Test: Energy And Life

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Test:  Energy And Life - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In our jumping jacks lab, you observed how exercise increased the amount of CO2 that you exhaled.  Explain what happened in the jumping jacks lab, using the following terms (1/2 point each).  PLEASE CAPITALIZE (ALL CAPS) EACH OF THESE TERMS WHEN YOU USE THEM.   potential energy kinetic energy glucose carbon dioxide cellular respiration lungs chemical energy thermal energy mitochondria oxygen ATP bloodstream

  • 2. 

    Bonus!       Jumping jacks ‘burn’ kilocalories at a rate of 450 per hour (3x more than walking; slightly fewer than swimming).  The nutrition label on my tropical punch container says that it has 60 calories per 8-oz cup (one serving).   Assuming that I could absorb every last calorie from the tropical punch into my cells (which is not actually possible), how many 8-oz cups of punch would I need to replenish my energy supply after jumping for 5 minutes?  Show your work with labeled numbers.  

  • 3. 

    Which of the following has the most kinetic energy?

    • A.

      A small rock at rest at the top of a slope.

    • B.

      A small rock rolling down a slope.

    • C.

      A small rock at rest at the bottom of a slope.

    • D.

      A boulder at rest at the top of a slope.

    Correct Answer
    B. A small rock rolling down a slope.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "A small rock rolling down a slope." Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion. The rock rolling down the slope has the most kinetic energy because it is in motion, while the other options involve rocks at rest. The rock at the top of the slope and the boulder at the top of the slope are both at rest, so they have no kinetic energy. The rock at the bottom of the slope is also at rest, so it does not have any kinetic energy either.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following best describes the form of energy that is stored in organic molecules (like glucose) by living thiings?  

    • A.

      Chemical

    • B.

      Thermal

    • C.

      Kinetic

    • D.

      ATP

    • E.

      High calorie

    Correct Answer
    A. Chemical
    Explanation
    The correct answer is chemical because organic molecules, such as glucose, store energy in the form of chemical bonds. This energy can be released through chemical reactions when needed by living organisms. Thermal energy refers to heat energy, kinetic energy is the energy of motion, ATP is a molecule that carries energy within cells, and high calorie is a measure of the energy content of food.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is NOT true about chemical energy?  

    • A.

      It is the form of energy stored in a molecule of ATP.

    • B.

      It is necessary for all life without exception.

    • C.

      It is present in a cheeseburger.

    • D.

      It is stored in the bonds that hold atoms together in molecules.

    • E.

      It is a form of kinetic energy.

    • F.

      It is present in gasoline and firewood.

    • G.

      It can be released when covalent bonds are broken.

    Correct Answer
    E. It is a form of kinetic energy.
    Explanation
    Chemical energy is a form of potential energy, not kinetic energy. It is stored in the bonds between atoms in molecules and can be released when these bonds are broken. It is necessary for all forms of life and is present in molecules like ATP, as well as in food sources like cheeseburgers. It is also present in gasoline and firewood, which can be burned to release chemical energy.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following shows the MOST complete and reasonable pathway by which energy might travel to do the work of growing a new cell in the root tip of Mr. Lord's jade plant.  

    • A.

      Mitochondrion, chloroplast, ATP, photosynthesis, work

    • B.

      The sun, chloroplast, ATP, work

    • C.

      The sun, chloroplast, sugar, mitochondrion, ATP, work

    • D.

      The sun, chloroplast, sugar, ATP, work

    • E.

      Chemosynthesis, photosynthesis, hydrolysis, dehydration synthesis

    Correct Answer
    C. The sun, chloroplast, sugar, mitochondrion, ATP, work
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the sun, chloroplast, sugar, mitochondrion, ATP, work". This pathway starts with the sun as the source of energy, which is then captured by the chloroplast through photosynthesis. The chloroplast converts this energy into sugar, which is then transported to the mitochondrion. In the mitochondrion, sugar is broken down to produce ATP, which is the energy currency of the cell. Finally, this ATP is used to perform the work of growing a new cell in the root tip of the jade plant.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is the most complete list of organisms that conduct cellular respiration?  

    • A.

      All organisms

    • B.

      Animals only

    • C.

      Plants, some protists, and some bacteria

    • D.

      Animals, plants, fungi, most protists, many bacteria

    • E.

      Yeasts, some bacteria, and other unicellular organisms (but occasionally other creatures when they're in an environment without oxygen.

    Correct Answer
    D. Animals, plants, fungi, most protists, many bacteria
    Explanation
    The correct answer is animals, plants, fungi, most protists, many bacteria. This answer includes a wide range of organisms that conduct cellular respiration, including animals, plants, fungi, most protists, and many bacteria. Cellular respiration is a process that occurs in the cells of living organisms to produce energy, and this answer includes the major groups of organisms that perform this process.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is NOT a true statement about ATP?

    • A.

      ATP provides the energy for cells to do what they do; without it nothing would be alive.

    • B.

      ATP consists of adenosine and a 3-phosphate ‘tail’.

    • C.

      ATP is ‘degraded’ (or reduced) to ADP when it releases its energy.

    • D.

      Used ATP molecules are discarded (‘thrown away’) by the cell, never to be used again.

    Correct Answer
    D. Used ATP molecules are discarded (‘thrown away’) by the cell, never to be used again.
    Explanation
    ATP is a molecule that provides energy for cellular processes. It consists of adenosine and a 3-phosphate 'tail'. When ATP releases its energy, it is degraded to ADP. However, used ATP molecules are not discarded by the cell. Instead, they can be regenerated and reused to produce more ATP through processes like cellular respiration. Therefore, the statement that used ATP molecules are discarded by the cell and never used again is not true.

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  • 9. 

     Kinetic energy is released from ATP when

    • A.

      A chemical reaction breaks one of its phosphate bonds.

    • B.

      A phosphate group is added.

    • C.

      Adenine bonds to ribose.

    • D.

      Electrons are excited when ATP is exposed to sunlight.

    Correct Answer
    A. A chemical reaction breaks one of its phosphate bonds.
    Explanation
    ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a molecule that stores and releases energy in cells. It consists of a sugar molecule (ribose), a nitrogenous base (adenine), and three phosphate groups. When a chemical reaction breaks one of the phosphate bonds in ATP, it releases energy that can be used by the cell for various processes. Therefore, the correct answer is that kinetic energy is released from ATP when a chemical reaction breaks one of its phosphate bonds.

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  • 10. 

    The point of cellular respiration is to…

    • A.

      Transfer chemical energy from food molecules to ATP

    • B.

      Build chemical energy (such as glucose) from sunlight

    • C.

      Help cells exchange gases with their surroundings

    • D.

      Boggle the mind!

    Correct Answer
    A. Transfer chemical energy from food molecules to ATP
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert the chemical energy stored in food molecules into ATP, which is the main energy currency of the cell. This process occurs in the mitochondria and involves a series of biochemical reactions that break down glucose and other molecules. The energy released during cellular respiration is used to produce ATP, which can be used by the cell for various functions such as muscle contraction, active transport, and synthesis of molecules. Therefore, the main purpose of cellular respiration is to transfer chemical energy from food molecules to ATP.

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  • 11. 

    Which process is best represented by the following chemical equation?   sugars + oxygen → → → →  carbon dioxide +water

    • A.

      Cellular respiration

    • B.

      Photosynthesis

    • C.

      Glycolysis

    • D.

      Fermentation

    Correct Answer
    A. Cellular respiration
    Explanation
    The given chemical equation represents the process of cellular respiration. In cellular respiration, sugars (such as glucose) and oxygen are broken down in cells to produce carbon dioxide and water. This process occurs in the mitochondria of cells and is the main process by which cells generate energy in the form of ATP.

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  • 12. 

    A peanut is burned in a calorimeter (a real one--not our aluminum foil hack jobs).  The device contains 1,000 grams of water and it raises the temperature of that water by 6 degrees Celsius.  What was the energy content of the peanut in kilocalories?  

    • A.

      1,000 kcal

    • B.

      6 kcal

    • C.

      0.006 kcal

    • D.

      166.6 kcal

    Correct Answer
    B. 6 kcal
    Explanation
    The energy content of the peanut is determined by the amount of heat it releases when burned. In this case, the peanut raises the temperature of 1,000 grams of water by 6 degrees Celsius. This indicates that the peanut released enough heat to raise the temperature of 1,000 grams of water by 6 degrees Celsius. Therefore, the energy content of the peanut is 6 kcal.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is a reactant of the process that will take place in the organelle pictured here?  

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Carbon dioxide

    • D.

      NADP

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon dioxide
    Explanation
    Carbon dioxide is the correct answer because it is a reactant in the process of photosynthesis, which takes place in the organelle pictured. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using energy from sunlight. Oxygen is produced as a byproduct. Glucose is not a reactant in this process, but rather a product. NADP is not directly involved in photosynthesis, but it is used in the related process of the light-dependent reactions to carry electrons.

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  • 14. 

    Oxygen is so effective at ‘burning’ objects (whether in a fire or in the body) made of C and H because. . .

    • A.

      It has mass and takes up space.

    • B.

      It always has a pack of matches rolled up in its sleeves.

    • C.

      It has a fairly large nucleus (compared to C and H) and acts as a strong electron ‘grabber’.

    • D.

      We breathe it into our lungs and from there it diffuses into our blood and into our cells.

    Correct Answer
    C. It has a fairly large nucleus (compared to C and H) and acts as a strong electron ‘grabber’.
    Explanation
    Oxygen is effective at 'burning' objects made of C and H because it has a fairly large nucleus compared to C and H, which allows it to act as a strong electron 'grabber'. This means that oxygen can easily attract and pull electrons away from carbon and hydrogen atoms, causing a chemical reaction that releases energy in the form of heat and light.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is shown in the figure above

    • A.

      Glycolosis

    • B.

      Calvin cycle

    • C.

      Krebs cycle

    • D.

      Electron transport chain

    • E.

      Fermentation

    Correct Answer
    D. Electron transport chain
    Explanation
    The figure above is likely depicting the electron transport chain. This is because the electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions. This process generates a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used to produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. The other options, glycolysis, Calvin cycle, Krebs cycle, and fermentation, are not typically associated with the electron transport chain.

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  • 16. 

    The part of cellular respiration that needs oxygen takes place inside the . . .

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Mitochondrion

    • C.

      Cytoplasm

    • D.

      Thylakoid

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitochondrion
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell and are responsible for the production of energy through cellular respiration. Oxygen is required for the process of aerobic respiration, which occurs in the mitochondria. The mitochondria have an inner membrane that contains the electron transport chain, where oxygen is used to generate ATP, the energy currency of the cell. Therefore, the correct answer is mitochondrion.

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  • 17. 

    Before cellular respiration, glucose must be broken down by the process of  . . .

    • A.

      Photosynthesis

    • B.

      Glycolosis

    • C.

      Electron transport

    • D.

      Fermentation

    Correct Answer
    B. Glycolosis
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the process in which glucose is broken down into pyruvate molecules. It is the first step in cellular respiration and occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. During glycolysis, glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH. This process does not require oxygen and is therefore considered anaerobic. It is the initial step in the breakdown of glucose before it enters the other stages of cellular respiration, such as the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is a product of the Krebs cycle?

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Carbon dioxide

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Lactic acid

    Correct Answer
    B. Carbon dioxide
    Explanation
    Carbon dioxide is a product of the Krebs cycle because during this metabolic pathway, glucose is broken down and converted into pyruvate, which is then further broken down in the Krebs cycle. In the Krebs cycle, pyruvate is completely oxidized, producing carbon dioxide as a waste product. This carbon dioxide is then released into the bloodstream and transported to the lungs, where it is exhaled.

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  • 19. 

    In which process is lactic acid formed when there is not enough oxygen for cellular respiration to take place?  

    • A.

      ATP synthase

    • B.

      Photosystem I

    • C.

      Light dependent reactions

    • D.

      Fermentation

    Correct Answer
    D. Fermentation
    Explanation
    Fermentation is the process in which lactic acid is formed when there is not enough oxygen for cellular respiration to occur. During fermentation, glucose is broken down into lactic acid, which allows for the production of a small amount of ATP. This process is commonly observed in muscle cells during intense exercise when oxygen supply is limited.

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