Non-experimental Quantitative Research Quiz

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Prepare yourself to take this non-experimental quantitative research quiz that we have designed for you. What do you know about non-experimental quantitative research? Non-experimental research is known as research that lacks the manipulation of an independent variable or is for the random assignment of participants to conditions or orders of conditions, or both. Take these questions, and your score will reveal how much you know. All the best to you!

• 1.

The number of police officers and the number of crimes is positively related. This relationship is:

• A.

A causal relationship

• B.

A direct relationship

• C.

A probabilistic causal relation

• D.

A spurious relationship

D. A spurious relationship
Explanation
A spurious relationship refers to a correlation between two variables that is not causally related. In this case, the number of police officers and the number of crimes may appear to be positively related, but it is not a direct or causal relationship. Instead, it is a spurious relationship where a third variable might be influencing both variables. For example, it could be that a higher population density in an area leads to both an increase in crime rates and the need for more police officers.

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• 2.

A researcher studies the relationship between early reading and later school achievement. She decides that a potentially extraneous variable in the relationship is IQ. In developing her groups for her study, she pairs each child who was an early reader with a child of the same IQ level who was not an early reader. The control technique she used was:

• A.

Holding the extraneous variable constant

• B.

Statistical control

• C.

Matching

• D.

Random assignment

C. Matching
Explanation
The control technique used in this study is matching. The researcher pairs each child who was an early reader with a child of the same IQ level who was not an early reader. By doing this, the researcher is ensuring that both groups are similar in terms of IQ, which is the potentially extraneous variable in this study. This allows the researcher to isolate the effect of early reading on later school achievement, as any differences observed between the two groups can be attributed to early reading and not IQ.

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• 3.

The directors of a graduate program in educational research wish to see what types of jobs their graduates take after they finish their program. They randomly sample students from the program and have them fill out questionnaires with items asking about the types of jobs they have had. They also are asked to describe the roles they play in their current positions. This project is best described as having what kind of objectives:

• A.

Descriptive

• B.

Predictive

• C.

Explanatory

A. Descriptive
Explanation
This project is best described as having descriptive objectives because it aims to gather information about the types of jobs that the graduates of the program have taken. The directors of the program want to understand the current status and roles of their graduates after completing the program. This study is focused on describing the characteristics and attributes of the graduates' job positions rather than predicting future outcomes or explaining the reasons behind their choices.

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• 4.

When research is done to test hypotheses and theories about how and why phenomena operate as they do, then the primary purpose of such research is:

• A.

Descriptive

• B.

Predictive

• C.

Explanatory

C. Explanatory
Explanation
When research is conducted to test hypotheses and theories about how and why phenomena operate as they do, the primary purpose of such research is to provide an explanation. This type of research aims to understand the underlying mechanisms and causes behind the observed phenomena. It seeks to uncover the reasons and factors that contribute to the occurrence of the phenomenon, helping to establish a deeper understanding and knowledge of the subject. The focus is on exploring the relationships between variables and providing a comprehensive explanation for the observed outcomes.

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• 5.

The variable the researcher matches to eliminate it as an alternative explanation is called a(n) _________ variable.

• A.

Matching

• B.

Independent

• C.

Dependent

• D.

Partial

A. Matching
Explanation
Matching is the correct answer because when conducting research, researchers try to eliminate alternative explanations by matching participants on certain variables. This helps ensure that any differences observed between groups are due to the independent variable being studied and not to other variables. Matching involves pairing participants who are similar on the variable of interest, such as age, gender, or IQ, and then randomly assigning them to different groups. By doing so, researchers can control for the potential influence of these variables and increase the internal validity of their study.

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• 6.

The positive correlation between teachers’ salaries and the price of liquor is _________.

• A.

Spurious

• B.

Due to a third-variable

• C.

Nonspurious

• D.

Both a and b

D. Both a and b
Explanation
The positive correlation between teachers’ salaries and the price of liquor can be explained as both spurious and due to a third-variable. A spurious correlation occurs when two variables appear to be related, but the relationship is actually coincidental and not causally linked. In this case, it is likely that the correlation between teachers' salaries and the price of liquor is spurious, as there is no logical reason for these two variables to be directly related. However, it is also possible that there is a third-variable at play, such as the cost of living in certain areas, which affects both teachers' salaries and the price of liquor.

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• 7.

When a researcher starts with the dependent variable and moves backward, it is called ________.

• A.

Predictive research

• B.

Retrospective research

• C.

Exploratory research

• D.

Descriptive research

B. Retrospective research
Explanation
Retrospective research refers to a research approach where the researcher begins with the dependent variable and then works backward to explore potential causes or factors that may have influenced the outcome. This type of research is often used to examine past events or conditions and understand their impact on the present. It involves analyzing historical data or conducting interviews or surveys to gather information about past experiences or behaviors. Retrospective research helps in understanding the relationship between variables and can provide insights into the factors that contribute to a particular outcome.

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• 8.

The method of working with multiple hypotheses refers to a technique for identifying rival explanations.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The method of working with multiple hypotheses is indeed a technique used to identify rival explanations. By considering and testing multiple hypotheses, researchers are able to evaluate and compare different possible explanations for a phenomenon or observation. This approach allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter and helps to ensure that the most plausible explanation is ultimately identified.

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• 9.

GLM refers to which of the following?

• A.

General Logit Model

• B.

General Limited Model

• C.

General Lab Model

• D.

General Linear Model

D. General Linear Model
Explanation
The correct answer is General Linear Model. GLM refers to General Linear Model, which is a statistical model used to analyze the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. It assumes a linear relationship between the variables and is widely used in various fields such as regression analysis, analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance.

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• 10.

The post hoc fallacy is ____.

• A.

Making the argument that because A preceded B, A must have caused B

• B.

Making the argument that because A preceded B, A and B must be correlated

• C.

Making the argument that because A preceded B, they cannot be correlated

• D.

None of the above

A. Making the argument that because A preceded B, A must have caused B
Explanation
The correct answer is making the argument that because A preceded B, A must have caused B. This is known as the post hoc fallacy, which assumes that just because one event happened before another, it must have caused the latter event. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation, and there could be other factors at play that influenced the outcome. Therefore, it is incorrect to assume causation based solely on the temporal order of events.

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• 11.

Which one of the following is not a step in nonexperimental research?

• A.

Determine the research problem and hypotheses

• B.

Analyze data

• C.

Interpret results

• D.

All are steps

D. All are steps
Explanation
The given correct answer is "All are steps." This means that all of the options listed (determining the research problem and hypotheses, analyzing data, and interpreting results) are steps in nonexperimental research. Nonexperimental research refers to research that does not involve manipulating variables or controlling conditions, but rather focuses on observing and analyzing existing data. Therefore, all of these steps are necessary in order to conduct nonexperimental research effectively.

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• 12.

If a research finding is statistically significant, then ____.

• A.

The observed result is probably not due to chance.

• B.

The observed result cannot possibly be due to chance.

• C.

The observed result is probably a chance result.

• D.

The null hypothesis of “no relationship” is probably true.

A. The observed result is probably not due to chance.
Explanation
If a research finding is statistically significant, it means that the observed result is likely not due to chance. Statistical significance is a measure of the probability that the observed result occurred by chance alone. When a result is statistically significant, it suggests that there is a high likelihood that the observed effect is real and not simply a result of random variation. However, it is important to note that statistical significance does not guarantee the practical or clinical significance of the result.

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• 13.

Which of the following is/are necessary condition(s) for causation?

• A.

The relationship condition

• B.

The temporal antecedence condition

• C.

The lack of alternative explanation condition

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
The question asks for the necessary conditions for causation. The relationship condition is necessary because there must be a relationship between the cause and effect. The temporal antecedence condition is necessary because the cause must precede the effect in time. The lack of alternative explanation condition is necessary because there should not be any other plausible explanations for the cause and effect relationship. Therefore, all of the above conditions are necessary for causation.

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• 14.

Which of the following independent variables cannot be manipulated in a research study?

• A.

Gender

• B.

Ethnicity

• C.

Intelligence and other traits

• D.

None of ht above can be manipulated in a research study

D. None of ht above can be manipulated in a research study
Explanation
In a research study, independent variables are the variables that are manipulated or controlled by the researcher. They are the variables that are intentionally changed or varied to observe their effects on the dependent variable. In this question, the options given are gender, ethnicity, and intelligence and other traits. None of these variables can be manipulated in a research study because they are inherent characteristics of individuals and cannot be changed or controlled by the researcher. Therefore, the correct answer is "None of the above can be manipulated in a research study."

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• 15.

Matching can be done when your independent variable is categorical or quantitative.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Matching is a statistical technique used to reduce bias in observational studies. It involves pairing individuals or groups with similar characteristics in order to make valid comparisons. Matching can be done when the independent variable, which is the variable being manipulated or studied, is either categorical or quantitative. This means that matching can be used regardless of whether the independent variable consists of categories or numerical values. Therefore, the statement that matching can be done when the independent variable is categorical or quantitative is true.

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• Current Version
• Aug 30, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Jan 16, 2011
Quiz Created by
Mr4d

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