Neurological Disorders (Patho)

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Quizzes Created: 10 | Total Attempts: 9,817
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Disorder Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    During fetal development, the neural tube forms from ________ at ~18 days of gestation. Starts as open-ended structure, closes ~28 days gestation, brain starts to develop.

    Explanation
    During fetal development, the neural tube forms from the ectoderm at around 18 days of gestation. The ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the early embryo, and it gives rise to various structures including the skin, nervous system, and sensory organs. The neural tube is a crucial structure that eventually develops into the brain and spinal cord. It starts as an open-ended structure and gradually closes around 28 days of gestation. This closure marks the beginning of brain development.

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  • 2. 

    Rapid, intermittent contraction of a muscle in response to a sudden stretch which occurs in UMN lesions is:

    • A.

      Hydrocephalus

    • B.

      Neurapraxia

    • C.

      Clonus

    • D.

      Axonotmesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Clonus
    Explanation
    Clonus refers to the rapid, intermittent contraction of a muscle in response to a sudden stretch, which commonly occurs in upper motor neuron (UMN) lesions. It is a characteristic symptom of UMN dysfunction, often seen in conditions such as spinal cord injuries, stroke, or multiple sclerosis. Clonus is caused by an abnormal reflex loop in the spinal cord, leading to repetitive muscle contractions. It can be clinically tested by eliciting a sustained stretch to a muscle and observing the rhythmic contractions that follow.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is true about CSF?

    • A.

      Protects the brain & spinal cord (shock absorption)

    • B.

      Brings hormones to the nervous system

    • C.

      When drainage of CSF is compromised, ventricles expand= Decreased pressure on brain

    • D.

      Recycled through absorption into the venous system (total amt CSF is renewed several times a day)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Protects the brain & spinal cord (shock absorption)
    B. Brings hormones to the nervous system
    D. Recycled through absorption into the venous system (total amt CSF is renewed several times a day)
    Explanation
    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves multiple functions in the body. It acts as a protective cushion for the brain and spinal cord, absorbing shocks and preventing damage. It also transports hormones to the nervous system, aiding in their communication and regulation. Additionally, CSF is constantly being recycled through absorption into the venous system, ensuring that the total amount of CSF is renewed several times a day.

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  • 4. 

    When drainage of CSF is compromised, the ventricles expand= increased pressure on the brain (Hydrocephalus). Pressure is reduced via a ______ which drains into the abdominal cavity.

    Correct Answer(s)
    shunt
    Explanation
    When the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is compromised, it leads to a condition called hydrocephalus, where there is an increased pressure on the brain. To reduce this pressure, a shunt is used. A shunt is a device that helps in diverting the excess CSF from the brain's ventricles to another body cavity, usually the abdominal cavity. This allows the CSF to be reabsorbed and helps in relieving the pressure on the brain.

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  • 5. 

    Cerebrum/cerebral cortex- each area of cerebral cortex is associated with a different function. (Ex: Language, perception, movement etc.)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the cerebrum, specifically the cerebral cortex, is responsible for various functions such as language, perception, and movement. The cerebral cortex is divided into different areas, each associated with a specific function. This organization allows for specialized processing and coordination of different tasks within the brain. Therefore, it is true that each area of the cerebral cortex is associated with a different function.

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  • 6. 

    The Vestibular system is responsible for which of the following?

    • A.

      Position of body in relation to gravity

    • B.

      Associated with emotions & long term memory

    • C.

      Position of eyes in relation to the environment

    • D.

      Keeps body in a stable position

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Position of body in relation to gravity
    C. Position of eyes in relation to the environment
    D. Keeps body in a stable position
    Explanation
    The Vestibular system is responsible for maintaining the body's balance and equilibrium. It helps in determining the position of the body in relation to gravity, allowing us to stay upright and maintain our posture. It also plays a role in coordinating eye movements and adjusting the position of the eyes in relation to the environment, which is important for clear vision and visual tracking. Additionally, the Vestibular system helps in keeping the body in a stable position by providing feedback to the muscles and joints to make necessary adjustments for balance.

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  • 7. 

    The Limbic system is associated with emotions and long term memory.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The limbic system is a complex network of brain structures that plays a crucial role in regulating emotions and storing long-term memories. It includes the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and other interconnected regions. The amygdala is responsible for processing emotions, while the hippocampus is involved in forming and retrieving memories. Therefore, it is accurate to say that the limbic system is associated with emotions and long-term memory.

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  • 8. 

    Damage to peripheral nerves may be reversible or irreversible.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Damage to peripheral nerves can indeed be reversible or irreversible. This means that in some cases, the nerves can heal and function normally again, while in other cases, the damage may be permanent and the nerves may not be able to fully recover. This is dependent on various factors such as the severity and type of nerve damage, as well as the individual's overall health and ability to regenerate nerves.

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  • 9. 

    Temporary damage to a nerve, caused by pressure without structural changes, and may cause temporary paralysis is called:

    • A.

      Neurotmesis

    • B.

      Axonotmesis

    • C.

      Radiculopathy

    • D.

      Neurapraxia

    Correct Answer
    D. Neurapraxia
    Explanation
    Neurapraxia is the correct answer because it refers to a temporary nerve injury caused by pressure without any structural changes. This can result in temporary paralysis but does not involve any damage to the nerve fibers themselves.

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  • 10. 

    Degeneration of neuronal axon (which may or may not grow back)/ Neural sheath remains in tact and temporary or permanent damage may occur describes:

    • A.

      Axonotmesis

    • B.

      Neurotmesis

    • C.

      Neurapraxia

    • D.

      Radiculopathy

    Correct Answer
    A. Axonotmesis
    Explanation
    Axonotmesis is the correct answer because it refers to the degeneration of a neuronal axon, which may or may not grow back. In this condition, the neural sheath remains intact, but temporary or permanent damage may occur. This means that the axon is injured but the surrounding protective covering is still intact. This can result in temporary or permanent functional loss, depending on the severity of the damage.

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  • 11. 

    Damage to the axon and neural sheath resulting in permanent paralysis is:

    • A.

      Axonotmesis

    • B.

      Neurotmesis

    • C.

      Neurapraxia

    • D.

      Brodmann's area

    Correct Answer
    B. Neurotmesis
    Explanation
    Neurotmesis refers to the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the axon and the surrounding neural sheath. This type of injury leads to permanent paralysis because the axon is completely severed and cannot regenerate. Axonotmesis, on the other hand, involves damage to the axon but the neural sheath remains intact, allowing for potential regeneration. Neurapraxia is the mildest form of nerve injury, where there is temporary dysfunction but no structural damage to the axon. Brodmann's area, unrelated to nerve injury, refers to a map of the human cerebral cortex based on histological analysis.

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  • 12. 

    When compression of the nerve occurs where the nerve root exits the intervertebral foramen is:

    • A.

      Neurapraxia

    • B.

      Axonotmesis

    • C.

      Neurotmesis

    • D.

      Radiculopathy

    Correct Answer
    D. Radiculopathy
    Explanation
    Radiculopathy is the correct answer because it refers to the compression or irritation of a nerve root as it exits the intervertebral foramen. This can cause symptoms such as pain, numbness, and weakness along the path of the affected nerve. Neurapraxia, axonotmesis, and neurotmesis are not specific to nerve root compression and refer to different types or degrees of nerve injury.

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  • 13. 

    Chiari malformations is a defect of the cerebellum which causes blockage of CSF flow, and _______ protrudes into spinal canal through the foramen magnum and causes pressure on the spinal cord.

    Correct Answer
    cerebellum
    Explanation
    Chiari malformations are a group of structural defects in the cerebellum, the part of the brain responsible for coordination and balance. These malformations can cause a blockage in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and result in the cerebellum protruding into the spinal canal through the foramen magnum, the opening at the base of the skull. This abnormal positioning of the cerebellum can exert pressure on the spinal cord, leading to various neurological symptoms.

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  • 14. 

    Treatment for Arnold-Chiari malformation is surgical decompression, and PT treatment may be involved with balance & coordination disorders associated with the cerebellum. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because surgical decompression is indeed the primary treatment for Arnold-Chiari malformation. This condition involves the displacement of the cerebellar tonsils into the spinal canal, causing compression and disruption of cerebrospinal fluid flow. Surgery aims to relieve this compression and restore normal fluid flow. Physical therapy may also be included in the treatment plan to address balance and coordination disorders that can occur due to cerebellar involvement. Therefore, the statement is accurate.

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  • 15. 

    Signs/symptoms of Autism Spectrum disorder include poor eye contact, short attention span, delayed speech, sensitivity to light, touch and sound, slapping, banging head etc., and unable to interpret facial expressions/body language.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a range of symptoms including poor eye contact, short attention span, delayed speech, sensitivity to light, touch, and sound, as well as repetitive behaviors like slapping or head-banging. Individuals with autism may also have difficulty interpreting facial expressions and body language.

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  • 16. 

    When working with a patient with dementia, simple commands, firm but calm voice, mobility & strengthening and balance activities are appropriate indications. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When working with a patient with dementia, it is important to use simple commands because complex instructions may be difficult for them to understand and follow. A firm but calm voice is necessary to provide clear communication and maintain a sense of reassurance. Mobility and strengthening activities can help improve the patient's physical abilities and maintain their independence. Balance activities are also important as individuals with dementia may be prone to falls. Therefore, all these interventions are appropriate indications when working with a patient with dementia.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is true about patients with Alzheimer's disease?

    • A.

      They forget both recent and distant events

    • B.

      Loss of ability to learn new things

    • C.

      Personality changes (may become aggressive)

    • D.

      Death usually in 7-8 years after diagnosis

    • E.

      Seven stages/ No cure

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. They forget both recent and distant events
    B. Loss of ability to learn new things
    C. Personality changes (may become aggressive)
    E. Seven stages/ No cure
    Explanation
    Patients with Alzheimer's disease experience memory loss, both for recent events and distant memories. They also suffer from a loss of ability to learn new things. Additionally, Alzheimer's can cause personality changes, which may include becoming aggressive. The disease progresses through seven stages, and currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is true about Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?

    • A.

      Progressive, degenerative disease that affects UMN & LMN

    • B.

      Lateral aspect of motor neurons in spinal cord & brain

    • C.

      Sensory system remains in tact

    • D.

      Affects women more than men ( age 40-60)

    • E.

      High concentration of glutamate in CSF destroys neurons

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Progressive, degenerative disease that affects UMN & LMN
    B. Lateral aspect of motor neurons in spinal cord & brain
    C. Sensory system remains in tact
    E. High concentration of glutamate in CSF destroys neurons
    Explanation
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and degenerative disease that affects both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). It primarily affects the lateral aspect of the motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. The sensory system remains intact in ALS, meaning that it does not typically affect the sensory nerves. ALS can affect both men and women, usually between the ages of 40 and 60. One of the contributing factors to the destruction of neurons in ALS is the high concentration of glutamate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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  • 19. 

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease have large numbers of tangles of __________. Plaques & amyloid (protein) tissue accumulate and prevents normal transmission of nerve impulses.

    Correct Answer(s)
    neurofibrils
    Explanation
    Patients with Alzheimer's disease have large numbers of tangles of neurofibrils. These neurofibrils are abnormal structures formed inside the nerve cells, consisting of twisted protein fibers. The accumulation of plaques and amyloid protein tissue further adds to the disruption of normal nerve impulse transmission. This combination of neurofibril tangles and protein accumulation is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 20. 

    Treatments of seizures may include _________ medications, vagus nerve stimulation, brain surgery (remove area of brain responsible for local seizures) or hemispherectomy, ketogenic diet (high fat, no sugars).

    Correct Answer(s)
    antiepileptic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "antiepileptic." This term refers to medications that are used to treat seizures. These medications work by suppressing abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to prevent seizures from occurring. Other treatment options mentioned in the question, such as vagus nerve stimulation, brain surgery, and the ketogenic diet, may also be used in certain cases, but antiepileptic medications are a common and effective treatment option for seizures.

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  • 21. 

    An autoimmune disorder (triggered by previous infection such as the flue or traumatic event) in which the immune system attacks the neural tissue, which breaks down the myelin sheath & axons of the peripheral nerves is:

    • A.

      Epilepsy

    • B.

      Ischemic CVA

    • C.

      Guillain Barre Syndrome

    • D.

      Petit Mal

    Correct Answer
    C. Guillain Barre Syndrome
    Explanation
    Guillain Barre Syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the peripheral nerves, leading to the breakdown of the myelin sheath and axons. It is often triggered by a previous infection, such as the flu, or a traumatic event. This condition can cause weakness, numbness, and tingling in the limbs, and can progress to muscle weakness or paralysis. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, Ischemic CVA refers to a stroke caused by a blockage in the blood vessels supplying the brain, and Petit Mal is a type of seizure seen in individuals with epilepsy.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following are signs/symptoms of Guillain Barre Syndrome/ Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Neuropathy?

    • A.

      Weakness usually bilateral / Weakest ~3 weeks after onset

    • B.

      Tingling in skin (starts in LEs)

    • C.

      Prominent DTR deep tendon reflexes

    • D.

      CSF with abnormally high levels of protein

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Weakness usually bilateral / Weakest ~3 weeks after onset
    B. Tingling in skin (starts in LEs)
    D. CSF with abnormally high levels of protein
    Explanation
    The signs and symptoms of Guillain Barre Syndrome/ Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Neuropathy include weakness that is usually bilateral and weakest around three weeks after onset, tingling in the skin that starts in the lower extremities, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with abnormally high levels of protein.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is true regarding Neuropathy/Polyneuropathy

    • A.

      Decreased sensation/pain/weakness

    • B.

      May be debilitating or lead to skin breakdown

    • C.

      Pt tx= orthotics/ wound care/ ther-ex, etc

    • D.

      Usually greater in UEs

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Decreased sensation/pain/weakness
    B. May be debilitating or lead to skin breakdown
    C. Pt tx= orthotics/ wound care/ ther-ex, etc
    Explanation
    Neuropathy or polyneuropathy is a condition characterized by decreased sensation, pain, and weakness. It can be debilitating and may lead to skin breakdown. The treatment for this condition includes the use of orthotics, wound care, and therapeutic exercises. Additionally, neuropathy is usually more severe in the upper extremities compared to the lower extremities.

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  • 24. 

    Long version of _______=makes long huntington protein, long protein breaks into segments that coagulate & build up in the neurons of the brain. Normal huntington protein is though to protect neurons of brain from self destruction. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    htt
  • 25. 

    Which of the following are true about Huntington's disease?

    • A.

      Start in 30s & 40s and progresses slowly

    • B.

      Progressive hereditary (autosomal dom.) degenerative

    • C.

      Movement disorders/ Hallucinations/ Sleep & behavior changes

    • D.

      Slurred speech/ dementia/ seizures etc

    • E.

      Death ~70 years of age

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Start in 30s & 40s and progresses slowly
    B. Progressive hereditary (autosomal dom.) degenerative
    C. Movement disorders/ Hallucinations/ Sleep & behavior changes
    D. Slurred speech/ dementia/ seizures etc
    Explanation
    Huntington's disease is a progressive hereditary degenerative disorder that typically starts in a person's 30s or 40s and progresses slowly over time. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Common symptoms include movement disorders, hallucinations, sleep disturbances, and changes in behavior. Other symptoms may include slurred speech, dementia, and seizures. The disease often leads to death around the age of 70.

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  • 26. 

    Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune, chronic, demyelinating neurological disorder of the CNS.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Multiple Sclerosis is indeed an autoimmune, chronic, demyelinating neurological disorder of the CNS. This means that the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body. The chronic nature of the disease means that it is a long-lasting condition, and the demyelination refers to the loss of the protective myelin sheath around nerve fibers. Therefore, the statement "Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune, chronic, demyelinating neurological disorder of the CNS" is true.

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  • 27. 

    Defect in the _______ 2& 7 alpha genes that reduce ability of T cells to switch off the immune response attack of myelin in CNS.  Scar tissue (sclerosis) from demyelinated nerves causes plaque to build up in spinal cord & brain which disrupts normal electrical impulses.

    Correct Answer
    interleukin
    Explanation
    The correct answer is interleukin. Interleukins are signaling molecules that regulate the immune response. Defects in the interleukin 2 and 7 alpha genes can reduce the ability of T cells to switch off the immune response attack on myelin in the central nervous system. This leads to the formation of scar tissue (sclerosis) from demyelinated nerves, causing plaque buildup in the spinal cord and brain, which disrupts normal electrical impulses.

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  • 28. 

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic & progressive dz that affects to ______    __________ (particularly the substantia nigra) ; death of substantia nigra leads to decreased DOPAMINE production.

    Correct Answer
    basal ganglia
    Explanation
    Parkinson's disease is a chronic and progressive disease that primarily affects the basal ganglia, particularly the substantia nigra. The death of cells in the substantia nigra leads to a decrease in dopamine production. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in movement control and coordination. The basal ganglia are a group of structures in the brain that are involved in motor control. Dysfunction in the basal ganglia due to the loss of dopamine-producing cells leads to the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia.

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  • 29. 

    Dopamine (with balance of acetylcholine) controls movement=primarily initiation & control of movements (also assoc. with limiting involuntary movementts).

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Dopamine, along with a balance of acetylcholine, is responsible for controlling movement. It primarily initiates and controls movements, while also being associated with limiting involuntary movements. Therefore, the statement that dopamine with a balance of acetylcholine controls movement is true.

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  • 30. 

    Treatment of Parkinson's includes L-dopa (precursor of dopamine, but able to cross blood-brain barrier) and anticholinergic meds)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the treatment of Parkinson's disease does indeed involve the use of L-dopa, which is a precursor of dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is deficient in Parkinson's patients. L-dopa is able to cross the blood-brain barrier, allowing it to reach the brain and be converted into dopamine. Additionally, anticholinergic medications are also used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease to help control some of the symptoms. Therefore, the statement is correct.

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  • 31. 

    Reverberating head injury may sustain 2 head injuries ( MVA with a coup and _______ injury). Epidural hematoma/ subdural hematoma causes increased pressure in brain (ICP) ischemia to brain, pressure must be released=craniotomy.

    Correct Answer
    countrecoup
    Explanation
    The term "countrecoup" refers to a secondary head injury that occurs on the opposite side of the initial impact. In this scenario, the person sustained a head injury (coup injury) due to a motor vehicle accident, and the countrecoup injury is the additional damage that occurred on the opposite side of the brain. The answer suggests that this countrecoup injury, along with the coup injury, may lead to conditions such as epidural or subdural hematoma, which increase pressure in the brain. To relieve this pressure and prevent ischemia (lack of blood flow) to the brain, a craniotomy may be necessary.

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