Coordination & Balance (Neuro)

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Coordination & Balance (Neuro) - Quiz

The human body is a very complex study. The different activities that the body does harmoniously are just magical. Coordination and balance is one of them. Where do we get our balance? The brain or the ears? Find out!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The ability of the CNS to control or direct the neuromotor system in purposeful movement& postural adjustment  by selective allocation of muscle tension across appropriate  joint segments is:

    • A.

      Coordination

    • B.

      Balance

    • C.

      Dexterity

    • D.

      Motor Control

    Correct Answer
    D. Motor Control
    Explanation
    Motor control refers to the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to regulate and direct the neuromotor system in order to produce purposeful movement and postural adjustments. This involves the selective allocation of muscle tension across appropriate joint segments. Coordination, balance, and dexterity are related concepts, but they do not encompass the specific control and regulation of the neuromotor system like motor control does. Therefore, the correct answer is Motor Control.

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  • 2. 

    The ability to execute smooth, accurate, controlled movement is known as:

    • A.

      Motor Control

    • B.

      Coordination

    • C.

      Agility

    • D.

      Dexterity

    Correct Answer
    B. Coordination
    Explanation
    Coordination refers to the ability to execute smooth, accurate, and controlled movements. It involves the integration of various body parts and muscles to perform tasks efficiently. Motor control, on the other hand, is a broader term that encompasses coordination as well as other aspects of movement, such as balance and posture. Agility refers to the ability to change direction quickly and efficiently. Dexterity refers to the skillful use of hands or fingers. Therefore, coordination is the most appropriate term to describe the ability to execute smooth, accurate, and controlled movement.

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  • 3. 

    Skillful use of the fingers during fine motor tasks is known as:

    • A.

      Dexterity

    • B.

      Motor Control

    • C.

      Agility

    • D.

      Coordination

    Correct Answer
    A. Dexterity
    Explanation
    Dexterity refers to the skillful use of the fingers during fine motor tasks. It involves precise control and coordination of the fingers to manipulate objects or perform delicate movements. Dexterity is essential in activities such as playing a musical instrument, typing on a keyboard, or performing surgery. Motor control refers to the ability to coordinate and control movements, but it does not specifically focus on the fingers. Agility refers to the ability to move quickly and easily. Coordination involves the ability to synchronize movements of different body parts.

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  • 4. 

    The ability to rapidly & smoothly initiate , stop, or modify movements while maintaining postural control is known as:

    • A.

      Dexterity

    • B.

      Agility

    • C.

      Coordination

    • D.

      Motor Control

    Correct Answer
    B. Agility
    Explanation
    Agility refers to the ability to quickly and smoothly initiate, stop, or modify movements while maintaining postural control. It involves a combination of balance, coordination, speed, and flexibility. Dexterity refers more specifically to fine motor skills and precise hand movements. Coordination is the ability to integrate different movements smoothly and efficiently. Motor control encompasses all aspects of movement, including coordination, balance, and dexterity. Therefore, agility is the most appropriate term to describe the ability to rapidly and smoothly initiate, stop, or modify movements while maintaining postural control.

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  • 5. 

    Coordinated movements are characterized by appropriate speed, distance, direction, timing, and ___________   ___________.

    Correct Answer
    muscular tension
    Explanation
    Coordinated movements require not only speed, distance, direction, and timing, but also the appropriate level of muscular tension. Muscular tension refers to the degree of contraction or relaxation of muscles involved in a movement. It is crucial for maintaining balance, stability, and control during coordinated movements. Too much tension can lead to stiffness and lack of fluidity, while too little tension can result in a lack of control and precision. Therefore, the correct level of muscular tension is essential for executing coordinated movements effectively.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following describe coordination impairments?

    • A.

      Awkward

    • B.

      Extraneous/ uneven

    • C.

      Smooth

    • D.

      Inaccurate

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Awkward
    B. Extraneous/ uneven
    D. Inaccurate
    Explanation
    Coordination impairments can be described as awkward, extraneous/uneven, and inaccurate. Awkwardness refers to movements that lack smoothness and fluency, often appearing clumsy or uncoordinated. Extraneous or uneven movements indicate a lack of precision and control, with actions being inconsistent or irregular. Inaccuracy refers to the inability to perform movements accurately, resulting in errors or misjudgments in timing, distance, or direction. These descriptions highlight the difficulties individuals with coordination impairments face in executing movements smoothly, precisely, and accurately.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is a purpose of testing coordination and balance?

    • A.

      Muscle activity during voluntary movement

    • B.

      Ability of muscle to work together for a task/ functional activity/ Level of skill/ efficiency of movement

    • C.

      Ability to initiate, control, & terminate movement/ Timing sequencing & accuracy of mvmt patterns

    • D.

      Bone activity during voluntary movement

    • E.

      Effects of therapeutic & pharmacological intervention on motor function over time

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Muscle activity during voluntary movement
    B. Ability of muscle to work together for a task/ functional activity/ Level of skill/ efficiency of movement
    C. Ability to initiate, control, & terminate movement/ Timing sequencing & accuracy of mvmt patterns
    E. Effects of therapeutic & pharmacological intervention on motor function over time
    Explanation
    Testing coordination and balance helps assess various aspects related to muscle activity during voluntary movement, such as the ability of muscles to work together for a task, functional activity, level of skill, and efficiency of movement. It also evaluates the ability to initiate, control, and terminate movement, as well as the timing, sequencing, and accuracy of movement patterns. Additionally, testing coordination and balance can provide insights into the effects of therapeutic and pharmacological interventions on motor function over time.

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  • 8. 

    The sensory input provides the motor system with information to guide the movement. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because sensory input, such as visual or proprioceptive information, plays a crucial role in guiding the motor system. This input helps the motor system to accurately plan and execute movements by providing information about the body's position, the surrounding environment, and any changes that may occur. Without sensory input, the motor system would lack the necessary information to perform movements effectively and efficiently.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is true about the Motor Cortex?

    • A.

      Primary area involved in coordinated movement

    • B.

      Comprised of Brodman's area 5 &6

    • C.

      Receives info from 3 primary sources- Cerebellum, basal ganglia & somatosensory cortex

    • D.

      Comprised of Brodman's area 4 &6 and precentral gyrus located in frontal lobe

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Primary area involved in coordinated movement
    C. Receives info from 3 primary sources- Cerebellum, basal ganglia & somatosensory cortex
    D. Comprised of Brodman's area 4 &6 and precentral gyrus located in frontal lobe
    Explanation
    The Motor Cortex is involved in coordinated movement and receives information from three primary sources: the Cerebellum, basal ganglia, and somatosensory cortex. It is comprised of Brodman's area 4 & 6 and the precentral gyrus located in the frontal lobe.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is true about Brodman's Area 4?

    • A.

      Designated as Primary Motor Cortex (PMC)

    • B.

      PMC contains largest concentration of corticospinal neurons

    • C.

      Designated as Supplementary Motor Cortex (SMC)

    • D.

      Involves non-complicated, contra lateral movements, single joint

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Designated as Primary Motor Cortex (PMC)
    B. PMC contains largest concentration of corticospinal neurons
    D. Involves non-complicated, contra lateral movements, single joint
    Explanation
    Brodman's Area 4 is designated as the Primary Motor Cortex (PMC). It is also true that the PMC contains the largest concentration of corticospinal neurons. Additionally, the PMC is involved in non-complicated, contra lateral movements that involve a single joint.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is true about Brodman's area 6?

    • A.

      Designated at the Primary Motor Cortex

    • B.

      Subdivided- Supplementary Motor Cortex (SMC)

    • C.

      Gives rise to axons that directly innervate motor units involved in initiation of mvmt

    • D.

      Intricate, coordinated movements, bilateral grasping, orientation of the eyes & head, multiple joints

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Subdivided- Supplementary Motor Cortex (SMC)
    C. Gives rise to axons that directly innervate motor units involved in initiation of mvmt
    D. Intricate, coordinated movements, bilateral grasping, orientation of the eyes & head, multiple joints
    Explanation
    Brodman's area 6 is subdivided into the Supplementary Motor Cortex (SMC). It is responsible for giving rise to axons that directly innervate motor units involved in the initiation of movement. It is also involved in intricate and coordinated movements, such as bilateral grasping, orientation of the eyes and head, and movement involving multiple joints.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following provides input to the reticulospinal neurons innervating motor units  that control trunk and proximal limb movements, & contributes to anticipatory postural changes?

    • A.

      Brodman's area 4

    • B.

      Pre Motor Cortex

    • C.

      Brodman's area 6

    • D.

      Post central gyrus

    Correct Answer
    B. Pre Motor Cortex
    Explanation
    The pre motor cortex provides input to the reticulospinal neurons that control trunk and proximal limb movements and contributes to anticipatory postural changes. This area of the brain is involved in planning and coordinating movements before they are executed. It receives information from other areas of the brain and integrates it to generate appropriate motor commands.

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  • 13. 

    A general term used to describe loss of muscle coordination and affects gait, posture, patterns of movement, ADLs, initiation & timing of movement is known as:

    • A.

      Ataxia

    • B.

      Hypotonia

    • C.

      Hypertonia

    • D.

      Dysmetria

    Correct Answer
    A. Ataxia
    Explanation
    Ataxia is a general term used to describe loss of muscle coordination. It affects various aspects of movement such as gait, posture, patterns of movement, activities of daily living (ADLs), as well as the initiation and timing of movement. It can result from various causes including neurological disorders, genetic conditions, or certain medications.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following describe gait ataxia?

    • A.

      Broad base of support

    • B.

      Stepping patterns are regular in distance & direction

    • C.

      Step may initially be slow and the "flung" forward

    • D.

      Upright stance stability is poor

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Broad base of support
    C. Step may initially be slow and the "flung" forward
    D. Upright stance stability is poor
    Explanation
    Gait ataxia refers to a lack of coordination and control while walking. The given answer options describe different characteristics of gait ataxia. "Broad base of support" indicates that the person's feet are placed wider apart to increase stability. "Step may initially be slow and flung forward" suggests an unsteady and irregular walking pattern, where the person may take slow and uneven steps, sometimes forcefully flinging their foot forward. "Upright stance stability is poor" implies that maintaining an upright posture while walking is challenging for individuals with gait ataxia.

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  • 15. 

    The initiation & regulation of gross intentional movement, planning and execution of complex motor response is the function of which of the following?

    • A.

      Pre central gyrus

    • B.

      Thalamus

    • C.

      Basal Ganglia

    • D.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    C. Basal Ganglia
    Explanation
    The basal ganglia is responsible for the initiation and regulation of gross intentional movement, as well as the planning and execution of complex motor responses. It plays a crucial role in coordinating movement and ensuring smooth, coordinated actions. The precentral gyrus is involved in motor control, but it primarily controls voluntary movements of the body. The thalamus is involved in relaying sensory information to the cerebral cortex, and the medulla is responsible for controlling vital functions such as breathing and heart rate. Therefore, the correct answer is Basal Ganglia.

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  • 16. 

    CNS analysis of movement information, determination of level of accuracy, & provision for error correction describes which of the following?

    • A.

      Open Loop System

    • B.

      Close Loop System

    • C.

      Ataxia

    • D.

      Hypotonia

    Correct Answer
    B. Close Loop System
    Explanation
    The given description of CNS analysis of movement information, determination of level of accuracy, and provision for error correction aligns with the characteristics of a closed loop system. In a closed loop system, feedback is continuously monitored and used to make adjustments and corrections to achieve the desired outcome. This feedback loop allows for greater accuracy and precision in movement control. Ataxia and hypotonia are conditions that affect motor control and are not directly related to the described characteristics of a closed loop system.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is true about Open Loop System?

    • A.

      Stereotype mvmts (gait activities) & rapid, short duration mvmts which do not allow time for feedback

    • B.

      Control system w/ pre programmed instructions to an effector that doesnt use feedback & error detection

    • C.

      A control system employing feedback, correction, computation of error

    • D.

      Control originates centrally from a motor program

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Stereotype mvmts (gait activities) & rapid, short duration mvmts which do not allow time for feedback
    B. Control system w/ pre programmed instructions to an effector that doesnt use feedback & error detection
    D. Control originates centrally from a motor program
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the second option: "Control system w/ pre programmed instructions to an effector that doesn't use feedback & error detection." This is true about an Open Loop System because it operates based on predetermined instructions without taking feedback or error detection into account. It relies on a set program to control the effector without making adjustments based on the system's performance or external factors. The other options are not true about Open Loop Systems.

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  • 18. 

    Movements involving large muscle groups including posture, balance & extremity movements (crawling, walking, kneeling) is known as ________ motor movements.

    Correct Answer(s)
    gross
    Explanation
    Movements involving large muscle groups including posture, balance, and extremity movements such as crawling, walking, and kneeling are known as gross motor movements. These movements require the coordination and control of multiple muscles and are typically associated with activities that involve the whole body or large body parts. Gross motor movements are important for activities like running, jumping, and throwing, and they play a crucial role in the development of motor skills in children.

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  • 19. 

    Small muscle groups that incorporate skillful activity & finger dexterity (buttoning, typiing, ipad/iphone) is known as _______ motor movements.

    Correct Answer(s)
    fine
    Explanation
    Fine motor movements refer to the precise and coordinated movements of small muscle groups, particularly those involving the fingers and hands. These movements require skill and dexterity, such as buttoning clothes, typing on a keyboard, or using an iPad or iPhone. The term "fine" is used to describe these motor movements because they involve intricate control and precision.

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  • 20. 

    Equilibrium coordination test= the body maintaining equilibrium with gravity when stationary and with movement.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the equilibrium coordination test refers to the body's ability to maintain balance and stability in relation to gravity, both when the body is stationary and when it is in motion. This test assesses the individual's coordination and control over their body movements, ensuring that they can maintain equilibrium and avoid falls or accidents.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following are Non-equilibrium coordination tests?

    • A.

      Alternate/ Reciprocal motion

    • B.

      Movement composition/ Accuracy

    • C.

      Static sitting

    • D.

      Fixation or limb holding

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Alternate/ Reciprocal motion
    B. Movement composition/ Accuracy
    D. Fixation or limb holding
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Alternate/ Reciprocal motion, Movement composition/ Accuracy, Fixation or limb holding. These tests are considered non-equilibrium coordination tests because they involve dynamic movements and require the coordination of multiple muscle groups to maintain balance and control. Static sitting, on the other hand, does not involve movement or require coordination, making it an equilibrium test.

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  • 22. 

    If a Romberg test is positive with EC, there is a loss of ______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    proprioception
    Explanation
    A positive Romberg test with EC indicates a loss of proprioception. Proprioception refers to the body's ability to sense the position, movement, and orientation of its various parts. When proprioception is impaired, individuals may have difficulty coordinating their movements, maintaining balance, and perceiving their body's position in space. Therefore, a positive Romberg test with EC suggests a deficit in proprioceptive function.

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  • 23. 

    If a Romberg test is positive with EO, there is possible vestibular, cerebellar __________, which is a  more significant balance deficit.

    Correct Answer(s)
    ataxia
    Explanation
    If a Romberg test is positive with EO (eyes open), it indicates the presence of ataxia. Ataxia refers to a lack of muscle coordination, which can affect balance and movement. Therefore, if the Romberg test is positive with EO, it suggests that there may be a vestibular or cerebellar issue causing ataxia, leading to a more significant balance deficit.

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  • 24. 

    With the ankle strategy, the muscles are activated ________   ________   ________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    distal to proximal
    Explanation
    The ankle strategy refers to a postural control mechanism where the muscles are activated in a specific sequence, starting from the distal (farther from the center of the body) muscles and progressing towards the proximal (closer to the center of the body) muscles. This means that the muscles in the ankles are the first to be activated, followed by the muscles in the lower legs, then the muscles in the upper legs and so on. This sequential activation helps to stabilize the body and maintain balance during movements.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following muscle groups are activated during forward sway Ankle strategy?

    • A.

      Gastrocs

    • B.

      Anterior tib.

    • C.

      Hamstrings

    • D.

      Paraspinals

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Gastrocs
    C. Hamstrings
    D. Paraspinals
    Explanation
    During forward sway, the ankle strategy is activated to maintain balance. The Gastrocs (calf muscles), Hamstrings, and Paraspinals (back muscles) are all involved in this movement. The Gastrocs help to stabilize the ankle joint, while the Hamstrings and Paraspinals work to maintain the body's center of gravity and prevent falling forward.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following mms groups are activated during backward sway Ankle strategy?

    • A.

      Anterior tib

    • B.

      Quadriceps

    • C.

      Paraspinals

    • D.

      Abdominals

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Anterior tib
    B. Quadriceps
    D. Abdominals
    Explanation
    During backward sway, the body activates certain muscle groups to maintain balance. The anterior tibialis muscle is responsible for controlling the movement of the ankle joint and plays a crucial role in preventing the foot from rolling backward. The quadriceps muscle group, located in the front of the thigh, helps to extend the knee joint and stabilize the lower limb during backward sway. The abdominals, specifically the rectus abdominis and obliques, contract to stabilize the trunk and pelvis, ensuring that the body remains upright. Therefore, the correct answer is anterior tib, quadriceps, and abdominals.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following mms groups are activated during the Hip strategy?

    • A.

      Abdominals & quads ( forward sway)

    • B.

      Paraspinals & hamstrings ( Backward sway)

    • C.

      MMS activated distal to proximal with hip strategy

    • D.

      Abductors & adductors (lateral sway)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Abdominals & quads ( forward sway)
    B. Paraspinals & hamstrings ( Backward sway)
    D. Abductors & adductors (lateral sway)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Abdominals & quads (forward sway), Paraspinals & hamstrings (backward sway), and Abductors & adductors (lateral sway). During the Hip strategy, these muscle groups are activated to control different types of sways in different directions. The abdominals and quads are activated during forward sway, the paraspinals and hamstrings are activated during backward sway, and the abductors and adductors are activated during lateral sway. These muscle groups work together to maintain balance and stability during movement.

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  • 28. 

    The 2 cervical areas that comprise the motor cortex are ______________________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    brodman's area 4 & 6
    Explanation
    The motor cortex is responsible for controlling voluntary movements in the body. Brodmann's area 4, also known as the primary motor cortex, is located in the frontal lobe and is involved in the execution of movement. Brodmann's area 6, also known as the premotor cortex, is located just in front of the primary motor cortex and is involved in the planning and coordination of movements. Therefore, both Brodmann's area 4 and 6 are part of the motor cortex and play a role in controlling motor functions.

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  • 29. 

    Name the tract that projects to the anterior horn of the spinal cord & influences muscle tone & reflex activity.

    • A.

      Lateral vestibulospinal tract

    • B.

      Anterothalamic tract

    • C.

      Corticospinal tract

    • D.

      Reticulospinal tract

    Correct Answer
    D. Reticulospinal tract
    Explanation
    The reticulospinal tract is responsible for projecting to the anterior horn of the spinal cord and influencing muscle tone and reflex activity. This tract originates in the reticular formation of the brainstem and plays a role in modulating motor functions. It helps regulate muscle tone, balance, and posture, as well as coordinating voluntary and involuntary movements.

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  • 30. 

    Name the tract that descends to all the levels of the spinal cord.

    • A.

      Lateral vestibulospinal tract

    • B.

      Anterothalamic tract

    • C.

      Corticospinal tract

    • D.

      Reticulospinal tract

    Correct Answer
    A. Lateral vestibulospinal tract
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Lateral vestibulospinal tract. This tract descends to all levels of the spinal cord and is involved in the control of posture and balance. It receives input from the vestibular system and helps to coordinate movements and maintain stability.

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  • 31. 

    Name the tract responsible for skilled, fine motor control, especially of the distal limbs.

    • A.

      Lateral vestibulospinal tract

    • B.

      Anterothalamic tract

    • C.

      Corticospinal tract

    • D.

      Reticulospinal tract

    Correct Answer
    C. Corticospinal tract
    Explanation
    The corticospinal tract is responsible for skilled, fine motor control, especially of the distal limbs. It is a major pathway that carries motor signals from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord, allowing for precise control of voluntary movements. This tract is involved in tasks such as writing, playing musical instruments, and manipulating small objects with the hands. Damage to the corticospinal tract can result in motor deficits, such as weakness or loss of coordination in the distal limbs.

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  • 32. 

    The ventral roots are responsible for containing motor fibers responsible for motion.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The ventral roots of the spinal cord contain motor fibers that are responsible for transmitting signals from the central nervous system to the muscles, resulting in motion. These motor fibers carry information from the brain to the muscles, allowing us to move our body parts voluntarily. Therefore, the statement is true.

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