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A quiz on the sampling methods of research. You can play the quiz to test your knowledge on the various sampling methods and get your score.
Questions and Answers
1.
Which of the following is not an advantage of Snowball Sampling?
A.
Useful in specific circumstances.
B.
Useful for locating rare populations.
C.
Low cost.
D.
Selection bias is minimized.
Correct Answer
D. Selection bias is minimized.
Explanation Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where existing participants recruit new participants from their social networks. While snowball sampling has advantages such as being useful in specific circumstances, having low cost, and being useful for locating rare populations, it does not minimize selection bias. In fact, snowball sampling is prone to selection bias as the initial participants may only refer individuals who share similar characteristics or opinions, leading to a biased sample.
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2.
Which of the following pairs correctly describe the type of data and its method?
A.
BMI in groups
:
Histogram
B.
Age groups
:
Box plots.
C.
BMI in kg/m^{2} by gender
:
Mean and SD by gender
D.
Age in years
:
Frequency distribution
Correct Answer
C.
BMI in kg/m^{2} by gender
:
Mean and SD by gender
Explanation The correct answer is BMI in kg/m2 by gender: Mean and SD by gender. This is because BMI is a continuous variable that can be measured in kg/m2, and when analyzing this data by gender, the appropriate method would be to calculate the mean and standard deviation to understand the average and variability of BMI within each gender group.
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3.
Which of the following is the best example of categorical value?
A.
Number of episodes of disease in a patient over a year.
B.
Reduction in blood pressure following antihypertensive treatment.
C.
Serum bilirubin level (mmol/L).
D.
Severity of haemophilia (mild/moderate/severe).
Correct Answer
D. Severity of haemopHilia (mild/moderate/severe).
Explanation The best example of a categorical value is the severity of haemophilia, which is categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. This is because it represents different levels or categories of a specific attribute or characteristic. The other options, such as the number of episodes of a disease, reduction in blood pressure, and serum bilirubin level, are quantitative measures rather than categorical values.
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4.
Which can be the most reliable source of information for the literature review?
A.
A relevant chapter from a textbook
B.
A TV documentary
C.
A peer reviewed research article
D.
A newspaper article
Correct Answer
C. A peer reviewed research article
Explanation A peer reviewed research article is the most reliable source of information for a literature review because it undergoes a rigorous evaluation process by experts in the field before being published. This ensures that the information presented is accurate, credible, and based on sound research methods. TV documentaries and newspaper articles may provide some information, but they are often less reliable as they may be biased or lack the same level of scrutiny. A relevant chapter from a textbook can be a good source, but it may not always contain the most up-to-date information compared to peer-reviewed research articles.
Correct Answer
A. Specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound
Explanation The criteria for a SMART goal are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound. This means that a goal should be clear and well-defined, have a way to measure progress and success, be realistic and attainable, align with the overall objectives and priorities, and have a deadline or timeframe for completion.
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6.
What does the null hypothesis in the chi-square test states?
A.
The rows and columns in the table are associated
B.
Neither of the two
C.
The rows and columns in the table are not associated
D.
Either of the two
Correct Answer
C. The rows and columns in the table are not associated
Explanation The null hypothesis in the chi-square test states that there is no association between the rows and columns in the table. This means that the variables being compared are independent of each other and any observed association is due to chance.
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7.
Which of the following is NOT a reason for evaluating a questionnaire?
A.
To see if the questions are understood by the target population
B.
If the first five respondents fill in the questionnaire well you may not need to undertake a study with more people
C.
To help you decide on the best way to analyse the data
D.
To check that the responses you receive are what you need to answer your research question
Correct Answer
B. If the first five respondents fill in the questionnaire well you may not need to undertake a study with more people
Explanation The given answer is not a reason for evaluating a questionnaire because the number of respondents who fill in the questionnaire well does not determine the need for a larger study. Evaluation of a questionnaire is done to ensure that the questions are understood by the target population, to check if the responses align with the research question, and to determine the best way to analyze the collected data.
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8.
Which of the following describes the type I error in hypothesis testing?
A.
Can be reduced by increasing power
B.
False negative
C.
Reject a true null hypothesis
D.
Failed to reject a false null hypothesis
Correct Answer
C. Reject a true null hypothesis
Explanation The type I error in hypothesis testing occurs when a true null hypothesis is incorrectly rejected. This means that the test incorrectly concludes that there is a significant difference or effect when there actually isn't. It is also known as a "false positive" or a "false discovery". Type I error is controlled by setting the significance level (alpha) of the test, and it represents the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis. Increasing the power of the test can help reduce the likelihood of committing a type I error.
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9.
Which of the following can be used for the analysis of mean differences in systolic blood pressure of male and female?
A.
Paired t-test
B.
Independent t-test
C.
One sample t-test
D.
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Correct Answer
B. Independent t-test
Explanation The independent t-test can be used for the analysis of mean differences in systolic blood pressure of male and female. This test is appropriate when comparing the means of two independent groups, in this case, males and females. It determines whether there is a significant difference between the means of the two groups, indicating whether there is a significant difference in systolic blood pressure between males and females.
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10.
Which of the following statements is TRUE about sampling method?
A.
Probability sampling is every potential subject has equal chance of being chosen
B.
Random selection is used in quota sampling.
C.
Non probability sampling is a sampling method that allows to draw valid conclusions about population
D.
Stratified sampling does not use the random selection.
Correct Answer
A. Probability sampling is every potential subject has equal chance of being chosen
Explanation Probability sampling is a sampling method in which every potential subject in the population has an equal chance of being chosen. This means that each individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a sample. This method ensures that the sample is representative of the population, allowing for valid conclusions to be drawn about the entire population based on the sample.
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