Physical Science Module 16

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Physical Science Module 16 - Quiz

An Introduction to Astrophysics


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The process by which two or more small nuclei fuse to make a bigger nucleus is called:

    • A.

      Nuclear Fission

    • B.

      Nuclear Fusion

    • C.

      Nuclear Furniture

    • D.

      Nuclear Funsize

    Correct Answer
    B. Nuclear Fusion
    Explanation
    Nuclear fusion is the correct answer because it refers to the process in which two or more small nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus. This process releases a large amount of energy and is the primary source of energy in stars, including our sun. In contrast, nuclear fission involves the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei, and it is used in nuclear power plants and atomic bombs. The options "Nuclear Furniture" and "Nuclear Funsize" are not valid terms and do not relate to any scientific process.

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  • 2. 

    The process by which a large nucleus is split into smaller nuclei is called:

    • A.

      Nuclear Fission

    • B.

      Nuclear Fusion

    • C.

      Nuclear Division

    • D.

      Nuclear Pop Goes the Weasel

    Correct Answer
    A. Nuclear Fission
    Explanation
    Nuclear fission is the correct answer because it refers to the process of splitting a large nucleus into smaller nuclei. This process releases a significant amount of energy and is commonly used in nuclear power plants and atomic bombs. On the other hand, nuclear fusion is the process of combining two smaller nuclei to form a larger nucleus, which also releases a large amount of energy. However, in the given question, the correct answer specifically asks for the process of splitting, hence nuclear fission is the appropriate choice. "Nuclear Division" is not a scientifically recognized term, and "Nuclear Pop Goes the Weasel" is a humorous and irrelevant option.

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  • 3. 

    The amount of isotope necessary to sustain a chain reaction is called:

    • A.

      Absolute Mass

    • B.

      Critical Mass

    • C.

      Chunky Mass

    • D.

      Core Mass

    Correct Answer
    B. Critical Mass
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Critical Mass". In a nuclear chain reaction, a certain amount of a radioactive isotope is needed to sustain the reaction. This amount is known as the critical mass. If the amount of isotope is below the critical mass, the reaction will not be self-sustaining. Therefore, critical mass is the term used to describe the minimum amount of isotope required for a chain reaction to occur.

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  • 4. 

    The brightness of a star, corrected for distance, on a scale of -8 to +19 is called _________________________.  The smaller the number, the brighter the star.

    • A.

      Abundant Magnitude

    • B.

      Apparent Magnitude

    • C.

      Absolute Magnitude

    • D.

      Anti-Magnitude

    Correct Answer
    C. Absolute Magnitude
    Explanation
    The brightness of a star, corrected for distance, on a scale of -8 to +19 is called Absolute Magnitude. This term is used to measure the true brightness of a star, taking into account its distance from Earth. A smaller absolute magnitude indicates a brighter star, while a larger absolute magnitude indicates a dimmer star.

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  • 5. 

    The brightness of a star as seen in the night sky is called __________________________.  The smaller the number, the brighter the star.

    • A.

      Abundant Magnitude

    • B.

      Apparent Magnitude

    • C.

      Absolute Magnitude

    • D.

      Anti-Magnitude

    Correct Answer
    B. Apparent Magnitude
    Explanation
    The brightness of a star as seen in the night sky is called apparent magnitude. This term refers to how bright a star appears to an observer on Earth. The smaller the apparent magnitude number, the brighter the star appears. This measurement takes into account factors such as the star's distance from Earth and its intrinsic brightness. Abundant Magnitude, Absolute Magnitude, and Anti-Magnitude are not correct terms used to describe the brightness of a star.

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  • 6. 

    The distance light could travel along a straight line in one year is called:

    • A.

      Leap Year

    • B.

      Buzz Light Year

    • C.

      Long Year

    • D.

      Light Year

    Correct Answer
    D. Light Year
    Explanation
    A light year is the distance that light can travel in one year through a vacuum. It is a unit of measurement used in astronomy to describe vast distances between celestial objects. Since light travels at a speed of approximately 299,792 kilometers per second, it can cover a distance of about 9.46 trillion kilometers in one year. The term "light year" is derived from the fact that it represents the distance that light can travel in the span of a year.

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  • 7. 

    A large ensemble of stars, all interacting through the gravitational force and orbiting around a common center is called:

    • A.

      Galaxy

    • B.

      Universe

    • C.

      Cosmos

    • D.

      Milky Way

    Correct Answer
    A. Galaxy
    Explanation
    A large ensemble of stars, all interacting through the gravitational force and orbiting around a common center is called a galaxy. A galaxy is a vast collection of stars, planets, gas, dust, and other celestial objects held together by gravity. The Milky Way is an example of a galaxy, which is the galaxy that contains our solar system. The term "universe" refers to the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy, including all galaxies and everything within them. "Cosmos" is a more general term that can refer to the universe or the entire physical reality.

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  • 8. 

    What nuclear process occurs in the sun's core?

    • A.

      Nuclear Fusion

    • B.

      Nuclear Fission

    • C.

      No Fly Zone

    Correct Answer
    A. Nuclear Fusion
    Explanation
    Nuclear fusion is the process that occurs in the sun's core. Fusion is the combining of two atomic nuclei to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy in the process. In the sun's core, hydrogen nuclei combine to form helium nuclei, releasing a tremendous amount of energy in the form of light and heat. This fusion process is what powers the sun and allows it to emit light and heat.

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  • 9. 

    A 4He nucleus and a 7Li nucleus collide and form a 10B nucleus and a neutron.  Is this nuclear fusion or nuclear fission?

    • A.

      Nuclear Fusion

    • B.

      Nuclear Fission

    Correct Answer
    A. Nuclear Fusion
    Explanation
    The given scenario involves the combination of two smaller nuclei, 4He and 7Li, to form a larger nucleus, 10B, along with the release of a neutron. This process is known as nuclear fusion. In nuclear fusion, lighter nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy in the process. This is the process that powers the sun and other stars. Therefore, the correct answer is nuclear fusion.

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  • 10. 

    A scientist studies a process in which a neutron strikes a 216Pu nucleus to make a 104Cd nucleus, a 110Pd nucleus, and three neutrons.  If the scientist measures the mass of the 216Pu and the original neutron and then subtracts the mass of the 104Cd nucleus, the mass of the 110Pd nucleus, and the mass of the three neutrons, will the scientist get a positive number, a negative number, or zero?

    • A.

      Positive Number

    • B.

      Negative Number

    • C.

      Zero

    Correct Answer
    A. Positive Number
    Explanation
    When a neutron strikes a 216Pu nucleus to produce a 104Cd nucleus, a 110Pd nucleus, and three neutrons, the total mass of the products will be less than the total mass of the reactants. This is because a small amount of mass is converted into energy according to Einstein's mass-energy equivalence principle (E=mc^2). Therefore, when the scientist subtracts the mass of the products from the mass of the reactants, the result will be a positive number, indicating that there is a decrease in mass and an equivalent release of energy.

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  • 11. 

    Is it possible for a nuclear power plant to experience a nuclear explosion?

    • A.

      Yes, it is possible.

    • B.

      No, it is not possible.

    • C.

      Maybe, it could be possible.

    Correct Answer
    B. No, it is not possible.
    Explanation
    A nuclear power plant is designed to generate electricity using nuclear reactions, specifically controlled nuclear fission. The reactor core contains fuel rods that undergo controlled fission, producing heat that is used to generate steam and ultimately electricity. However, the design of nuclear power plants includes multiple safety measures to prevent a nuclear explosion. These safety measures include control rods that can be inserted to absorb neutrons and stop the fission reaction, as well as multiple layers of containment structures to prevent the release of radioactive materials. Therefore, a nuclear explosion, which involves an uncontrolled chain reaction and release of a significant amount of energy, is highly unlikely in a properly functioning nuclear power plant.

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  • 12. 

    Using the H-R diagram below, classify the following star:  Magnitude 5, Spectral Letter G

    • A.

      Supergiant

    • B.

      White Dwarf

    • C.

      Red Giant

    • D.

      Main Sequence

    Correct Answer
    D. Main Sequence
    Explanation
    Based on the given information of magnitude 5 and spectral letter G, we can determine that the star falls under the category of main sequence. The magnitude 5 suggests that the star has a moderate brightness, while the spectral letter G indicates that it has a yellow color. Main sequence stars are typically categorized based on their spectral type and luminosity, and a G-type star with magnitude 5 would fall within the main sequence range.

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  • 13. 

    Using the H-R diagram below, classify the following star:   Magnitude -2, Spectral Letter K

    • A.

      Supergiant

    • B.

      White Dwarf

    • C.

      Red Giant

    • D.

      Main Sequence

    Correct Answer
    C. Red Giant
    Explanation
    Based on the information given, the star has a magnitude of -2 and a spectral letter of K. The H-R diagram shows that stars with lower magnitudes are brighter, and stars with spectral letter K are cooler than stars with spectral letter A or B. Red giants are bright and have cooler temperatures, so the star in question is most likely a red giant.

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  • 14. 

    Using the H-R diagram below, classify the following star:   Magnitude 11, Spectral Letter B

    • A.

      Supergiant

    • B.

      White Dwarf

    • C.

      Red Giant

    • D.

      Main Sequence

    Correct Answer
    B. White Dwarf
    Explanation
    Based on the information given, the star has a magnitude of 11 and a spectral letter of B. The H-R diagram classifies stars based on their luminosity and temperature. White dwarfs are small and hot stars with low luminosity, which is consistent with a magnitude of 11. The spectral letter B indicates a high temperature. Therefore, the star is classified as a white dwarf.

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  • 15. 

    Using the H-R diagram below, classify the following star:   Magnitude -6, Spectral Letter A

    • A.

      Supergiant

    • B.

      White Dwarf

    • C.

      Red Giant

    • D.

      Main Sequence

    Correct Answer
    A. Supergiant
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, a star with a magnitude of -6 and a spectral letter A would be classified as a supergiant. Supergiants are extremely bright and massive stars that are in the later stages of their evolution. The spectral letter A indicates that the star has a relatively high surface temperature. Therefore, combining the high magnitude and spectral letter A, it can be concluded that the star is a supergiant.

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  • 16. 

    Which is the brightest of the stars in the last 4 star classifications?

    • A.

      Magnitude 5, Spectral Letter G - Main Sequence

    • B.

      Magnitude -2, Spectral Letter K - Red Giant

    • C.

      Magnitude 11, Spectral Letter B - White Dwarf

    • D.

      Magnitude -6, Spectral Letter A - Supergiant

    Correct Answer
    D. Magnitude -6, Spectral Letter A - Supergiant
    Explanation
    The brightness of a star is determined by its magnitude, with lower magnitudes indicating brighter stars. In this case, the star with a magnitude of -6 is the brightest because it has the lowest magnitude value. The spectral letter A indicates that it is a Supergiant star, which is a very large and luminous star. Therefore, the combination of a low magnitude and the spectral classification as a Supergiant makes it the brightest star among the given options.

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  • 17. 

    Which is the hottest of the stars in the last 4 star classifications?

    • A.

      Magnitude 5, Spectral Letter G - Main Sequence

    • B.

      Magnitude -2, Spectral Letter K - Red Giant

    • C.

      Magnitude 11, Spectral Letter B - White Dwarf

    • D.

      Magnitude -6, Spectral Letter A - Supergiant

    Correct Answer
    C. Magnitude 11, Spectral Letter B - White Dwarf
    Explanation
    The temperature of a star is determined by its spectral letter. In the star classifications, the spectral letters range from O (hottest) to M (coolest). In this case, the spectral letter B indicates that the star is hotter than G, K, and A. Therefore, the star with the spectral letter B - White Dwarf is the hottest among the given options. The magnitude of the star is not directly related to its temperature, so the magnitude values are not relevant in determining the hottest star.

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  • 18. 

    What are the two main types of variable stars?

    • A.

      Novas and Binary Stars

    • B.

      Binary Stars and Eclipsing Binary Stars

    • C.

      Eclipsing Binary Stars and Pulsating Variables

    • D.

      Pulsating Variables and Novas

    Correct Answer
    D. Pulsating Variables and Novas
    Explanation
    The two main types of variable stars are pulsating variables and novas. Pulsating variables are stars that change in brightness due to pulsations in their size and temperature. This can be caused by various factors such as changes in their internal structure or interactions with nearby stars. Novas, on the other hand, are explosive events that occur in binary star systems. They happen when a white dwarf star accretes material from its companion star, causing a thermonuclear explosion on its surface. Both pulsating variables and novas exhibit variations in their brightness over time, making them important objects of study in astronomy.

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  • 19. 

    Cephid variables are variable stars whose magnitude and period have a direct relationship.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cepheid variables are a type of variable star that exhibit a direct relationship between their magnitude (brightness) and period (time it takes to complete one cycle of variability). This means that as the period of a Cepheid variable increases, its magnitude also increases, and vice versa. This relationship was discovered by Henrietta Swan Leavitt in the early 20th century and has been used as a standard candle to measure distances in astronomy. Therefore, the statement that Cepheid variables have a direct relationship between their magnitude and period is true.

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  • 20. 

    Cephid variables are important in astronomy because that direct relationship can be used to measure short distances in the universe.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cepheid variables are important in astronomy, but the given statement is false. Cepheid variables are actually used to measure long distances in the universe, not short distances. These pulsating stars have a well-known period-luminosity relationship, which allows astronomers to determine their intrinsic brightness and calculate their distance from Earth. This method, known as the period-luminosity relationship, has been widely used to measure distances to other galaxies and determine the scale of the universe.

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  • 21. 

    What is the name of the galaxy to which earth's solar system belongs?

    • A.

      Andromeda Galaxy

    • B.

      Cartwheel Galaxy

    • C.

      Cigar Galaxy

    • D.

      Milky Way Galaxy

    Correct Answer
    D. Milky Way Galaxy
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way Galaxy is the name of the galaxy to which Earth's solar system belongs. It is a barred spiral galaxy that contains billions of stars, including our sun. The Milky Way is also home to other celestial objects such as planets, asteroids, and comets.

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  • 22. 

    What type of galaxy is that galaxy to which earth's solar system belongs?

    • A.

      Spiral Galaxy

    • B.

      Lenticular Galaxy

    • C.

      Elliptical Galaxy

    • D.

      Irregular Galaxy

    Correct Answer
    A. Spiral Galaxy
    Explanation
    The Earth's solar system belongs to a Spiral Galaxy. Spiral galaxies are characterized by their distinct spiral arms, which contain young stars, gas, and dust. These galaxies have a central bulge and a flat disk-like structure. Our Milky Way galaxy is a prime example of a spiral galaxy, with the Sun located in one of its spiral arms.

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  • 23. 

    The phenomenon in which light that comes to the earth from other galaxies ends up having longer wavelengths than it should is called:

    • A.

      Blue Shift

    • B.

      Red Shift

    • C.

      Yellow Shift

    • D.

      Rainbow Shift

    Correct Answer
    B. Red Shift
    Explanation
    Red Shift is the correct answer because it refers to the phenomenon in which light from other galaxies appears to have longer wavelengths than it should. This shift occurs because the galaxies are moving away from us, causing the light waves to stretch and shift towards the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum. This phenomenon is a key piece of evidence for the expansion of the universe and supports the Big Bang theory. Blue Shift, Yellow Shift, and Rainbow Shift are not accurate terms to describe this phenomenon.

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