Nursing Quiz: Asepsis And Infection Control

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Nursing Quiz: Asepsis And Infection Control - Quiz

Welcome to this asepsis and infection control quiz! The aseptic technique refers to applying practices and techniques to prevent contamination from pathogens to minimize and control the risk of infection. Healthcare workers use this method to use aseptic techniques in surgery rooms, clinics, and outpatient care centers. Take this asepsis and infection control practice test to check your knowledge about Asepsis and Infection Control. We wish you all the very best to you.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Fungi are present in

    • A.

      Soil

    • B.

      Air

    • C.

      Water

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Fungi are present in all of the above - soil, air, and water. Fungi are a diverse group of organisms that can be found in various habitats. In soil, fungi play a crucial role in decomposing organic matter and recycling nutrients. They also form mutualistic relationships with plant roots, aiding in nutrient uptake. Fungal spores can be found in the air, allowing them to disperse and colonize new areas. In water, fungi can be found in both freshwater and marine environments, where they contribute to nutrient cycling and decomposition. Therefore, fungi can be found in all of these environments.

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  • 2. 

    _____ is a disease state that restuls from the presence of pathogens. It occurs as a result of a cycllic process consisting of six components.

    Correct Answer
    infection
    Explanation
    Infection is a disease state that results from the presence of pathogens. It occurs as a result of a cyclic process consisting of six components. These components include the presence of a pathogen, entry of the pathogen into the host, establishment and colonization of the pathogen in the host, evasion of the host's immune response by the pathogen, damage to the host's tissues caused by the pathogen, and finally, transmission of the pathogen to another host. Infection can lead to a wide range of symptoms and can be transmitted through various means such as direct contact, airborne droplets, or contaminated surfaces.

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  • 3. 

    What is a disease-producing microorganism

    Correct Answer
    pathogen
    pathogens
    Explanation
    A disease-producing microorganism is commonly known as a pathogen or pathogens. Pathogens are microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that can cause disease in humans, animals, or plants. They invade the host's body and multiply, leading to the development of various infections and illnesses. Pathogens can be transmitted through various means such as direct contact, airborne droplets, contaminated food or water, or through vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Understanding and identifying pathogens is crucial in diagnosing and treating diseases effectively.

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  • 4. 

    What is the most significant and most ocmmonly ovbserved infection-causing agent in healthcare institutions?

    Correct Answer
    bacteria
    Explanation
    Bacteria are the most significant and commonly observed infection-causing agents in healthcare institutions. They are single-celled microorganisms that can multiply rapidly and cause various infections in humans. Bacterial infections can range from mild to severe, and they can be transmitted through direct contact, contaminated surfaces, or through the air. In healthcare settings, bacteria can spread easily, leading to outbreaks and increased risks for patients, especially those with weakened immune systems. Proper infection control measures, such as hand hygiene, disinfection, and sterilization, are crucial in preventing the spread of bacterial infections in healthcare institutions.

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  • 5. 

    Step one of the infection cycle is:

    Correct Answer
    infectious agent
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "infectious agent." In the infection cycle, step one involves the presence of an infectious agent. This refers to a pathogen or microorganism that can cause disease or infection in a host. The infectious agent can be a virus, bacteria, parasite, or fungus. It is the initial factor that initiates the infection process by entering the body and establishing an infection. Understanding the infectious agent is crucial in preventing and treating infections.

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  • 6. 

    The second component of the infection cycle is:

    Correct Answer
    reservoir
    Explanation
    The second component of the infection cycle is the reservoir. A reservoir refers to the source or location where the infectious agent (such as a virus or bacteria) can live and multiply. It can be a human, animal, or environmental source. The reservoir plays a crucial role in the transmission of the infection to susceptible individuals. By identifying and controlling the reservoir, the spread of the infection can be minimized or prevented.

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  • 7. 

    The third step of the infection process is:

    Correct Answer
    portal of exit
    exit
    Explanation
    The third step of the infection process is the portal of exit, which refers to the route through which the infectious agent leaves the reservoir. This can include various means such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or skin contact. Exit is another term used to describe this step, emphasizing the movement of the infectious agent out of the reservoir. Both portal of exit and exit are correct answers as they convey the same concept in different terminologies.

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  • 8. 

    The fourth part of the infection cycle is:

    Correct Answer
    means of transmission
    transmission
    Explanation
    The fourth part of the infection cycle is means of transmission, which refers to the ways in which the infection can be spread from one person to another. This can include direct contact, such as touching or kissing, as well as indirect contact through contaminated objects or surfaces. Transmission is the actual process of the infection being passed from one individual to another. Both terms are closely related and are essential in understanding how infections are spread and controlled.

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  • 9. 

    The fifth step on the infection process:

    Correct Answer
    portal of entry
    entry
    Explanation
    The fifth step in the infection process is the portal of entry, which refers to the route through which a pathogen enters the body. This can include various entry points such as the respiratory tract, digestive system, or even through breaks in the skin. Once the pathogen enters the body, it can start to invade and infect the host, leading to the development of an infection.

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  • 10. 

    The sixth part of the infection cycle is:

    Correct Answer
    susceptible host, host
    Explanation
    The sixth part of the infection cycle is the susceptible host, host. This refers to the stage where a person or organism becomes vulnerable to the infection. Once the pathogen comes into contact with the susceptible host, it can enter and infect the host's body. This stage is crucial for the spread and continuation of the infection, as without a susceptible host, the pathogen cannot survive or reproduce.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the follownig is not used to categorize bacteria?

    • A.

      Cocci

    • B.

      Spirochete

    • C.

      Gram positive

    • D.

      Bacilli

    • E.

      Mold

    Correct Answer
    E. Mold
    Explanation
    Mold is not used to categorize bacteria because mold is not a type of bacteria. Mold is a type of fungus, while bacteria are single-celled microorganisms. The other options listed - Cocci, Spirochete, Gram positive, and Bacilli - are all terms used to categorize different types or characteristics of bacteria.

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  • 12. 

    Gram-_____ bacteria are stained purple because they have thick cell walls that resist decolourization.

    Correct Answer
    positive
    Explanation
    Gram-positive bacteria are stained purple because they have thick cell walls that resist decolorization. The Gram staining technique involves the use of crystal violet dye, iodine, alcohol, and safranin. Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet dye even after the decolorization step. This results in the bacteria appearing purple under a microscope. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a thinner peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane, which allows the crystal violet dye to be washed away during the decolorization step, causing them to appear pink or red.

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  • 13. 

    Most bacteria are aerobic or anaerobic?

    Correct Answer
    aerobic
    Explanation
    Most bacteria are aerobic, meaning they require oxygen to survive and carry out their metabolic processes. This is because aerobic bacteria possess enzymes that allow them to utilize oxygen as a final electron acceptor in their respiration, which is essential for generating energy. In contrast, anaerobic bacteria can survive without oxygen and may utilize alternative electron acceptors, such as nitrate or sulfate, in their respiration. However, it is important to note that there are also some bacteria that can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen.

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  • 14. 

    The smallest of all microorganisms, visible only with an electron microscope is a

    Correct Answer
    virus
    Explanation
    Viruses are the smallest of all microorganisms and can only be seen with an electron microscope. They are not considered living organisms as they cannot reproduce on their own and require a host cell to multiply. Viruses consist of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat. They are responsible for causing various diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Due to their small size, they cannot be observed under a light microscope and require more powerful electron microscopes for visualization.

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  • 15. 

    _____ of the organisms is its ability to cause disease

    Correct Answer
    virulence
    Explanation
    Virulence refers to the degree or intensity of an organism's ability to cause disease. It is a measure of the pathogenicity or harmfulness of the organism. In other words, virulence describes how effectively an organism can invade and damage a host organism, leading to the development of a disease. The higher the virulence of an organism, the more severe the disease it can cause. Therefore, in the given question, the blank is filled with "virulence" to indicate that it is the characteristic of an organism that determines its ability to cause disease.

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  • 16. 

    Bacteria that normally cause no problem but, with certain factors, may potentially be harmful are reffered to as ______.

    Correct Answer
    opportunists
    Explanation
    Bacteria that are normally harmless but can cause harm under certain conditions are referred to as opportunistic bacteria. These bacteria take advantage of weakened immune systems or specific environmental factors to cause infections or diseases. They are opportunistic because they seize the opportunity to cause harm when the conditions are favorable for their growth and survival.

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  • 17. 

    E. coli is a

    • A.

      Pathogen

    • B.

      Normal flora

    • C.

      Opportunist

    • D.

      A and C

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Opportunist
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "opportunist" because E. coli is a type of bacteria that is typically harmless and can be found in the intestines of humans and animals as part of the normal flora. However, under certain circumstances, such as when the immune system is weakened or when the bacteria enters other parts of the body, it can cause infections and become pathogenic. Therefore, E. coli can act as an opportunistic pathogen.

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  • 18. 

    ____ for growth and multiplication of microorganisms is the natural habitat of the organism. It could be humans, animals, soil, food, water, milk, and inanimate objects.

    Correct Answer
    reservoir
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "reservoir." A reservoir is a natural habitat or source where microorganisms can grow and multiply. It can be humans, animals, soil, food, water, milk, or inanimate objects. These reservoirs provide the necessary conditions and resources for microorganisms to thrive and reproduce.

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  • 19. 

    Some humans are reservoirs for the infectious agent but do not exhibit any manifestations of the disease, they are called:

    Correct Answer
    carriers
    Explanation
    Carriers are individuals who harbor an infectious agent in their body but do not show any symptoms or manifestations of the disease. These individuals can unknowingly transmit the infectious agent to others, making them a potential source of infection. Carriers can be a significant concern in the spread of infectious diseases, as they can act as a reservoir for the pathogen without being aware of it. Identifying carriers and implementing appropriate measures to prevent transmission is crucial in controlling the spread of infectious diseases.

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  • 20. 

    In humans, which of the following is not a common portals of exit or escape routes:

    • A.

      Respiratory tract

    • B.

      Gastrointestinal tract

    • C.

      Genitourinary tract

    • D.

      Breaks in the skin

    • E.

      Muscular system

    Correct Answer
    E. Muscular system
    Explanation
    The muscular system is not a common portal of exit or escape route in humans. The respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and breaks in the skin are all pathways through which microorganisms or toxins can exit the body. However, the muscular system primarily functions in movement and does not serve as a direct route for pathogens to exit the body.

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  • 21. 

    Transmission can be through:

    • A.

      Direct contact

    • B.

      Blood

    • C.

      Indirect contact

    • D.

      Water

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above" because transmission of diseases can occur through various means, including direct contact with an infected person, contact with contaminated blood, indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects, and even through the consumption of contaminated water. Therefore, all the options mentioned in the question can potentially lead to the transmission of diseases.

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  • 22. 

    Contaminated inanimate objects are

    Correct Answer
    fomites
    Explanation
    Fomites are objects or surfaces that can become contaminated with infectious organisms and serve as a potential source of transmission. In this context, the correct answer suggests that contaminated inanimate objects are referred to as fomites. Fomites can include everyday items such as doorknobs, cell phones, or utensils, which can harbor bacteria, viruses, or other pathogens. These objects can play a role in spreading infections if proper hygiene and cleaning measures are not followed.

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  • 23. 

    Nonhuman carriers that transmit organisms from one host ot another are known as

    Correct Answer
    vectors
    Explanation
    Nonhuman carriers that transmit organisms from one host to another are known as vectors. Vectors can be living organisms such as mosquitoes, ticks, or fleas, or nonliving objects like contaminated needles or surgical instruments. These carriers play a crucial role in the spread of diseases, as they can transfer pathogens from an infected host to a susceptible one. Vectors are responsible for transmitting various diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, Lyme disease, and Zika virus. Understanding the role of vectors is essential in controlling and preventing the spread of these diseases.

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  • 24. 

    Lice or mosquitos can be a:

    • A.

      Fomite

    • B.

      Vector

    • C.

      Direct contact transmission

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Vector
    Explanation
    Lice or mosquitoes can be considered vectors because they are capable of transmitting diseases from one host to another. They can carry pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites and transfer them to humans or animals through their bites. As vectors, they play a crucial role in the spread of diseases like malaria, dengue fever, Zika virus, and typhus. Therefore, the correct answer is "Vector."

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  • 25. 

    ______ transmission is when an infected host coughs, sneezes, or talks and less than 5um

    Correct Answer
    airborne
    Explanation
    Airborne transmission refers to the spread of infectious agents through small particles suspended in the air, which can be inhaled by others. When an infected host coughs, sneezes, or talks, these actions can generate droplets that contain the infectious agents. If these droplets are smaller than 5um (micrometers), they can remain suspended in the air for longer periods and travel further distances, increasing the risk of transmission to others who inhale them. Therefore, the correct answer is "airborne."

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  • 26. 

    When an organism becomes attached to dust particles it is considered a:

    • A.

      Direct route

    • B.

      Droplet route

    • C.

      Airborne route

    • D.

      Entry route

    • E.

      Fomite

    Correct Answer
    C. Airborne route
    Explanation
    When an organism becomes attached to dust particles, it can be easily carried through the air. This means that the organism can be transmitted from one place to another through the movement of air, making it an airborne route of transmission.

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  • 27. 

    Droplet transmission is similar to airborne transmission, but it is larger than ____um

    Correct Answer
    5
    Explanation
    Droplet transmission refers to the spread of infectious respiratory droplets that are larger in size and tend to fall to the ground quickly within a short distance. The question states that droplet transmission is similar to airborne transmission, but the droplets involved in droplet transmission are larger than 5 micrometers (um) in size. This means that droplet transmission involves larger respiratory droplets that can travel shorter distances compared to airborne transmission, where smaller particles can remain suspended in the air for longer periods and travel longer distances.

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  • 28. 

    The entry route is usually _____ exit route.

    • A.

      Same as

    • B.

      Different than

    • C.

      It depends

    Correct Answer
    A. Same as
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Same as" because the phrase "entry route is usually _____ exit route" implies that the entry route and exit route are typically the same. This suggests that there is no difference between the two routes and they are identical. Therefore, the answer "Same as" is the most appropriate choice.

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  • 29. 

    The correct progression of an infection phases is:

    • A.

      Convalescent period, full stage of illness, prodromal stage, incubation period

    • B.

      Incubation period, full stage of illness, prodromal stage, convalescent period

    • C.

      Prodromal stage, incubation stage, full stage of illness, convalescent period

    • D.

      Incubation period, prodromal stage, full stage of illness, convalescent period

    • E.

      Incubation period, full stage of illness, prodromal stage, convalescan period.

    Correct Answer
    D. Incubation period, prodromal stage, full stage of illness, convalescent period
    Explanation
    The correct progression of an infection phases is as follows: first, there is the incubation period, during which the pathogen is multiplying but there are no symptoms. Then comes the prodromal stage, where mild symptoms start to appear. This is followed by the full stage of illness, where the symptoms are at their most severe. Finally, there is the convalescent period, where the person starts to recover and the symptoms gradually subside.

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  • 30. 

    During which stage of infection are the microorganisms growing and multiplying?

    Correct Answer
    incubation
    incubation period
    Explanation
    During the incubation stage of infection, microorganisms are actively growing and multiplying within the host's body. This stage occurs after the initial exposure to the pathogen and before the onset of symptoms. The microorganisms use this time to establish themselves and replicate, increasing their numbers and spreading throughout the body. The duration of the incubation period can vary depending on the specific pathogen and individual factors, such as the immune response.

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  • 31. 

    During which stage of infection is the person most infectous?

    Correct Answer
    prodromal
    prodromal stage
    Explanation
    The person is most infectious during the prodromal stage of infection. This stage occurs after the initial exposure to the pathogen and before the onset of specific symptoms. During this phase, the person may not yet be experiencing noticeable symptoms, but the viral load in their body is high, making them highly contagious. Therefore, it is crucial to take precautions and practice good hygiene during this stage to prevent the spread of the infection to others.

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  • 32. 

    During which stage of infection are the signs and symptoms nonspecific?

    Correct Answer
    prodromal stage, prodromal
    Explanation
    The signs and symptoms during the prodromal stage of infection are nonspecific. This means that they are not unique to a specific disease or infection and can be seen in various illnesses. Nonspecific symptoms may include fatigue, fever, headache, muscle aches, and a general feeling of malaise. These symptoms can make it difficult to determine the exact cause of the infection without further diagnostic tests or the progression of more specific symptoms.

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  • 33. 

    True or False:A person may continually pass through the four phases with the same infectious process, based on only one infectious exposure.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    It is possible for a person to continually pass through the four phases of an infectious process with only one infectious exposure. This means that the person can go through the incubation period, followed by the prodromal, illness, and convalescent phases, all resulting from a single exposure to the infectious agent. This can occur in cases where the immune response is not strong enough to completely eliminate the infection, leading to recurring or chronic infections.

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  • 34. 

    Antigens and antibodies are part of the body's _____ response

    Correct Answer
    immune
    Explanation
    Antigens and antibodies are part of the body's immune response. The immune response is the body's defense mechanism against foreign substances or pathogens. Antigens are molecules that can trigger an immune response, while antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy antigens. Together, they play a crucial role in identifying and eliminating harmful invaders, such as bacteria or viruses, and maintaining the body's overall immune system function.

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  • 35. 

    The foreign material that stimulates an immune response is called a

    Correct Answer
    antigen
    Explanation
    An antigen is a foreign substance that triggers an immune response in the body. When the immune system detects an antigen, it produces antibodies to neutralize or eliminate it. Antigens can include bacteria, viruses, toxins, or other foreign substances. The immune response generated by antigens is crucial for defending the body against infections and diseases.

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  • 36. 

    The body commonly responds to antigens by producing a

    Correct Answer
    antibody
    Explanation
    When the body is exposed to antigens, such as bacteria or viruses, it triggers an immune response. As a part of this response, specialized cells called B cells produce proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific antigens, marking them for destruction by other components of the immune system. This immune response is crucial for defending the body against harmful pathogens and preventing infections. Therefore, the correct answer is "antibody."

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  • 37. 

    Lymphocytes are a type of celll-mediated defense, or also known as:

    Correct Answer
    cellular immunity
    Explanation
    p. 705

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  • 38. 

    Symptoms of systemic infections include:

    • A.

      Fever

    • B.

      Increase pulse

    • C.

      Increase respiratory rate

    • D.

      Lethargy

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    p. 707

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  • 39. 

    The practice of _____ includes all activities to prevent infection or break the chain of infection

    Correct Answer
    asepsis
    Explanation
    Asepsis refers to the practice of preventing infection or breaking the chain of infection. It includes all activities aimed at maintaining a sterile or clean environment to minimize the risk of infection transmission. By implementing aseptic techniques, such as proper hand hygiene, sterilization of equipment, and use of protective barriers, healthcare professionals can reduce the spread of pathogens and ensure patient safety.

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  • 40. 

    Which of these is untrue about medical asepsis:

    • A.

      Also called clean technique

    • B.

      Invovles procedures and practices that reduce the number and transfer of pathogens

    • C.

      Keeps objects and areas free of microorganisms

    • D.

      E.g. hand hygiene

    • E.

      E.g. wearing gloves

    Correct Answer
    C. Keeps objects and areas free of microorganisms
    Explanation
    p. 707

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is untrue about surgical asepsis?

    • A.

      Includes practices used to render and keep objects and areas free from microorganisms

    • B.

      Such procedures include inserting urinary catheter or IV catheter

    • C.

      Also known as sterile technique

    • D.

      Involves actions such as handwashing

    • E.

      Such tecniques are used continuously both within and outside health agencies

    Correct Answer
    D. Involves actions such as handwashing
    Explanation
    Surgical asepsis involves practices used to render and keep objects and areas free from microorganisms. It includes procedures such as inserting urinary catheters or IV catheters. It is also known as sterile technique. However, the statement that surgical asepsis involves actions such as handwashing is untrue. Handwashing is a part of medical asepsis, which focuses on reducing the number of microorganisms and preventing their spread, but it is not a part of surgical asepsis. Surgical asepsis involves more stringent measures such as wearing sterile gloves and using sterile instruments to prevent any introduction of microorganisms during surgical procedures.

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  • 42. 

    What is the most effective way to help prevent the spread of organisms?

    • A.

      Sterile technique

    • B.

      Medical asepsis

    • C.

      Use of ultraviolet properties

    • D.

      Eliminating normal flora

    • E.

      Hand hygiene

    Correct Answer
    E. Hand hygiene
    Explanation
    p. 708

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  • 43. 

    What classification of bacteria, although usually easily removed by thorough handwashing, when they are present in large numbers over a long period of time can become resident bacteria.

    Correct Answer
    transient
    Explanation
    Transient bacteria are a classification of bacteria that are usually easily removed by thorough handwashing. However, when they are present in large numbers over a long period of time, they can become resident bacteria. This means that they can establish a permanent presence on the skin or in certain body sites. So, the correct answer is "transient."

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  • 44. 

    What classification of bacteria has the potential to adjust to the environment

    Correct Answer
    Tansient bacteria
    Explanation
    Transient bacteria refers to a classification of bacteria that have the ability to adjust or adapt to different environmental conditions. These bacteria are capable of surviving and thriving in various habitats, including the human body, soil, water, and air. They can adjust their metabolic processes, reproductive strategies, and other physiological characteristics to suit the changing conditions of their surroundings. This adaptability allows transient bacteria to colonize and persist in diverse environments, making them highly versatile and successful organisms.

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  • 45. 

    True or False:Alcohol-based handrubs are not as effective in reducing bacterial counts on the hands than does antimicrobial soap.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Alcohol-based rubs are shown to be more effective in reducing bacterial counts than antimicrobial soaps (p. 709)

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  • 46. 

    _____ nails are not recommended because they harbour more bacteria than do natural nails. They are also at risk for funcgal infection in the nail bed and are associated with less vigorous scrubbing.

    Correct Answer
    artificial
    Explanation
    p. 711

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following is not involved in breaking the cycle of infection?

    • A.

      Cleansing

    • B.

      Disinfection

    • C.

      Sterilization

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    p. 711

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  • 48. 

    ________ destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores. It is used when preparing the skin for a procedure or cleaning a piece of equipment that does not enter a sterile body part.

    Correct Answer
    disinfection
    Explanation
    p. 712

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  • 49. 

    _____ destroys all microorganisms including spores

    Correct Answer
    sterilization
    Explanation
    p. 712

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  • 50. 

    True or False:Gloves are a good substitute for good hand hygiene

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    p. 713

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