Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, And Cellular Energy

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Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, And Cellular Energy - Quiz

A quiz comparing the processes that happen in these two important cellular organelles.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to both have evolved from primitive prokaryotes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have evolved from primitive prokaryotes because they both have their own DNA, reproduce independently within cells, and have similar membrane structures to certain types of bacteria. This suggests that they were once free-living organisms that were engulfed by larger cells and eventually formed a symbiotic relationship with them. This theory is known as endosymbiotic theory and is widely accepted in the scientific community.

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  • 2. 

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the only two eukaryotic organelles with a double membrane.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The nuclei and plastids of eukaryotic cells also have double membranes.

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  • 3. 

    The waste products of photosynthesis are important reactants in cell metabolism, and vice versa.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    CO2 and H2O produced during cellular respiration (Krebs) are used as starting reactants in photosynthesis. The waste O2 produced during photosynthesis is vital to the electron transport chain.

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  • 4. 

    The internal membranes of both mitochondria and chloroplasts help increase surface area for reactions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The internal membranes of both mitochondria and chloroplasts have a highly folded structure, which increases their surface area. This increased surface area allows for more reactions to occur, as it provides a larger area for enzymes and other molecules to interact with. This is important for both organelles, as they are involved in energy production and other metabolic processes. Therefore, the statement that the internal membranes of both mitochondria and chloroplasts help increase surface area for reactions is true.

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  • 5. 

    In both chloroplasts and mitochondria, the internal membranes are cross-linked by tube-like structures called lamellae.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Only chloroplasts have lamellae, linking grana one to another.

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  • 6. 

    Both photosynthesis and cell metabolism involve cascades and cycles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In cell metabolism, glycolysis and ETC are both organized as cascades; Krebs Cycle is, of course, cyclical. In photosynthesis, the Light Reactions are essentially a cascade, while the Light independent reactions are a cycle, the Calvin cycle.

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  • 7. 

    Mitochondria are filled with a fluid called the stroma, and Chloroplasts have a similar fluid called the matrix.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Reversed! Mitochondria = Matrix, Chloroplast = stroma.

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  • 8. 

    The reactions that happen in the mitochondrial matrix are mainly redox reactions, with the goal of making NADH and FADH2 while regenerating oxaloacetate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This is a simjple definition of the Krebs' Cycle

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  • 9. 

    The chloroplast relies on pigment molecules, acting as enzymes, embedded in an internal membrane. They are arranged in clusters called photosystems, something like an electron transport chain might be.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that chloroplasts do rely on pigment molecules, such as chlorophyll, which act as enzymes to capture light energy for photosynthesis. These pigment molecules are embedded in the internal membrane of the chloroplast and are organized into clusters called photosystems. These photosystems are responsible for capturing light energy and initiating the electron transport chain, which is essential for the production of ATP and NADPH during photosynthesis. Therefore, the statement "The chloroplast relies on pigment molecules, acting as enzymes, embedded in an internal membrane. They are arranged in clusters called photosystems, something like an electron transport chain might be" is true.

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  • 10. 

    The goal of the electron transport chain is to accumulate H+ ions in the intermembrane space, to keep ATP Synthase working.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The two processes need one another. The H+ accumulated by electron transport move through ATP Synthase (chemiosmosis) in order to enable ATP Synthesis (ADP + Pi --> ATP)

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  • 11. 

    The internal membranes of chloroplasts are called thylakoids, and those in the mitochondrion are called cristae.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the internal membranes of chloroplasts are indeed called thylakoids, which are responsible for the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. On the other hand, the internal membranes of mitochondria are called cristae, which are involved in the production of ATP through cellular respiration.

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  • 12. 

    The movement of electrons in the electron transport chain is in this order:  Cytochrome proteins, NADH dehydrogenase, Ubiquinone,

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The correct order is: NADH dehydrogenase,then Ubiquinone,and finally the Cytochrome proteins,

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  • 13. 

    Neither photosynthesis nor electron transport would function without membrane-embedded proteins.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Both the photosystems and the electron transport chain are bound within membranes inside the organelles.

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  • 14. 

    Both photosynthesis and cell metabolism rely on NADH as an electron carrier.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis requires NADPH, a phosphorylated version of NADH. It is, however, correct that both systems need electron carrier molecules.

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  • 15. 

    Consider the diagram below. The structures labelled E and F, respectively, are the...

    • A.

      Lamellae and Thylakoids

    • B.

      Thylakoids and Granum

    • C.

      Granum and Lamellae

    • D.

      Stroma and Thylakoid

    Correct Answer
    B. Thylakoids and Granum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Thylakoids and Granum. Thylakoids are the membrane structures found within chloroplasts where the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur. They are stacked together to form structures called Granum. Granum is a stack of thylakoids and is responsible for increasing the surface area available for capturing light energy during photosynthesis. Therefore, the structures labelled E and F in the diagram are Thylakoids and Granum, respectively.

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  • 16. 

    The Krebs Cycle occurs in the part of the mitochondrion labelled:

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    D. 4
    Explanation
    Krebs occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.

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  • 17. 

    Protons (H+) accumulate to high concentrations in the area labelled...

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    C. 3
    Explanation
    Protons accumulate in the intermembrane space. This space fills the cristae.

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  • 18. 

    Electron Transport Chain proteins are found all throughout the part of the mitochondrion labelled.....

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    A. 1
    Explanation
    The inner membrane, folded into many cristae, has countless ETC's

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  • 19. 

    Which of the products shown on the diagram are waste products?

    • A.

      H2O & CO2

    • B.

      C6H12O6 & O2

    • C.

      Only CO2

    • D.

      None, really... they all end up being useful.

    Correct Answer
    D. None, really... they all end up being useful.
    Explanation
    bazinga.

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  • 20. 

    In this diagram, A is most likely:

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      H2O

    • D.

      O2

    Correct Answer
    D. O2
    Explanation
    O2 is a byproduct of photosynthesis, and it is a vital reactant in cellular respiration.

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  • 21. 

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts may be similar in structure, but chloroplasts are vastly larger than mitochondria.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    They're both roughly the same size, which is about the size of a bacterium. This reinforces theories on their bacterial origins.

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  • 22. 

    The only possible identities of C & D are:

    • A.

      O2 & H2O

    • B.

      CO2 & O2

    • C.

      CO2 & H2O

    • D.

      ATP & CO2

    Correct Answer
    C. CO2 & H2O
    Explanation
    The correct answer is CO2 & H2O because these are the only two identities that can form a balanced chemical equation. When carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) react, they can produce carbonic acid (H2CO3), which can then dissociate into hydrogen ions (H+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). This reaction is commonly observed in the human body during respiration, where CO2 is produced and exhaled as a waste product.

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  • 23. 

    In the diagram below, B must be....

    • A.

      Chloroplast

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Glycogen

    • D.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    D. Glucose
    Explanation
    Honestly, if you don't recognize glucose by now, I can't help you.

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  • 24. 

    Plant cells only have chloroplasts, Animal cells only have mitochondria.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Plant cells have both organelles. Animal cells do only have mitochondria.

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  • 25. 

    Photosynthesis ends with glucose, Cell Metabolism starts with glucose.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. This means that photosynthesis ends with the production of glucose. On the other hand, cell metabolism is the process by which cells break down glucose to generate energy. Therefore, cell metabolism starts with glucose. Hence, the statement is true.

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