# Physics Nuclear SySTEM Quiz Questions

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Quiz on physics sections 7 and 8, focusing on definitions. Don't screw up the definition questions!�You get�free points if you just learn them.

• 1.

### “The components of a nucleus (protons and neutrons)” What is being defined?

Explanation
The term being defined is "nucleon." A nucleon refers to the components of a nucleus, which are protons and neutrons. Protons have a positive charge, while neutrons have no charge. Together, they make up the majority of the mass of an atom. The term nucleon is used to describe both protons and neutrons collectively.

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• 2.

### “A spectrum where all possible frequencies of light are present” What is being defined?

• A.

Continuous spectrum

• B.

Emission spectrum

• C.

Absorption spectrum

A. Continuous spectrum
Explanation
A continuous spectrum refers to a spectrum where all possible frequencies of light are present. This means that the spectrum covers a wide range of wavelengths without any gaps or missing frequencies. In other words, it represents a continuous distribution of colors or wavelengths. This is in contrast to emission and absorption spectra, which only display specific wavelengths or frequencies of light.

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• 3.

### “A spectrum where the frequencies of light emitted by an element are absent” Write down what type of spectrum this is

absorption spectrum
Explanation
An absorption spectrum refers to a spectrum where the frequencies of light emitted by an element are absent. In this type of spectrum, certain wavelengths of light are absorbed by the element, resulting in dark lines or bands on the spectrum. These dark lines indicate the specific frequencies of light that have been absorbed by the element. Absorption spectra are commonly used in scientific research and analysis to identify the presence of certain elements or compounds based on their unique absorption patterns.

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• 4.

### The light that an element emits can be define as its emission spectrum

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because an element's emission spectrum refers to the specific wavelengths of light that it emits when excited. Each element has a unique emission spectrum, which can be used to identify and analyze the element. Therefore, the light that an element emits is indeed defined as its emission spectrum.

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• 5.

### “The name given to a particular species of atom (one whose nucleus contains a specified number of protons and a specified number of neutrons)” What is being defined?

• A.

Nucleon

• B.

Nucleus

• C.

Nuclide

• D.

Neutron

C. Nuclide
Explanation
A nuclide refers to a particular species of atom that is characterized by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. It is a specific type of atom with a defined number of protons and neutrons.

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• 6.

### Isotopes are nuclides containing the same number of [1] but different number of [2]

• A.

[1] protons, [2] neutrons

• B.

[1] neutrons, [2] protons

A. [1] protons, [2] neutrons
Explanation
Isotopes are nuclides that have the same number of protons (atomic number) but different numbers of neutrons. The atomic number determines the element, while the number of neutrons can vary, resulting in different isotopes of the same element. This difference in the number of neutrons gives isotopes different atomic masses.

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• 7.

• A.

The process by which an atom loses its mass over time

• B.

The process by which atomic nuclei decay

• C.

The process by which an atom loses its electrons to the surroundings

B. The process by which atomic nuclei decay
Explanation
Radioactive decay refers to the process in which atomic nuclei undergo spontaneous decay, resulting in the emission of radiation and the formation of new elements. This process occurs when the nucleus of an unstable atom releases energy in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. It is a random process that cannot be influenced by external factors and is characterized by a half-life, which is the time required for half of the radioactive material to decay.

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• 8.

### "Half-life" can simply be defined as the time taken for half the number of nucleons in a sample to decay

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because the half-life of a substance refers to the time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay. This means that after one half-life, half of the original radioactive atoms will have decayed, and after two half-lives, only one-fourth of the original atoms will remain. Therefore, the statement accurately defines the concept of half-life.

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• 9.

### An artificial reaction in which a nucleus is bombarded with a nucleon, an alpha particle, or another small nucleus is known as an artificial [...]

transmutation
Explanation
An artificial reaction in which a nucleus is bombarded with a nucleon, an alpha particle, or another small nucleus is known as transmutation. Transmutation refers to the process of changing one element into another by altering the number of protons in the nucleus. This can be achieved by bombarding the nucleus with particles, causing it to undergo nuclear reactions and resulting in the formation of a different element. Transmutation plays a significant role in nuclear reactions and is utilized in various fields such as medicine, energy production, and scientific research.

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• 10.

### “The amount of energy released when a nucleus is assembled from its component nucleons” What is being defined above?

binding energy
Explanation
The given statement is defining the concept of binding energy. Binding energy refers to the amount of energy that is released or required when a nucleus is formed by assembling its component nucleons (protons and neutrons). It represents the strength of the attractive forces that hold the nucleons together within the nucleus. The higher the binding energy, the more stable the nucleus is.

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• 11.

### Nuclear fission can be defined as a “nuclear reaction whereby small nuclei are induced to join together into larger nuclei and release energy in the process”

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Nuclear fusion is being defined. Nuclear fission is a “nuclear reaction whereby large nuclei are induced to break up into smaller nuclei and release energy in the process”

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• 12.

### “Energy that is no longer available to perform useful work” What is being defined?

• A.

Lost heat energy

• B.

Thermal energy

• C.

• D.

Consumed energy

Explanation
The definition provided is for "degraded energy". Degraded energy refers to energy that has been transformed into a form that is no longer available to perform useful work. This could occur through processes such as heat transfer or friction, where the energy is dissipated and cannot be easily harnessed or utilized.

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• 13.

### A source of energy that cannot be used up is said to be ...

renewable
Explanation
A source of energy that cannot be used up is referred to as renewable because it can be replenished naturally or through human intervention. Renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal, are continuously available and can be harnessed without depleting their resources. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite and will eventually run out, renewable energy sources have the potential to provide sustainable and clean energy for future generations.

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• 14.

### “The energy liberated per unit mass of fuel consumed” What is being defined?

• A.

Work function

• B.

Energy density

• C.

Critical mass

• D.

Albedo

B. Energy density
Explanation
This question is asking for the definition of "energy density." Energy density refers to the amount of energy released per unit mass of fuel consumed. It is a measure of how efficiently a fuel can produce energy.

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• 15.

### Fuels that have been produced from the accumulations of dead matter are known as ...

fossil fuels
Explanation
Fuels that have been produced from the accumulations of dead matter over millions of years are called fossil fuels. These fuels include coal, oil, and natural gas, and they are formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived long ago. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources and are major sources of energy worldwide. They are widely used for electricity generation, transportation, and heating.

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• 16.

### The critical mass is the stage in a nuclear reaction where a [...] can occur

chain reaction
Explanation
The critical mass refers to the minimum amount of fissile material required to sustain a chain reaction in a nuclear reaction. A chain reaction is a self-sustaining reaction where each fission event produces enough neutrons to trigger subsequent fission events. Therefore, when the critical mass is reached, a chain reaction can occur.

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• 17.

### “Material that absorbs excess neutrons to prevent an uncontrollably large release of energy” A "moderator" is defined above

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Control rods are being defined. A moderator is a material whose atoms slow down neutrons to make them suitable for reaction.

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• 18.

### “Device that allows the nuclear reactions to occur in a place that is sealed from the rest of the environment” Write down what is being defined

heat exchanger
Explanation
A heat exchanger is a device that allows nuclear reactions to occur in a sealed environment separate from the rest of the surroundings. It is designed to transfer heat from one fluid to another without the fluids coming into direct contact with each other. This allows for efficient heat transfer while maintaining the integrity and safety of the nuclear reactions.

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• 19.

### A reactor design that utilizes plutonium-239 is known as a fast breeder reactor

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
A fast breeder reactor is a type of reactor design that uses plutonium-239 as fuel. Plutonium-239 is especially suitable for this type of reactor because it can sustain a chain reaction with fast neutrons. In a fast breeder reactor, the plutonium-239 undergoes fission and produces more plutonium-239 as a byproduct. This makes the reactor highly efficient in terms of fuel utilization and allows for the breeding of more fuel than is consumed. Therefore, it is correct to say that a reactor design utilizing plutonium-239 is known as a fast breeder reactor.

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• 20.

### “Device which converts a portion of the sun’s radiated energy directly into a potential difference” What is defined?

• A.

Solar panel

• B.

Photovoltaic cell

• C.

Active solar heater

• D.

Albedo

B. Photovoltaic cell
Explanation
A photovoltaic cell is a device that converts a portion of the sun's radiated energy directly into a potential difference. This means that it can convert sunlight into electricity by utilizing the photovoltaic effect.

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• 21.

### An active solar heater is a “device which captures as much [...] from the sun as possible, which can be used to heat water”

thermal energy
heat energy
heat
Explanation
An active solar heater is designed to capture thermal energy or heat energy from the sun in order to heat water. This means that it utilizes the heat or thermal energy from the sun to warm up the water, making it an efficient and environmentally friendly way to heat water.

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• 22.

### “Law stating that, for a given area of receiver, the intensity of the received radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the point source to the receiver” Which law is this?

• A.

Wien's displacement law

• B.

Boltzmann's law

• C.

Hooke's law

• D.

Inverse square law

D. Inverse square law
Explanation
The given law states that the intensity of received radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the point source to the receiver. This is known as the inverse square law. According to this law, as the distance from the source increases, the intensity of the radiation decreases rapidly. This law is commonly applied in various fields such as physics, astronomy, and photography to understand the behavior of radiation and light.

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• 23.

### Black-body radiation can simply be defined as "the radiation from a perfect absorber"

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
"The radiation from a perfect emitter" is correct

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• 24.

### “The fraction of the radiation received by a planet that is reflected back into space” Write down the six-letter concept that is defined above

albedo
Explanation
The term "albedo" refers to the fraction of radiation that is reflected back into space by a planet. It is a measure of the planet's reflectivity, with a higher albedo indicating that more radiation is reflected and less is absorbed. The albedo of a planet plays a significant role in its overall climate and temperature, as it affects the amount of solar energy that is absorbed or reflected.

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• 25.

### Wien's displacement law relates the wavelength at which the intensity of the radiation is at maximum, to the temperature of a [...]

black body
Explanation
Wien's displacement law states that the wavelength at which the intensity of radiation is at its maximum is inversely proportional to the temperature of a black body. A black body is an idealized object that absorbs all incident radiation and emits radiation at all wavelengths. This means that as the temperature of a black body increases, the peak intensity of radiation shifts towards shorter wavelengths, such as ultraviolet or even X-ray radiation. Therefore, the correct answer is black body.

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• 26.

### Two systems are in [...] if their temperatures are the same

• A.

Translation equilibrium

• B.

Perfect harmony

• C.

Heat equilibrium

• D.

Thermal equilibrium

D. Thermal equilibrium
Explanation
Thermal equilibrium refers to a state where two systems have the same temperature. In this state, there is no net flow of heat between the systems, as they have reached a balance in terms of their thermal energy. This means that the systems are in a state of equilibrium in terms of their temperature, and there is no temperature difference driving heat transfer.

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• 27.

### “The ratio of power radiated per unit area by an object, to the power radiated per unit area by a black body at the same temperature” What is being defined?

• A.

Feedback

• B.

Coefficient of volume expansion

• C.

Emissivity

• D.

E.m.f.

C. Emissivity
Explanation
Emissivity is being defined in this statement. Emissivity is the ratio of power radiated per unit area by an object to the power radiated per unit area by a black body at the same temperature. It is a measure of how efficiently an object radiates heat compared to a perfect black body.

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• 28.

### "The gases in the atmosphere which absorb infra-red radiation" are known as

greenhouse gases
Explanation
Greenhouse gases are the gases in the atmosphere that have the ability to absorb and emit infrared radiation. This process traps heat in the Earth's atmosphere, leading to the greenhouse effect and causing global warming. Some common greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor. These gases play a significant role in regulating the Earth's temperature and climate.

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• 29.

### If you get a question about greenhouse gases or global warming on the exam. never forget to mention the enhanced greenhouse effect. What is it?

• A.

An increase in the greenouse effect caused by carbon dioxide

• B.

An increase in the greenhouse effect caused by cars

• C.

An increase in the greenhouse effect caused by human activities

C. An increase in the greenhouse effect caused by human activities
Explanation
The correct answer is an increase in the greenhouse effect caused by human activities. This refers to the phenomenon where human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation, result in the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These gases trap heat from the sun, leading to a rise in global temperatures and contributing to climate change. It is important to mention the enhanced greenhouse effect when discussing greenhouse gases and global warming because it highlights the significant role that human activities play in exacerbating the natural greenhouse effect.

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• 30.

### “The energy required to raise the temperature of unit area of a planet’s surface by one degree” Defined above is [...] heat capacity

surface
Explanation
Do not mix up with "specific heat capacity"!

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• 31.

### The coefficient which records the fractional change in volume per degree change in temperature is known as the coefficient of [...]

volume expansion
Explanation
The coefficient of volume expansion is a measure of how much a substance's volume changes with a change in temperature. It quantifies the fractional change in volume per degree change in temperature. This coefficient is used to calculate the change in volume of a substance when its temperature is changed, and is an important factor in understanding thermal expansion and contraction of materials.

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• 32.

### “When the result of a change in a process is a further change of one of the constants involved” is a simply put definition of "feedback"

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The given statement defines "feedback" as a situation where a change in a process leads to a further change in one of the constants involved. This means that the outcome of the process affects one of the factors that originally caused the change. Therefore, the statement is true.

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• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Jul 04, 2012
Quiz Created by
Meenujoshi87

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