Semester 2 Neuro, Quiz 4 - Basal Ganglia

12 Questions | Total Attempts: 2716

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Neuroscience Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    An 83-year-old man is brought to the emergency department by his daughter, who explains that her father started having "fits." The examination reveaIs an alert, otherwise healthy, man who frequently has uncontrollable flailing movements of his left arm. Which of the following structures is most likely involved in this lesion?
    • A. 

      CerebelIar cortex plus nuclei

    • B. 

      Lenticular nucleus

    • C. 

      Subthalamic nucleus

    • D. 

      Ventral lateral nucleus

    • E. 

      Ventral posterolateral nucleus

  • 2. 
    Which of the following is the prominent population of melanin-containing cells located immediately internal to the crus cerebri?
    • A. 

      Locus ceruleus

    • B. 

      Pontine nuclei

    • C. 

      Red nucleus

    • D. 

      Reticular formation

    • E. 

      Substantia nigra

  • 3. 
    A 68~year-old woman is brought to the emergency department by her godson. He explains that she unexpectedIy began to have sudden movements of her left arm. /I The examination reveals a slender woman with hypertension and periodic, uncontrollable flailing movements of her left upper extremity suggestive of hemiballismus. Assuming this resulted from a vascular occlusion, MRI would most likely show an infarction in which of the following structures?
    • A. 

      Left substantia nigra

    • B. 

      Left subthalamic nucleus

    • C. 

      Right motor cortex

    • D. 

      Right substantia nigra

    • E. 

      Right subthalamic nucleus

  • 4. 
    A 64-year-old man is brought to a rural health clinic by a neighbor. The history reveals that the man is a recluse, lives by himself, and does not regularly visit a physician. The examination reveals that the man has difficulty walking, chorea and dystonia, and is suffering fromdementia. The neighbor believes that the man's father died from a simi lar disease. A tentative diagnosis of Huntington's disease is made. Absence of which of the following structures in an MRI of this man would be consistent with this diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Anterior lobe of cerebellum

    • B. 

      Head of the caudate

    • C. 

      Lateral thalamic nuclei

    • D. 

      Substantia nigra

    • E. 

      Subthalamic nucleus

  • 5. 
    A 59-year-old man, who is a family physician, confides in a neurology colleague that he believes he has early-stage Parkinson disease. The neurological examination reveals a slight resting tremor of the left hand, slow gait, and lack of the normal range of facial expression. Which of the following is the most likely location of the degenerative changes at this stage of the physician's disease?
    • A. 

      Bilateral substantia nigra

    • B. 

      Left globus pallidus

    • C. 

      Left substantia nigra

    • D. 

      Right globus pallidus

    • E. 

      Right substantia nigra

  • 6. 
    A 58-year-old left handed man is referred to a neurologist for "involuntary left-hand twitches". Between six months and a year ago he noticed that when his left hand was resting it would shake. He can stop the shaking by looking at his hand and concentrating. There is no tremor in his right hand and his lower extremities are not affected. He has had no trouble walking. There is no behavioral or language change. He has bilateral cogwheel rigidity. (i) What is the most likely diagnosis for this patient?
    • A. 

      Progressive Supranuclear palsy

    • B. 

      Guillain-Barre syndrome

    • C. 

      Multiple Sclerosis

    • D. 

      Parkinson's disease

    • E. 

      Stroke

  • 7. 
    A 58-year-old left handed man is referred to a neurologist for "involuntary left-hand twitches". Between six months and a year ago he noticed that when his left hand was resting it would shake. He can stop the shaking by looking at his hand and concentrating. There is no tremor in his right hand and his lower extremities are not affected. He has had no trouble walking. There is no behavioral or language change. He has bilateral cogwheel rigidity. (ii) What is the most appropriate pharmacotherapy for his condition?
    • A. 

      Alteplase

    • B. 

      Carbamazepine

    • C. 

      Levodopa/carbidopa

    • D. 

      Glatiramer

    • E. 

      Interferon beta-l aIpha

    • F. 

      Sertraline

  • 8. 
    A 58-year-old left handed man is referred to a neurologist for "involuntary left-hand twitches". Between six months and a year ago he noticed that when his left hand was resting it would shake. He can stop the shaking by looking at his hand and concentrating. There is no tremor in his right hand and his lower extremities are not affected. He has had no trouble walking. There is no behavioral or language change. He has bilateral cogwheel rigidity. (iii) The patient is also given tolcapone to supplement L-dopa/carbidopa therapy. What is the mechanism of action of tolcapone?
    • A. 

      It is a muscarinic antagonist, it controls the tremor better than L-dopa

    • B. 

      It is a dopamine receptor (D2) agonist, it allows reduction of t-dopa/carbidopa dosing

    • C. 

      It blocks dopamine co-transporters thus increasing dopamine levels in the caudate/putamen

    • D. 

      It is a Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, it increases dopamine levels in the caudate putamen

    • E. 

      It is a COMT inhibitor, it maximizes the uptake of L-dopa into the brain

  • 9. 
    A 58-year-old left handed man is referred to a neurologist for "involuntary left-hand twitches". Between six months and a year ago he noticed that when his left hand was resting it would shake. He can stop the shaking by looking at his hand and concentrating. There is no tremor in his right hand and his lower extremities are not affected. He has had no trouble walking. There is no behavioral or language change. He has bilateral cogwheel rigidity. (iv) Which agent has produced a syndrome similar to the one seen in this patient?
    • A. 

      Cocaine

    • B. 

      CO (Carbon monoxide)

    • C. 

      MOMA (3, 4-MethyleneDioxyMethAmphetamine)

    • D. 

      MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)

    • E. 

      Sulphonamides

  • 10. 
    A 58-year-old left handed man is referred to a neurologist for "involuntary left-hand twitches". Between six months and a year ago he noticed that when his left hand was resting it would shake. He can stop the shaking by looking at his hand and concentrating. There is no tremor in his right hand and his lower extremities are not affected. He has had no trouble walking. There is no behavioral or language change. He has bilateral cogwheel rigidity. (v) Which enzyme is normally present in the neurons whose degeneration leads to the patient's disorder?
    • A. 

      COMT (Catechol-O-methyltransfe rase)

    • B. 

      Dopamine -beta-hydroxylase

    • C. 

      Phenyl ethanolami ne-N-methyl transferase

    • D. 

      Tryptophan hydroxylase

    • E. 

      Tyrosine hydroxylase

  • 11. 
    Group A monkeys were given MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and developed akinesia, rigidity, and a tremor which were irreversible. Group B monkeys were treated with a drug prior to being given the neurotoxin and the second group failed to develop Parkinsonian symptoms. Which one of the following drugs was given to group B monkeys?
    • A. 

      A COMT (Catechol-O-methyltransferase) inhibitor

    • B. 

      A dopamine-beta hydroxylase inhibitor

    • C. 

      A monoamine oxidase B inhibitor

    • D. 

      A dopamine co-transporter inhibitor

  • 12. 
    • A. 

      5-hydroxytryptamine

    • B. 

      Acetylcholine

    • C. 

      GABA (y-aminobutyric actd)

    • D. 

      Norepinephrine

    • E. 

      Dopamine