Diabetes Mellitus Complications Part 2

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Diabetes Mellitus Complications Part 2 - Quiz

Straight from the powerpoints for Endo


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Regarding DKA, what would result if the onset was rapid (too much insulin too fast)?

    • A.

      Thromboembolism

    • B.

      Renal failure

    • C.

      Cerebral edema

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    If the onset of DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) is rapid due to too much insulin being administered too quickly, it can lead to thromboembolism, renal failure, and cerebral edema. Thromboembolism refers to the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels, which can block blood flow and cause serious complications. Renal failure occurs when the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins. Cerebral edema is the swelling of the brain due to fluid accumulation, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, all of the above complications can result from a rapid onset of DKA.

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  • 2. 

    If the patient received too much insulin too fast what could result?

    • A.

      Hypokalemia

    • B.

      Cerebral Edema

    • C.

      Fluid volume excess

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    If a patient received too much insulin too fast, it can lead to hypokalemia, cerebral edema, and fluid volume excess. Hypokalemia refers to low levels of potassium in the blood, which can occur due to excessive insulin administration. Cerebral edema is the swelling of the brain, which can be caused by a rapid decrease in blood sugar levels due to excessive insulin. Fluid volume excess refers to an abnormal increase in the volume of fluid in the body, which can occur as a result of the body trying to compensate for the insulin overdose. Therefore, all of the mentioned options can be the potential consequences of receiving too much insulin too fast.

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  • 3. 

    In patient with DKA how would the nurse monitor for Renal Failure?

    • A.

      BUN, Creatinine

    • B.

      Hemoglobin

    • C.

      Glycosylated hemoglobin

    • D.

      CHF

    Correct Answer
    A. BUN, Creatinine
    Explanation
    In patients with DKA (diabetic ketoacidosis), the nurse would monitor for renal failure by checking the levels of BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatinine. These are both indicators of kidney function, as elevated levels can suggest impaired renal function. Monitoring these levels is important in DKA patients because the condition can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can put strain on the kidneys and potentially lead to renal failure. Therefore, regularly assessing BUN and creatinine levels helps the nurse identify any kidney dysfunction and take appropriate interventions to prevent further complications.

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  • 4. 

    The nurse knows that BUN and Creatinine is indicative of?

    • A.

      Osmolality

    • B.

      Renal function

    • C.

      Hydration

    • D.

      Both B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both B and C
    Explanation
    The nurse knows that BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatinine levels are indicative of renal function and hydration status. BUN is a waste product that is filtered by the kidneys, and elevated levels can indicate impaired renal function. Creatinine is a byproduct of muscle metabolism that is also filtered by the kidneys, and increased levels can suggest decreased renal function. Monitoring these levels can help assess the overall function of the kidneys and the body's hydration status. Therefore, the correct answer is both B (renal function) and C (hydration).

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  • 5. 

    What medical conditions can cause Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar non-ketotic?

    • A.

      Acute hypoglycemia

    • B.

      DM type 1

    • C.

      Third degree burns

    • D.

      Acute Pancreatitis and Severe burns

    Correct Answer
    D. Acute Pancreatitis and Severe burns
    Explanation
    Acute Pancreatitis and Severe burns can both cause Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar non-ketotic. Acute Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that can disrupt insulin production and lead to high blood sugar levels. Severe burns can also cause a stress response in the body, releasing hormones that increase blood sugar levels. Both of these conditions can result in Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar non-ketotic, which is characterized by extremely high blood sugar levels without the presence of ketones.

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  • 6. 

    The nurse knows that the manifestation of Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar non ketotic are

    • A.

      More prolonged and insidious than DKA

    • B.

      Absence or slight ketones

    • C.

      Hyperglycemia

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The nurse knows that the manifestations of Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar non ketotic are more prolonged and insidious than DKA, absence or slight ketones, and hyperglycemia. This means that all of the given options are correct and accurately describe the manifestations of Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar non ketotic.

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  • 7. 

    The nurse knows that a patient with Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar non ketotic can have a blood sugar reading as high as

    • A.

      900

    • B.

      2000

    • C.

      2100

    • D.

      1800

    Correct Answer
    B. 2000
    Explanation
    The nurse knows that a patient with Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar non ketotic can have a blood sugar reading as high as 2000. Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar non ketotic (HHNK) is a condition characterized by extremely high blood sugar levels, typically above 600 mg/dL. In severe cases, blood sugar levels can reach as high as 2000 mg/dL. This condition is often seen in individuals with uncontrolled diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of the potential for such high blood sugar levels in order to provide appropriate treatment and management for the patient.

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  • 8. 

    The nurse would expect to treat the patient with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non ketotic initially with

    • A.

      Glucagon

    • B.

      IV Insulin

    • C.

      IV Fluids

    • D.

      D50% Dextrose

    Correct Answer
    C. IV Fluids
    Explanation
    The nurse would expect to treat the patient with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic initially with IV fluids. This is because hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome is characterized by severe dehydration and high blood glucose levels. IV fluids help to rehydrate the patient and correct electrolyte imbalances. While insulin may be necessary to lower blood glucose levels, it is not the initial treatment. Glucagon is not indicated in this condition. D50% dextrose is used to treat hypoglycemia, which is not a characteristic of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome.

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  • 9. 

    The body can handle which of the following better?

    • A.

      Too much sugar in the blood

    • B.

      Not enough sugar in the blood

    • C.

      Too much insulin in the body

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Too much sugar in the blood
    Explanation
    The body can handle too much sugar in the blood better than not enough sugar in the blood or too much insulin in the body. When there is too much sugar in the blood, the body can release insulin to help regulate the levels and bring them back to normal. However, when there is not enough sugar in the blood, it can lead to hypoglycemia and cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and even loss of consciousness. Too much insulin in the body can also be problematic as it can cause low blood sugar levels and lead to similar symptoms.

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  • 10. 

    (select all that apply) what causes Hypoglycemic reaction

    • A.

      Excess amount of insulin

    • B.

      Omitting meals and snacks

    • C.

      Exercise with inadequate food intake

    • D.

      Error in medication dosage

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Excess amount of insulin
    B. Omitting meals and snacks
    C. Exercise with inadequate food intake
    D. Error in medication dosage
    Explanation
    Hypoglycemic reactions can be caused by several factors. An excess amount of insulin can lower blood sugar levels too much, leading to a hypoglycemic reaction. Omitting meals and snacks can also result in low blood sugar levels as there is not enough glucose being consumed. Similarly, exercising without adequate food intake can deplete glucose stores and cause hypoglycemia. An error in medication dosage, such as taking too much medication, can also lead to low blood sugar levels. Therefore, all of these factors can contribute to hypoglycemic reactions.

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  • 11. 

    Clinical manifestations of Hypoglycemic reaction are( select all that apply)

    • A.

      Blood glucose less than 50, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and hunger

    • B.

      Palpitations, tremors, nausea and impaired thought processes

    • C.

      Blood glucose level of 120

    • D.

      Bradycardia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Blood glucose less than 50, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and hunger
    B. Palpitations, tremors, nausea and impaired thought processes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a combination of the first two options. The clinical manifestations of a hypoglycemic reaction can include blood glucose less than 50, tachycardia, diaphoresis, hunger, palpitations, tremors, nausea, and impaired thought processes. A blood glucose level of 120 is not indicative of hypoglycemia, and bradycardia is not typically associated with hypoglycemic reactions.

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  • 12. 

    The nurse knows that in the patient with Hypoglycemic reaction the emergency care for a conscious patient would be

    • A.

      Quick and long acting carbohydrates

    • B.

      Glucagon

    • C.

      D50% dextrose

    • D.

      Orange juice

    Correct Answer
    A. Quick and long acting carbohydrates
    Explanation
    In a patient with a hypoglycemic reaction, the nurse knows that the emergency care for a conscious patient would involve providing quick and long-acting carbohydrates. This is because carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body, and consuming them can rapidly increase blood sugar levels. Quick-acting carbohydrates, such as glucose tablets or candy, can provide an immediate boost in blood sugar levels, while long-acting carbohydrates, such as whole grains or fruits, can help sustain blood sugar levels over a longer period of time. This combination helps to quickly raise and stabilize blood sugar levels in a conscious patient experiencing hypoglycemia.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 17, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    PrincessClarity
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