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Quizzes Created: 6 | Total Attempts: 16,348
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Brain Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Cerebral Spinal Fluid

    • A.

      Cushions the brain

    • B.

      Regulates brain extracellular fluid

    • C.

      Allows Distribution of neuroactive substances

    • D.

      Collects waste products produced by the brain

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cushions the brain
    B. Regulates brain extracellular fluid
    C. Allows Distribution of neuroactive substances
    D. Collects waste products produced by the brain
    Explanation
    Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) serves multiple functions in the brain. It cushions the brain, providing a protective layer that helps absorb shock and prevent damage. It also regulates the brain's extracellular fluid, maintaining a stable environment for optimal brain function. CSF allows for the distribution of neuroactive substances, such as neurotransmitters, throughout the brain, facilitating communication between neurons. Additionally, it collects waste products produced by the brain, helping to remove toxins and maintain a healthy environment.

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  • 2. 

    You would take a CSF Collection for

    • A.

      Evaluation of neurological disorders

    • B.

      Evaluation of Muscular Disorders

    • C.

      Evaluation of Motor Disorders

    • D.

      None

    Correct Answer
    A. Evaluation of neurological disorders
    Explanation
    A CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid) collection is typically performed to evaluate neurological disorders. This is because CSF, which surrounds the brain and spinal cord, can provide valuable information about the presence of infections, inflammation, bleeding, or other abnormalities in the central nervous system. By analyzing the composition and characteristics of CSF, healthcare professionals can diagnose and monitor conditions such as meningitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, or hydrocephalus. CSF collection is not typically used for evaluating muscular or motor disorders, as these conditions primarily involve the muscles and nerves rather than the cerebrospinal fluid.

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  • 3. 

    CSF is collected aseptically

    • A.

      From anesthetized patient into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column

    • B.

      From unanesthetized patient into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column

    • C.

      From anesthetized patient into the lowerarachnoid space of the spinal column

    • D.

      From unanesthetized patient into the lowerarachnoid space of the spinal column

    Correct Answer
    A. From anesthetized patient into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "From anesthetized patient into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column." This is because collecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) aseptically is important to prevent contamination. Anesthetizing the patient helps to ensure that they remain still during the procedure, reducing the risk of injury. Collecting CSF from the subarachnoid space of the spinal column is the most common method, as it provides a direct access to the CSF without the need for invasive procedures.

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  • 4. 

    Patient should be in which recumbency for a CSF collection

    • A.

      Lateral, Neck Flexed

    • B.

      Sternal, Neck Flexed

    • C.

      Lateral, Neck relaxed

    • D.

      Sternal, Neck relaxed

    Correct Answer
    A. Lateral, Neck Flexed
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Lateral, Neck Flexed" because this position allows for easier access to the subarachnoid space, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is collected. The lateral position helps to open up the spaces between the vertebrae, making it easier to insert a needle into the spinal canal. Flexing the neck also helps to align the spinal column and facilitate the collection of CSF. The other options, sternal position and neck relaxed, do not provide the optimal positioning for CSF collection.

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  • 5. 

    Fluid from the cerebral spinal fluid is collected into a

    • A.

      EDTA Tube

    • B.

      Plain Tube

    • C.

      Green Tube

    • D.

      Blue Tube

    • E.

      Two of the Above

    • F.

      Two of the Above

    Correct Answer
    A. EDTA Tube
    Explanation
    The correct answer is EDTA Tube because it is commonly used for collecting and preserving blood samples for hematological tests. However, in this scenario, it is used to collect fluid from the cerebral spinal fluid. EDTA, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, is an anticoagulant that prevents blood from clotting by binding to calcium ions. This is important for preserving the integrity of the fluid sample and preventing clotting during transportation and testing.

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  • 6. 

    CSF is collected by free flow and not aspiration

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid) is collected by free flow and not aspiration. This means that when collecting CSF, it is obtained by allowing it to flow naturally rather than using a suction or aspiration method. Aspiration involves using a syringe or vacuum to forcefully withdraw the fluid, which can potentially cause damage or alter the composition of the sample. Collecting CSF by free flow ensures a more accurate representation of the fluid and reduces the risk of contamination or interference with the results. Therefore, the statement "CSF is collected by free flow and not aspiration" is true.

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  • 7. 

    Plain tube is centrifuged and supernatant is used for biochemical tests:

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Lactate

    • D.

      Creatinine levels

    • E.

      Carbohydrates

    • F.

      Fibre

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Protein
    B. Glucose
    C. Lactate
    D. Creatinine levels
    Explanation
    The plain tube is centrifuged to separate the solid components from the liquid supernatant. The supernatant is then used for biochemical tests to determine the levels of various substances such as protein, glucose, lactate, and creatinine. These tests can provide important information about the patient's overall health and help diagnose any potential abnormalities or conditions related to these substances.

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  • 8. 

    Normal CSF is what colour

    • A.

      Colourless and Transparent

    • B.

      Yellow- Straw and Transparent

    • C.

      Yellow-Straw and Opaque

    • D.

      Colourless and Opaque

    Correct Answer
    A. Colourless and Transparent
    Explanation
    Normal CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid) is colorless and transparent. This means that it does not have any color and is clear, allowing light to pass through it easily. The transparency of CSF is important as it allows for visual examination and analysis of its composition and characteristics. Any abnormal color or turbidity in CSF may indicate underlying health conditions or infections. Therefore, the correct answer is "Colourless and Transparent."

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  • 9. 

    CSF has a high protein concentrations and few cells

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Low protein concentration

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  • 10. 

    Yellow is referred to as xanthochromia - due to the erythrocytic breakdown products or a elevated serum bilirubin concentration

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Yellow is referred to as xanthochromia because it is caused by the breakdown products of erythrocytes or an elevated serum bilirubin concentration. Xanthochromia is a term used to describe the yellowish discoloration of body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid or synovial fluid. This can occur due to the presence of bilirubin, a yellow pigment formed from the breakdown of red blood cells, or due to an increase in bilirubin levels in the blood. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 11. 

    There are _____ present before turbidity is noticed in CSF

    • A.

      500 cells/ul

    • B.

      200 cells/ul

    • C.

      1000 cells/ul

    • D.

      300 cells/ul

    Correct Answer
    A. 500 cells/ul
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 500 cells/ul because turbidity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is typically noticed when the cell count reaches a certain threshold. In this case, the threshold is 500 cells per microliter (ul). Once the cell count exceeds this level, the CSF becomes cloudy or turbid, indicating a potential infection or inflammation in the central nervous system.

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  • 12. 

    Gross Turbidity of CSF is contamination in the procedure with

    • A.

      Peripheral blood

    • B.

      Venous Blood

    • C.

      Bone Fragment

    • D.

      Tissue Cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Peripheral blood
    Explanation
    The gross turbidity of CSF can occur due to contamination in the procedure with peripheral blood. This means that during the collection or handling of the CSF sample, some blood might have been mixed with it, leading to a cloudy appearance. This contamination could be accidental and may happen if there is bleeding during the procedure or if there is improper handling of the sample.

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  • 13. 

    When doing a cell count of the CSF keep in consideration that

    • A.

      They deteriorate rapidly after collection

    • B.

      You need to wait 1 hour after its been placed in the fridge

    • C.

      You need to wait 1 hour after its been placed in the freezer

    • D.

      Only view it once stained and wait 10 mins

    Correct Answer
    A. They deteriorate rapidly after collection
    Explanation
    When doing a cell count of the CSF, it is important to consider that the cells in the CSF deteriorate rapidly after collection. This means that the accuracy of the cell count can be affected if there is a delay in analyzing the sample. It is crucial to analyze the CSF sample as soon as possible after collection to obtain reliable results.

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  • 14. 

    Prepare a nucleated cell count with Rosenthal's Solution Preparation because it

    • A.

      Lyses RBC's

    • B.

      Allows the sample to stay fresh longer

    • C.

      Lyses WBC's

    • D.

      Allows the RBC's to pop out more

    Correct Answer
    A. Lyses RBC's
    Explanation
    Rosenthal's Solution Preparation is used to prepare a nucleated cell count because it lyses RBC's. Lysing the red blood cells helps in obtaining a more accurate count of nucleated cells by eliminating interference from the red blood cells. This solution breaks down the RBC's, releasing their contents, while leaving the nucleated cells intact. This allows for a clearer visualization and counting of the nucleated cells present in the sample.

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  • 15. 

    Supernatant removed and direct smear made from resuspended sediment. Air dry, and Stain. Small number of cells present in these smears.

    • A.

      Low Speed Centrifugation

    • B.

      Gravitational Sedimentation

    • C.

      Smear Technique

    • D.

      Rotation Technique

    Correct Answer
    A. Low Speed Centrifugation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Low Speed Centrifugation. This is because the supernatant is removed and a direct smear is made from the resuspended sediment. Low speed centrifugation is commonly used to separate components based on their density, allowing for the collection of the sediment at the bottom of the tube. This technique is likely used here to concentrate the cells present in the sample before making the smear.

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  • 16. 

    Chamber from syringe or glass test tube, Dip in wax and mount on slide. Cells in 1ml CSF allowed to settle for 30 mins. Remove supernatant carefully and tube as well as air dry and stain.

    • A.

      Gravitational Sedimentation

    • B.

      Low Speed Centrifugation

    • C.

      Smear Technique

    • D.

      Wax Sedimentation

    Correct Answer
    A. Gravitational Sedimentation
    Explanation
    The given procedure involves allowing the cells in 1ml CSF to settle for 30 minutes, removing the supernatant carefully, and air drying and staining the tube. This process relies on the force of gravity to cause the cells to settle down to the bottom of the tube, which is known as gravitational sedimentation. The other options, such as low-speed centrifugation and smear technique, involve different methods of separating and preparing the cells for analysis, but they are not applicable to the given procedure. Wax sedimentation is not mentioned in the procedure and therefore cannot be the correct answer.

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  • 17. 

    Filter holders attach to syringe. CSF is diluted in ethanol and injected through filter at 1 drop/sec. Cells collected but are in different planes of focus.

    • A.

      Membrane Filtration

    • B.

      Low Speed Centrifugation

    • C.

      CSF Filtration

    • D.

      Ethanol Filtration

    Correct Answer
    A. Membrane Filtration
    Explanation
    Membrane Filtration is the correct answer because it involves using a filter holder that attaches to a syringe to filter the CSF sample. The CSF is diluted in ethanol and injected through the filter at a controlled rate. This process allows for the collection of cells while ensuring that they are in different planes of focus, which is important for further analysis or examination.

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  • 18. 

    Centrifuge for slides. Cells concentrate within small area. Excellent cellular morphology but has increased vacuolization of cells.

    • A.

      Cytocentrifugation

    • B.

      Low Speed Centrifugation

    • C.

      High Speed Centrifugation

    • D.

      Membrane Filter

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytocentrifugation
    Explanation
    Cytocentrifugation is the correct answer because it involves using a centrifuge to concentrate cells within a small area on a slide. This technique is known for providing excellent cellular morphology, but it can also result in increased vacuolization of cells.

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  • 19. 

    Centrifuge for slides. Cells concentrate within small area. Exccellent cellular morphology but has increased vacuolization of cells especially in

    • A.

      Macrophages

    • B.

      Eosinophils

    • C.

      Monocytes

    • D.

      Neutrophils

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrophages
    Explanation
    The given answer is Macrophages. This is because the centrifuge for slides causes cells to concentrate within a small area, resulting in excellent cellular morphology. However, it also leads to increased vacuolization of cells, particularly in macrophages.

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  • 20. 

    Ammonium sulfate solution overlaid with 1ml CSF. Allowed to stand 3 mins. Junction between fluids should remain clear.

    • A.

      Nonne-Apelt Test

    • B.

      Sulfosalicylic Acid Test

    • C.

      Trichloroacetic Acid Test

    • D.

      Protein Electrophoresis

    Correct Answer
    A. Nonne-Apelt Test
    Explanation
    The Nonne-Apelt Test is used to detect the presence of proteins in a solution. In this case, ammonium sulfate solution is overlaid with 1ml CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) and allowed to stand for 3 minutes. The junction between the two fluids should remain clear if there are no proteins present. Therefore, the Nonne-Apelt Test is the appropriate test to determine if proteins are present in the solution.

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  • 21. 

    Ammonium sulfate solution overlaid with 1ml CSF. Allowed to stand 3 mins. Junction between fluids should remain clear. ________ increased a white-gray zone forms at junctions this is graded subjectively from 1+ to 4_.

    • A.

      Immunoglobins

    • B.

      Reticulocytes

    • C.

      Thrombocytes

    • D.

      Vacoulization

    Correct Answer
    A. Immunoglobins
    Explanation
    When ammonium sulfate solution is overlaid with 1ml CSF and allowed to stand for 3 minutes, the junction between the fluids should remain clear. However, if there is an increase in immunoglobins, a white-gray zone forms at the junctions. The intensity of this zone is graded subjectively from 1+ to 4. This suggests that the presence of immunoglobins is causing the formation of the white-gray zone at the junctions.

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  • 22. 

    0.5 ml CSF to 4.5ml acid, mix, 10 mins stand. Optical density of mixture is read at 420 nm and compared to a protein standard treated the same way

    • A.

      Sulfosalicylic acid test

    • B.

      Nonne-Apelt test

    • C.

      Trichlororacetic Acid Test

    • D.

      Protein Electrophoresis

    Correct Answer
    A. Sulfosalicylic acid test
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Sulfosalicylic acid test. This test involves mixing the CSF sample with acid and allowing it to stand for 10 minutes. Afterward, the optical density of the mixture is measured at 420 nm and compared to a protein standard that has been treated the same way. This test is commonly used to detect the presence of proteins in a sample, as sulfosalicylic acid precipitates proteins, causing them to become visible and measurable. Therefore, the Sulfosalicylic acid test is the most appropriate choice for this scenario.

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  • 23. 

    0.5ml CSF added to 1.5ml acid 5% conc. Mix, 5min stand. Optical density of mmixture read at 420nm and compared to standard treated the same

    • A.

      Trichloroacetic Acid Test

    • B.

      Nonne-Apelt test

    • C.

      Sulfosalicylic acid test

    • D.

      Protein Electrophoresis

    Correct Answer
    A. Trichloroacetic Acid Test
    Explanation
    The given scenario involves adding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to a solution of 5% concentrated acid and allowing it to stand for 5 minutes. Afterward, the optical density of the mixture is measured at 420nm and compared to a standard that underwent the same treatment. This procedure is known as the Trichloroacetic Acid Test, which is commonly used to measure protein levels in biological samples. Trichloroacetic acid is known to precipitate proteins, and by measuring the optical density, the amount of protein in the CSF can be determined.

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  • 24. 

    Electrical field to separate the proteins into groups of similar size, shape, and charge.

    • A.

      Protein Electrophoresis

    • B.

      Trichloroacetic Acid Test

    • C.

      Nonne-Apelt Test

    • D.

      Sulfosalicylic Acid Test

    Correct Answer
    A. Protein Electrophoresis
    Explanation
    Protein electrophoresis is a technique used to separate proteins based on their size, shape, and charge using an electrical field. This technique involves placing the proteins in a gel matrix and applying an electric current, causing the proteins to migrate towards the positive or negative electrode depending on their charge. This separation allows for the identification and characterization of proteins based on their electrophoretic mobility. The other tests mentioned, such as the trichloroacetic acid test, Nonne-Apelt test, and sulfosalicylic acid test, are not specifically designed for protein separation and characterization.

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  • 25. 

    ​Protein Electrophoresis, when used causes peripheral blood to _________ protein concentrations

    • A.

      Increase

    • B.

      Decrease

    • C.

      Neutralize

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase
    Explanation
    Protein electrophoresis is a technique used to separate and analyze proteins based on their size and charge. During this process, proteins migrate through a gel matrix under the influence of an electric field. As a result, proteins with higher concentrations will move further and appear more intense in the gel, indicating an increase in protein concentrations. Therefore, the correct answer is "Increase".

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  • 26. 

    What is not present in CSF that doesn't allow it to clot.

    • A.

      Fibrinogen

    • B.

      Thrombin

    • C.

      Albumin

    • D.

      Bilirubin

    Correct Answer
    A. Fibrinogen
    Explanation
    Fibrinogen is not present in CSF, which is the cerebrospinal fluid, and this is why it doesn't allow clotting. Fibrinogen is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is converted into fibrin during clot formation. However, CSF is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, and it does not contain fibrinogen or other clotting factors present in blood. Therefore, CSF does not have the necessary components to form a clot.

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  • 27. 

    (CSF) Specific Gravity using a refractometer gives values of

    • A.

      1.004 - 1.008

    • B.

      1.040 - 1.080

    • C.

      1.008 - 1.014

    • D.

      1.005 - 1.008

    Correct Answer
    A. 1.004 - 1.008
  • 28. 

    CSF glucose concentration is related to blood glucose. the values are

    • A.

      60-80%

    • B.

      32-60%

    • C.

      70-90%

    • D.

      45-78%

    Correct Answer
    A. 60-80%
    Explanation
    The CSF glucose concentration is related to the blood glucose levels in the body. The correct answer is 60-80% because this range represents the normal levels of CSF glucose concentration in relation to blood glucose.

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  • 29. 

    Inflammation of the CSF causes the glucose concentrations to be below 60% due to metabolism of glucose from bacteria and neutrophils

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Inflammation of the CSF can lead to decreased glucose concentrations because bacteria and neutrophils metabolize glucose. This metabolic activity can cause the glucose levels to fall below 60%. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 30. 

    Produced by cellular metabolism in septic conditions like meningitis. Both blood and CSF values increase.

    • A.

      Lactate Concentration

    • B.

      Electrolyte concentration

    • C.

      Creatine Kinase

    • D.

      Glucose Concentrations

    Correct Answer
    A. Lactate Concentration
    Explanation
    Lactate concentration is the correct answer because it is produced by cellular metabolism in septic conditions like meningitis. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) values increase in septic conditions, indicating an elevated lactate concentration. This increase in lactate levels can be used as a diagnostic marker for meningitis and other septic conditions. Electrolyte concentration, creatine kinase, and glucose concentrations may also be affected in septic conditions, but they are not specifically mentioned in the given explanation.

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  • 31. 

    Same as blood values, little diagnostic value

    • A.

      Electrolyte Concentration

    • B.

      Lactate Concentration

    • C.

      Glucose Concentration

    • D.

      Specific Gravity

    Correct Answer
    A. Electrolyte Concentration
    Explanation
    Electrolyte concentration refers to the levels of various ions in the blood, such as sodium, potassium, and chloride. These electrolytes play crucial roles in maintaining the body's fluid balance, nerve function, and muscle contraction. Abnormal electrolyte levels can indicate certain medical conditions or imbalances in the body. However, just like blood values, electrolyte concentration alone may not provide a definitive diagnosis. It is important to consider other factors and perform additional tests to accurately assess a patient's condition.

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  • 32. 

    Normal CSF Value is low because of high molecular weight. Its high in nervous tissue so its a diagnostic tool for damage to neural tissue when seen.

    • A.

      Creatine Kinase

    • B.

      Electrolyte Concentration

    • C.

      Lactate Concentration

    • D.

      Glucose Concentration

    Correct Answer
    A. Creatine Kinase
    Explanation
    Creatine kinase is the correct answer because it is an enzyme found in high concentrations in neural tissue. When there is damage to neural tissue, such as in cases of stroke or brain injury, creatine kinase is released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), causing an increase in its concentration. Therefore, measuring the concentration of creatine kinase in the CSF can be used as a diagnostic tool for damage to neural tissue.

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  • 33. 

    Disease: CSF performed before myelography. Most are found to be normal findings. If elevated - protein and milk pleocytosis

    • A.

      Traumatic/ Compressive disease

    • B.

      Vascular Disease

    • C.

      Distempter Virus

    • D.

      Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis of Pugs

    Correct Answer
    A. Traumatic/ Compressive disease
    Explanation
    The given correct answer, "Traumatic/ Compressive disease," suggests that if the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) performed before myelography shows elevated protein and milk pleocytosis, it is likely indicative of a traumatic or compressive disease. This means that there may be an injury or compression in the spinal cord or surrounding structures, leading to abnormal findings in the CSF analysis. Other potential causes such as vascular disease, distemper virus, or necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pugs are not mentioned as being associated with elevated protein and milk pleocytosis in the given information.

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  • 34. 

    Acute paralysis – nonpainful, nonprogressive, Usually normal findings, Occasional elevated protein with normal cell counts

    • A.

      Vascular disease

    • B.

      Steroid Responsive Meningitis

    • C.

      Granulomatous Meningoencephalomyelitis

    • D.

      Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Vascular disease
    Explanation
    Acute paralysis with nonpainful and nonprogressive symptoms, along with normal findings and occasional elevated protein with normal cell counts, suggests a vascular disease. Vascular diseases involve the blood vessels and can cause blockages or damage to the vessels supplying the nerves, leading to paralysis. This can result in nonprogressive symptoms and normal findings on examination. The occasional elevated protein may indicate inflammation or damage to the blood vessels. Other conditions listed, such as steroid responsive meningitis, granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, and feline infectious peritonitis, do not typically present with the same combination of symptoms and findings.

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  • 35. 

    A number are reported mostly linked to a specific breed , Thought to have a genetic basis, Normal cell count, Mildly to moderately elevated proteins

    • A.

      Degenerative disease

    • B.

      Steroid Responsive Meningitis

    • C.

      Distemper Virus

    • D.

      Vasculitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Degenerative disease
    Explanation
    The given characteristics of the reported numbers being mostly linked to a specific breed and thought to have a genetic basis suggest that the condition is a degenerative disease. Additionally, the normal cell count and mildly to moderately elevated proteins indicate a progressive deterioration of cells and tissues, which is commonly seen in degenerative diseases. Steroid Responsive Meningitis, Distemper Virus, and Vasculitis do not specifically match these characteristics, making them less likely explanations.

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  • 36. 

    Inflammatory disease of young animals – cervical pain, fever and depression, Marked neutrophilic pleocytosis with aging changes (hypersegmentation and pyknosis)

    • A.

      Steroid Responsive Meningitis

    • B.

      Degenerative disease

    • C.

      Granulomatous Meningoencephalomyelitis

    • D.

      Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis of Pugs

    Correct Answer
    A. Steroid Responsive Meningitis
    Explanation
    Steroid Responsive Meningitis is the correct answer because it is an inflammatory disease that commonly affects young animals. It is characterized by symptoms such as cervical pain, fever, and depression. The presence of marked neutrophilic pleocytosis with aging changes, such as hypersegmentation and pyknosis, further supports the diagnosis of Steroid Responsive Meningitis.

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  • 37. 

    LAcute and progressive of unknown origin, lCommon to dogs - young adults up to 6 years old, Results are extremely variable - hard to diagnose, lMild pleocytosis mostly lymphocytes , monocytes, macrophages and plasma cells

    • A.

      Granulomatous Meningoencephalomyelitis

    • B.

      Steroid Responsive Meningitis

    • C.

      Bacterial Meningitis

    • D.

      Rabies

    Correct Answer
    A. Granulomatous Meningoencephalomyelitis
    Explanation
    The given description mentions that the condition is acute and progressive, common in young adult dogs up to 6 years old, and the results are variable and difficult to diagnose. It also states that there is mild pleocytosis with mostly lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells. Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis is a condition that fits these characteristics, as it is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that affects young adult dogs and has variable clinical signs. The presence of pleocytosis with lymphocytes and monocytes also supports this diagnosis.

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  • 38. 

    LDistinctive with necrosis presenting seizures, dementia, ataxia, Moderate to marked pleocytosis with lymphocytes, Moderate protein

    • A.

      Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis of Pugs

    • B.

      Vasculitis

    • C.

      Distemper Virus

    • D.

      Rabies

    Correct Answer
    A. Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis of Pugs
    Explanation
    The given symptoms and findings are consistent with necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pugs, which is a specific condition that affects Pugs. This disease is characterized by seizures, dementia, ataxia, and pleocytosis with lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid. It is a necrotizing inflammatory disease that primarily affects the brain and meninges of Pugs, leading to progressive neurological deterioration. Other options like vasculitis, distemper virus, and rabies do not match the specific symptoms and findings mentioned in the question.

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  • 39. 

    Involve meningeal vessels, Less than 1 year old, Genetic predisposition, Marked pleocytosis – non-degenerate neutrophils, Moderately elevated protein

    • A.

      Vasculitis

    • B.

      Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    • C.

      Rickettsial disease

    • D.

      Distemper Virus

    Correct Answer
    A. Vasculitis
    Explanation
    The given symptoms suggest vasculitis, which is inflammation of the blood vessels. The involvement of meningeal vessels indicates inflammation in the meninges, the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The presence of marked pleocytosis with non-degenerate neutrophils suggests an inflammatory response, possibly due to an infection or autoimmune condition. The moderately elevated protein levels may indicate leakage of proteins from the inflamed blood vessels. Genetic predisposition and age less than 1 year old may contribute to the development of vasculitis.

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  • 40. 

    LMore common, Acute – no cell or protein elevations, Mild to moderate pleocytosis – lymphocytes, Mild protein concentration, Viral antigens have been detected with immunofluorescence

    • A.

      Distemper Virus

    • B.

      Rickettsial disease

    • C.

      Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    • D.

      Bacterial Meningitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Distemper Virus
    Explanation
    The given symptoms of "More common, Acute – no cell or protein elevations, Mild to moderate pleocytosis – lymphocytes, Mild protein concentration, Viral antigens have been detected with immunofluorescence" are consistent with a viral infection. Distemper virus is a highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs and other animals. It can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms. In the case of meningitis, it can cause inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, leading to pleocytosis (increased white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid). Therefore, the correct answer is Distemper Virus.

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  • 41. 

    Meningitis of many areas of brain,Marked pleocytosis - neutrophils,Marked elevations of proteins

    • A.

      Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    • B.

      Distemper Virus

    • C.

      Bacterial Meningitis

    • D.

      Rabies

    Correct Answer
    A. Feline Infectious Peritonitis
    Explanation
    The given symptoms of meningitis of many areas of the brain, marked pleocytosis (an increase in the number of white blood cells) - neutrophils, and marked elevations of proteins are consistent with Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP). FIP is a viral disease that affects cats and can cause inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, leading to meningitis. The presence of neutrophils and elevated proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid is indicative of an inflammatory response, which is commonly seen in FIP. Therefore, FIP is the most likely explanation for the given symptoms.

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  • 42. 

    LCases are sparsely reported, Findings are normal or mild lymphocyte inflammation

    • A.

      Rabies

    • B.

      Rickettsial disease

    • C.

      Distemper Virus

    • D.

      Bacterial Meningitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Rabies
    Explanation
    The given explanation suggests that the correct answer is Rabies because cases of the disease are sparsely reported and the findings typically show normal or mild lymphocyte inflammation. This indicates that Rabies is the most likely cause of the symptoms described.

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  • 43. 

    LExtremely rare in small animals, Systemically ill, Marked Pleocytosis - neutrophils shift to lymphocytes later in disease, Protein levels elevated, CSF cultures should be done

    • A.

      Bacterial Meningitis

    • B.

      Rickettsial disease

    • C.

      Toxoplasmosis/Neosporosis

    • D.

      Fungal

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacterial Meningitis
    Explanation
    The given information suggests that the animal is systemically ill and has marked pleocytosis, with a shift from neutrophils to lymphocytes later in the disease. Additionally, the protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are elevated. These findings are consistent with bacterial meningitis, which is an infection of the meninges caused by bacteria. CSF cultures should be done to confirm the diagnosis. The other options (Rickettsial disease, Toxoplasmosis/Neosporosis, and Fungal) do not match the given information and are therefore not the correct answer.

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  • 44. 

    Common Cryptococcus species, Diagnosed usually by other means than CSF, Marked pleocytosis – neutrophils and eosinophils, protein elevations seen

    • A.

      Fungal

    • B.

      Toxoplasmosis/Neosporosis

    • C.

      Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis of Pugs

    • D.

      Rickettsial disease

    Correct Answer
    A. Fungal
    Explanation
    The given information suggests that the correct answer is "Fungal." This is because the common Cryptococcus species is a fungal infection that is usually diagnosed by means other than cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing. Additionally, the presence of marked pleocytosis with neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as protein elevations, further supports a fungal infection.

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  • 45. 

    LProtozoan origin, Organisms rarely seen in host cells in CSF, Pleocytosis mild - lymphocytes, some neutrophils and small amount of eosinophils

    • A.

      Toxoplasmosis/Neosporosis

    • B.

      Fungal

    • C.

      Bacterial Meningitis

    • D.

      Rabies

    Correct Answer
    A. Toxoplasmosis/Neosporosis
    Explanation
    The given answer, Toxoplasmosis/Neosporosis, is the most likely explanation based on the information provided. The presence of organisms rarely seen in host cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggests an infection caused by a parasite. The mild pleocytosis with lymphocytes, neutrophils, and a small amount of eosinophils is also consistent with a parasitic infection. Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis are both parasitic infections that can affect the central nervous system, leading to symptoms similar to meningitis. Fungal and bacterial meningitis are less likely explanations based on the given information. Rabies is also unlikely as it typically does not cause pleocytosis in the CSF.

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  • 46. 

    LMay demonstrate neurologic involvement (Ehrlichia), Rocky mountain spotted fever is one, Neutrophilic pleocytosis with some identifiable organisms

    • A.

      Rickettsial disease

    • B.

      Toxoplasmosis/Neosporosis

    • C.

      Fungal

    • D.

      Bacterial Meningitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Rickettsial disease
    Explanation
    The given information suggests that the condition may demonstrate neurologic involvement and neutrophilic pleocytosis with identifiable organisms. Rickettsial diseases, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, can cause these symptoms. Therefore, the correct answer is Rickettsial disease.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 15, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    Analeesa.love
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