through the mantle.

    • B.

      Heat in the inner core that is trqansfered through the mantle.

    • C.

      Heat in the outer core that is transferred through the mantle.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    Mantle convection refers to the process of heat transfer from both the inner and outer cores of the Earth through the mantle. This convection involves the movement of molten rock or magma, which carries heat from the hot inner core and the outer core to the cooler regions of the mantle. Therefore, all of the given options correctly describe mantle convection as it involves the transfer of heat from both the inner and outer cores through the mantle.

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  • 26. 

    What are the three hypotheses that describe plate movement?

    • A.

      Mantle convection, slab pull, and ridge push.

    • B.

      Slab pull, deep-sea trench and convection cell.

    • C.

      Ridge push, convection cell, and deep-sea trench.

    • D.

      None of the pull.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mantle convection, slab pull, and ridge push.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Mantle convection, slab pull, and ridge push." These three hypotheses describe the movement of tectonic plates. Mantle convection refers to the movement of the Earth's mantle, which drives the motion of the plates. Slab pull occurs when a dense oceanic plate sinks into the mantle, pulling the rest of the plate behind it. Ridge push happens at mid-ocean ridges, where new crust is formed and pushes the plates apart. These three processes work together to cause the movement and interactions of tectonic plates.

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  • 27. 

    A force that is exerted by cooling, subsiding rock on the spreading lithospheric plates at a mid-ocean ridge.

    • A.

      Ridge push

    • B.

      Mantle convection

    • C.

      Slab pull

    • D.

      Momentum.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ridge push
    Explanation
    Ridge push refers to the force exerted by cooling and subsiding rock on the spreading lithospheric plates at a mid-ocean ridge. As the magma rises and cools at the ridge, it becomes denser and sinks, creating a force that pushes the plates away from the ridge. This force contributes to the movement of the tectonic plates and the spreading of the ocean floor.

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  • 28. 

    The force that the sinking edge of the plate exerts on the rest of the plate is called?

    • A.

      Momentum.

    • B.

      Ridge push.

    • C.

      Slab pull.

    • D.

      Strong force.

    Correct Answer
    C. Slab pull.
    Explanation
    The force that the sinking edge of the plate exerts on the rest of the plate is called slab pull. This term refers to the gravitational force that acts on a subducting tectonic plate as it sinks into the mantle. As the denser plate sinks, it pulls the rest of the plate behind it, causing the movement of tectonic plates and contributing to plate tectonics and the formation of various geological features such as mountains and earthquakes.

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  • 29. 

    Geologists use the name ________ to refer to the giant landmass that exsisted 250 million years ago when all land was conected as one.

    • A.

      Pangaea.

    • B.

      Laurassia.

    • C.

      Gondwana.

    • D.

      Pathalassa.

    Correct Answer
    A. Pangaea.
    Explanation
    Geologists use the name Pangaea to refer to the giant landmass that existed 250 million years ago when all land was connected as one. Pangaea was a supercontinent that formed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras and eventually broke apart to form the continents we know today. The name Pangaea comes from the Greek words "pan" meaning all and "gaea" meaning earth or land, reflecting the idea that all landmasses were once united as a single supercontinent.

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  • 30. 

    The core of each continent is an expanse of ancient rock called?

    • A.

      Platform.

    • B.

      Craton.

    • C.

      Old rock.

    • D.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. Craton.
    Explanation
    A craton is an expanse of ancient rock that forms the stable interior of a continent. It is composed of highly deformed and metamorphosed rocks that have been around for billions of years. Cratons are typically found in the center of continents and are characterized by their stability and lack of tectonic activity. This makes them the core or foundation of each continent. Platforms, on the other hand, refer to the relatively flat areas surrounding the craton, while "old rock" is a vague term that does not specifically refer to the ancient rock core of continents.

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  • 31. 

    A large block of lithospheric plate that has been moved is called?

    • A.

      Plain.

    • B.

      Mountain.

    • C.

      Glacier.

    • D.

      Terrane.

    Correct Answer
    D. Terrane.
    Explanation
    A large block of lithospheric plate that has been moved is called a terrane. Terranes are distinct geological units that have been transported and accreted onto a larger continental or oceanic plate. They typically have different rock types, structures, and ages compared to the surrounding rocks, indicating that they originated from a different tectonic setting. Terranes play a crucial role in plate tectonics and the formation of mountain ranges, as their collision and accretion can lead to the formation of complex geological features.

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  • 32. 

    A break in the Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other is called a

    • A.

      Plate.

    • B.

      Layer.

    • C.

      Boundary.

    • D.

      Fault.

    Correct Answer
    D. Fault.
    Explanation
    A break in the Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other is called a fault. This is because a fault is a fracture or zone of fractures in the Earth's crust where rocks on either side have moved relative to each other. It is a result of tectonic forces and can range in size from small cracks to large-scale faults that extend for hundreds of kilometers. The term "fault" accurately describes the phenomenon of rocks slipping past each other along a fracture in the Earth's crust.

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  • 33. 

    Subduction is

    • A.

      The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath trenches.

    • B.

      The direct transfer of heat through solid materials.

    • C.

      The process that continually adds ocean floor.

    • D.

      A device that bounces sound waves off underwater objects.

    Correct Answer
    A. The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath trenches.
    Explanation
    Subduction is the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath trenches. This occurs at convergent plate boundaries where one tectonic plate is forced underneath another. As the denser oceanic crust descends into the mantle, it creates a subduction zone. This process is responsible for the formation of deep-sea trenches, volcanic arcs, and earthquakes. It plays a crucial role in the recycling of Earth's crust and the redistribution of heat and material within the planet's interior.

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  • 34. 

    Earth's lithosphere is broken into separate sections called

    • A.

      Plates.

    • B.

      Faults.

    • C.

      Trenches.

    • D.

      Rifts.

    Correct Answer
    A. Plates.
    Explanation
    The Earth's lithosphere, which is the outermost solid layer of the Earth, is divided into separate sections called plates. These plates are massive pieces of the Earth's crust that float on the semi-fluid layer below called the asthenosphere. The movement of these plates is responsible for various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges. Therefore, the correct answer is plates.

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  • 35. 

    Scientists who study the forces that make and shape the planet Earth are called

    • A.

      Biologists.

    • B.

      Geologists.

    • C.

      Chemists.

    • D.

      Physicists.

    Correct Answer
    B. Geologists.
    Explanation
    Geologists study the forces that make and shape the planet Earth. They examine rocks, minerals, and the Earth's structure to understand how geological processes such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and erosion occur. Biologists study living organisms, chemists study the properties and interactions of substances, and physicists study the laws and principles of matter and energy. However, it is geologists who specifically focus on the Earth's formation, composition, and changes over time.

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  • 36. 

    In the convection current of a pan of soup, the cooler, denser fluid

    • A.

      Rises to the top.

    • B.

      Sinks to the bottom.

    • C.

      Stays where it is.

    • D.

      Stays on top.

    Correct Answer
    B. Sinks to the bottom.
    Explanation
    In the convection current of a pan of soup, the cooler, denser fluid sinks to the bottom. This is because when a fluid is heated, it becomes less dense and rises, while cooler fluid is denser and sinks. As the soup is heated, the hotter fluid near the bottom rises, creating a convection current. The cooler fluid near the top then sinks to replace the rising fluid, completing the cycle. Therefore, the cooler, denser fluid in the pan of soup sinks to the bottom.

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  • 37. 

    The transfer of energy through space is called

    • A.

      Subduction.

    • B.

      Convection.

    • C.

      Radiation.

    • D.

      Conduction.

    Correct Answer
    C. Radiation.
    Explanation
    Radiation is the transfer of energy through space in the form of electromagnetic waves, such as heat or light, without the need for a medium. This process occurs through the emission, transmission, and absorption of electromagnetic waves. Convection involves the transfer of heat through the movement of fluids, while conduction refers to the transfer of heat through direct contact between objects. Subduction, on the other hand, is the process where one tectonic plate moves beneath another. Therefore, in the context of energy transfer through space, radiation is the most appropriate term.

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  • 38. 

    Who first proposed the theory of continental drift?

    • A.

      Harry Hess

    • B.

      Alfred Wegener

    • C.

      Pangea

    • D.

      J. Tuzo Wilson

    Correct Answer
    B. Alfred Wegener
    Explanation
    Alfred Wegener is the correct answer because he was the first scientist to propose the theory of continental drift in 1912. Wegener suggested that the continents were once joined together in a single landmass called Pangea, and over time, they drifted apart to their current positions. He provided evidence such as the fit of the continents, similarities in rock formations, and the distribution of fossils to support his theory. Although initially met with skepticism, his ideas laid the foundation for the development of the modern theory of plate tectonics.

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  • 39. 

    What erupts through the valley of the mid-ocean ridge?

    • A.

      Molten material

    • B.

      The lithosphere

    • C.

      Deep-ocean trenches

    • D.

      Continental drift

    Correct Answer
    A. Molten material
    Explanation
    The correct answer is molten material. The mid-ocean ridge is a long mountain range that runs through the center of the ocean basins. It is formed by the movement of tectonic plates and is characterized by volcanic activity. Molten material, or magma, rises up through the cracks in the Earth's crust at the mid-ocean ridge, causing volcanic eruptions and the formation of new oceanic crust. This process is known as seafloor spreading and is responsible for the continuous growth of the ocean basins.

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  • 40. 

    Heat transfer by the movement of a heated fluid is called _______________.

    Correct Answer
    convection
    Explanation
    Heat transfer by the movement of a heated fluid is known as convection. In convection, heat is transferred through the bulk movement of the fluid, such as air or water. This occurs when the fluid near a heat source becomes hot and less dense, causing it to rise. As it rises, it carries heat energy with it. The cooler and denser fluid then moves in to replace the rising fluid, creating a continuous cycle of heat transfer. Convection is an important mechanism for heat transfer in many natural and industrial processes.

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  • 41. 

    What type of boundary is found where two plates slip past each other?

    Correct Answer
    transform; transform boundary; transform boundry
    Explanation
    The correct answer is transform; transform boundary; transform boundary. A transform boundary is a type of plate boundary where two plates slide horizontally past each other. This movement creates a fault line, known as a transform fault, where the plates are locked together. Earthquakes are common along transform boundaries due to the friction and stress caused by the plates sliding past each other. These boundaries are also associated with the formation of linear features on the Earth's surface, such as strike-slip faults.

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  • 42. 

    The part of the mantle that can be bent like plastic is called _______________.

    Correct Answer
    asthenosphere; astenosphere; asthenosfere; asthenospher
    Explanation
    The correct answer for this question is "asthenosphere". The asthenosphere is a layer in the Earth's mantle that is located beneath the lithosphere. It is composed of partially molten rock that has a plastic-like consistency, allowing it to flow and deform over long periods of time. This property of the asthenosphere enables the movement of tectonic plates on the Earth's surface.

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  • 43. 

    The process that continually adds new material to the ocean floor is called  ________________.

    Correct Answer
    sea-floor spreading; sea floor spreading
    Explanation
    Sea-floor spreading, also known as sea floor spreading, is the process by which new material is constantly added to the ocean floor. This occurs at divergent plate boundaries, where tectonic plates move apart from each other. As the plates separate, magma rises from the mantle and fills the gap, creating new crust. Over time, this new crust spreads out and pushes the older crust away, resulting in the continuous expansion of the ocean floor.

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  • 44. 

    Fossils of tropical plants found on an island in the Arctic Ocean are evidence for the theory of                       .

    Correct Answer
    continental drift; plate tectonics
    Explanation
    The fossils of tropical plants found on an island in the Arctic Ocean provide evidence for the theory of continental drift and plate tectonics. This is because the presence of tropical plant fossils in the Arctic suggests that the island was once located in a tropical region. The theory of continental drift explains that the Earth's continents were once joined together in a supercontinent called Pangaea and have since moved apart over millions of years. Plate tectonics is the scientific theory that explains how the Earth's lithosphere is divided into several large plates that move and interact with each other, causing the movement of continents. The presence of tropical plant fossils in the Arctic supports the idea that the island's location has changed over time due to the movement of tectonic plates.

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  • 45. 

    A rift in the valley forms along a convergent boundary on land.

    Correct Answer
    divergent
    Explanation
    If the statement is true, write true. If it is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true.

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  • 46. 

    The supercontinent that began to break apart about 225 million years ago is called Antarctica.

    Correct Answer
    Pangea; Pangia
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Pangea, not Pangia. Pangea was the supercontinent that began to break apart about 225 million years ago. Pangia is not a recognized term or name for any supercontinent. Therefore, the correct answer is Pangea.

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  • 47. 

    As oceanic crust moves away from the mid-ocean ridge, it cools and becomes more dense.

    Correct Answer
    true; True
    Explanation
    As oceanic crust moves away from the mid-ocean ridge, it undergoes a process called cooling. This means that the crust gradually loses heat and becomes colder. As a result, the molecules in the crust slow down and become more tightly packed, increasing its density. This process of cooling and densification is a natural consequence of the movement and aging of oceanic crust away from the mid-ocean ridge.

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  • 48. 

    The lithosphere includes all of the core and part of the mantle.

    Correct Answer
    crust; Crust
    Explanation
    The lithosphere refers to the outermost layer of the Earth, which includes the crust and a portion of the uppermost mantle. The crust is the thinnest layer of the Earth's structure and is made up of solid rock. Therefore, the correct answer is "crust" or "Crust" because it accurately identifies the component of the lithosphere that is being referred to in the statement.

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  • 49. 

    Convection currents occur in the Earth because

    • A.

      Hot magma rises and is cooled and sinks again to be heated.

    • B.

      The Earth spins and not all of the magma spins at the same rate.

    • C.

      Cold magma rises and is heated and sinks again to be cooled.

    • D.

      Volcanoes pull the magma out of the Earth and it becomes lava.

    Correct Answer
    A. Hot magma rises and is cooled and sinks again to be heated.
    Explanation
    Convection currents occur in the Earth because hot magma rises and is cooled and sinks again to be heated. This process is known as convection, where heat is transferred through the movement of a fluid. In the Earth's mantle, the hot magma near the core rises due to its lower density, and as it reaches the cooler upper mantle and crust, it cools down and sinks back towards the core. This continuous cycle of rising and sinking magma creates convection currents, which play a crucial role in the movement of tectonic plates and the Earth's overall heat distribution.

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  • 50. 

    A short steep volcano is a

    • A.

      Shield Volcano

    • B.

      Composite Volcano

    • C.

      Cinder Cone Volcano

    • D.

      Ring of Fire Volcano

    Correct Answer
    C. Cinder Cone Volcano
    Explanation
    A cinder cone volcano is characterized by its short and steep shape. It is formed by explosive eruptions that eject fragments of lava and volcanic ash into the air. These fragments cool quickly in the air and fall back to the ground, creating a cone-shaped mound of loose volcanic material. Cinder cone volcanoes are typically small in size and have a simple structure compared to other types of volcanoes. Examples of cinder cone volcanoes include Paricutin in Mexico and Sunset Crater in Arizona.

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