Quiz No. 2 Introduction To Economic Evaluations II

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| By Bbsierra
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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 1,491
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Quiz No. 2 Introduction To Economic Evaluations II - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What type of question is a pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial intended to answer?

    • A.

      An efficacy question

    • B.

      An effectiveness question

    • C.

      An efficiency question

    • D.

      An equity question

    Correct Answer
    B. An effectiveness question
    Explanation
    A pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial is designed to answer an effectiveness question. This type of trial aims to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of an intervention or treatment in a diverse population, reflecting the actual conditions of routine clinical practice. It focuses on measuring the outcomes of the intervention in a broad range of patients, including those with comorbidities or other characteristics that may be excluded from traditional efficacy trials. Therefore, the trial aims to determine whether the intervention works in real-world settings, rather than under ideal or controlled conditions.

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  • 2. 

    What type of question is a traditional randomized controlled clinical trial intended to answer?

    • A.

      An efficacy question

    • B.

      An effectiveness question

    • C.

      An efficiency question

    • D.

      An equity question

    Correct Answer
    A. An efficacy question
    Explanation
    A traditional randomized controlled clinical trial is designed to answer an efficacy question. This type of question aims to determine whether a specific intervention or treatment is effective in producing a desired outcome under ideal conditions, such as in a controlled environment. Efficacy questions focus on establishing the cause-and-effect relationship between the intervention and the outcome, typically involving a comparison between the intervention group and a control group. This type of trial is often conducted in early stages of research to assess the potential benefits and risks of a new treatment before moving on to effectiveness studies in real-world settings.

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  • 3. 

    What type of question is a cost-effectiveness study intended to answer?

    • A.

      An efficacy question

    • B.

      An effectiveness question

    • C.

      An efficiency question

    • D.

      An equity question

    Correct Answer
    C. An efficiency question
    Explanation
    A cost-effectiveness study is intended to answer an efficiency question. This type of study aims to determine the most efficient use of resources to achieve a desired outcome. It compares the costs of different interventions or treatments with their outcomes or benefits to assess which option provides the best value for money. By evaluating the cost-effectiveness of different approaches, decision-makers can allocate resources efficiently and make informed choices about healthcare interventions or programs.

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  • 4. 

    In what situations is it advisable to use a measure of compound benefit in an economic evaluation?

    • A.

      When interventions have multiple relevant consequences

    • B.

      When interested in obtaining a result that is comparable to unrelated alternatives that do not share consequences

    • C.

      When survival as well as quality of life or the disability that survival entails are relevant

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    A measure of compound benefit should be used in an economic evaluation when interventions have multiple relevant consequences. This is because a compound measure takes into account all the different consequences and provides a comprehensive evaluation of the intervention's overall benefit. It is also advisable to use a compound measure when interested in obtaining a result that can be compared to unrelated alternatives that do not share consequences. Finally, when survival as well as quality of life or disability are relevant, a compound measure can capture both aspects and provide a more accurate assessment of the intervention's impact.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following statements is correct with regard to DALYs?

    • A.

      They only consider premature deaths due to a condition.

    • B.

      They are the sum of the costs of treatment of a condition.

    • C.

      They express the number of life years lost due to disease, disability or premature death.

    • D.

      They express life years adjusted for quality of life.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. They express the number of life years lost due to disease, disability or premature death.
    Explanation
    DALYs (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) are a measure used to quantify the burden of disease. They express the number of life years lost due to disease, disability, or premature death. This means that DALYs take into account not only premature deaths but also the years of healthy life lost due to disability or illness. The other options mentioned in the question, such as considering only premature deaths or summing up treatment costs, are not accurate descriptions of DALYs. Therefore, the correct statement is that DALYs express the number of life years lost due to disease, disability, or premature death.

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  • 6. 

    The time horizon of an economic evaluation of vaccines that measure results in DALY should be the entire life expectancy of the subjects.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In an economic evaluation of vaccines that measure results in DALY (Disability-Adjusted Life Years), it is important to consider the entire life expectancy of the subjects. DALY takes into account both the years of life lost due to premature death and the years lived with a disability. By considering the entire life expectancy, the evaluation can accurately assess the impact of the vaccine on the overall health and well-being of the subjects. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 7. 

    The importance of discounting in economic evaluations is that inflation should be incorporated in this type of studies.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the importance of discounting in economic evaluations is not related to incorporating inflation. Discounting is a technique used to adjust future costs and benefits to their present value, taking into account the time value of money. It is used to compare costs and benefits that occur at different points in time. Inflation, on the other hand, is a separate factor that affects the purchasing power of money over time. While inflation may be considered in economic evaluations, it is not the primary reason for the importance of discounting.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following aspects will influence the results of an economic evaluation through its influence on the discounting process?

    • A.

      The time horizon

    • B.

      The discount rate

    • C.

      Differences in the time/year in which interventions compared are conducted

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All three aspects mentioned in the answer will influence the results of an economic evaluation through their influence on the discounting process. The time horizon refers to the length of time over which costs and benefits are considered, and a longer time horizon can lead to different discounting outcomes. The discount rate is the rate at which future costs and benefits are adjusted to their present value, and different discount rates can significantly impact the evaluation results. Lastly, differences in the timing of interventions compared can affect the timing of costs and benefits, leading to variations in the discounting process and ultimately influencing the evaluation results.

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  • 9. 

    Read the following statement from a hypothetical study conducted in a country with a per capita GDP of $4,000. Then answer questions 9 and 10. The cost-effectiveness of the pneumococcal vaccine ranged from $5,000 to $15,000 per DALY averted when the uncertainty associated with the incidence of pneumonia in the population (mean: 5 per thousand; range based on a 95% CI 3 to 7 per thousand) was evaluated. What is being reported in this paragraph?

    • A.

      The main results

    • B.

      Deterministic sensitivity analysis

    • C.

      Structural sensitivity analysis

    • D.

      Probabilistic sensitivity analysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Deterministic sensitivity analysis
  • 10. 

    What conclusion can be inferred from this paragraph regarding the new technology?

    • A.

      It is not cost-effective.

    • B.

      It is very cost-effective.

    • C.

      No conclusions can be drawn due to uncertainty.

    • D.

      It is cost-effective despite the uncertainty.

    • E.

      It is not cost-effective.

    Correct Answer
    D. It is cost-effective despite the uncertainty.
    Explanation
    The paragraph suggests that despite the uncertainty surrounding the new technology, it is still cost-effective.

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  • Current Version
  • Apr 16, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 03, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Bbsierra
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