Patopharmacology Quiz 3 - Neurobiology And Alterations Of Hormonal Regulation

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| By Msnstudent
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Msnstudent
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Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 1,178
Questions: 22 | Attempts: 233

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Neurobiology Quizzes & Trivia

Another quiz created from Dr. Nmezi's study guide. This quiz covers chapters 18 & 21 from the McCance Pathophisiology E-text.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    From 20% to 30% of individuals with depression have dysregulated:

    • A.

      Sleep cycles

    • B.

      Pituitary function

    • C.

      Eating patterns

    • D.

      Thyoid function

    Correct Answer
    D. Thyoid function
    Explanation
    Approximately 20% to 30% of persons with unipolar depression have an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) system

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  • 2. 

    A decrease in receptor binding for which neuro transmitter is found in depressed individuals?

    • A.

      Norepinephrine

    • B.

      Serotonin

    • C.

      Dopamine

    • D.

      Acetylcholine

    Correct Answer
    B. Serotonin
    Explanation
    Postmortem and/or brain imaging studies of depressed individuals reveal a widespread decrease in serotonin 5-HT1A receptor subtype binding in frontal, temporal, and limbic cortex as well as serotonin transporter binding in cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

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  • 3. 

    What is thought to be the alteration produced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) when treating individuals with depression?

    • A.

      It produces an alteration in the monoamine systems

    • B.

      It produces an alteration in serotonin

    • C.

      It produces an alteration in norepinephrine

    • D.

      It produces an alteration in the limbic system

    Correct Answer
    A. It produces an alteration in the monoamine systems
    Explanation
    Although the mechanism of action of ECT is not clear, the procedure is known to produce alterations in the monoamine system.

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  • 4. 

    Which electrolyte imbalance contriutes to lithium toxicity?

    • A.

      HYPERnatremia

    • B.

      HYPOnatermia

    • C.

      HYPERkalemia

    • D.

      HYPOkalemia

    Correct Answer
    B. HYPOnatermia
    Explanation
    A potentially serious side effect is lithium toxicity. Lithium is normally removed from the kidneys, however, when the body is sodium depleted, the kidneys reabsorb sodium along with lithium.

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  • 5. 

    Which neurotransmitter is inhibited in panic disorders?

    • A.

      Norepinephrine

    • B.

      Serotonin

    • C.

      Dopamine

    • D.

      Gama-aminobutyric (GABA)

    Correct Answer
    D. Gama-aminobutyric (GABA)
    Explanation
    Panic disorder also may involve the GABA-benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor system.

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  • 6. 

    Which neurotransmitter is inhibited by generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?

    • A.

      Gama-aminobutyric (GABA)

    • B.

      Serotonin

    • C.

      Dopamine

    • D.

      Norepinephrine

    Correct Answer
    A. Gama-aminobutyric (GABA)
    Explanation
    A prominent alteration of GAD involves the GABA-BZ receptors.

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  • 7. 

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is diagnosed when a person spends ___ months worrying excessively.

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      9

    • D.

      12

    Correct Answer
    B. 6
    Explanation
    GAD is diagnosed when an individual spends at least 6 months worrying excessively and exhibits at least 3 of the 6 symptoms.

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  • 8. 

    What are the most common side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)?

    • A.

      Orthostatic hypotension and weight gain

    • B.

      Dry mouth and sexual dysfunction

    • C.

      Sleep disturbances and nausea

    • D.

      Hypertensive crisis and agitation

    Correct Answer
    C. Sleep disturbances and nausea
    Explanation
    Common side effects of SSRIs include sleep disturbances (e.g. insomnia) and nausea.

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  • 9. 

    Individuals who eat cheese, sour cream, liver, and avacado when taking monoamin oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may experience:

    • A.

      Kidney damage

    • B.

      Hypertensive crisis

    • C.

      Orthostatic hypotension

    • D.

      Weight gain

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypertensive crisis
    Explanation
    MAOIs also may induce acute and heightened elevations in blood pressure (e.g. hypertensive crisis) after intake of tyramine-rich foods, such as aged cheeses, sour cream, pods of broad beans, pickled herring, liver, canned figs, raisins, and avocados.

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  • 10. 

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used to treat depression:

    • A.

      In pregnant women

    • B.

      To enhance the effects of antidepressants

    • C.

      As a first-line treatment before medications

    • D.

      That is unipolar

    Correct Answer
    A. In pregnant women
    Explanation
    ECT is used when individuals fail to respond to antidepressants or when they are severely depressed, pregnant, suicidal, or psychotic.

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  • 11. 

    What is a notable complication in panic disorder?

    • A.

      Avolition

    • B.

      Anhedonia

    • C.

      Alogia

    • D.

      Agoraphobia

    Correct Answer
    D. Agoraphobia
    Explanation
    A notable complication of panic disorder is the development of agoraphobia or phobic avoidance of places or situations where escape or help is not readily available.

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  • 12. 

    Which form of diabetes insipidus (DI) is treatable with exogenous antidiruetic hormone (ADH)?

    • A.

      Neurogenic

    • B.

      Psychogenic

    • C.

      Nephrogenic

    • D.

      Ischemic

    Correct Answer
    A. Neurogenic
    Explanation
    Neurogenic DI is treated with ADH replacement therapy.

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  • 13. 

    Hyperpituitarism is generally caused by:

    • A.

      A pituitary adenoma

    • B.

      Hypothalmic hyposecretion

    • C.

      Autoimmune disorder of the pituitary

    • D.

      A neurohypophysial tumor

    Correct Answer
    A. A pituitary adenoma
    Explanation
    Pituitary adenomas are generally associated with hyperpituitarism. The remaining options are not usually associated with the disorder.

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  • 14. 

    The term used to describe a person who experiences a lack of all hormones associated with the anterior pituitary is:

    • A.

      Panhypopituitarism

    • B.

      Adrenocortocotropic (ACTH) deficiency

    • C.

      Hypopituitarism

    • D.

      Anterior pituitary failure

    Correct Answer
    A. Panhypopituitarism
    Explanation
    Panhypopituitarism is the term correctly associated with the lack of all anterior pituitary hormones.

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  • 15. 

    Visual disturbances are a result of a pituitary adenoma because of the:

    • A.

      Liberation of anterior pituitary hormones into the optic chiasm

    • B.

      Pituitary hormones clouding the lens of the eyes

    • C.

      Pressure of the tumor on the optic chiasm

    • D.

      Pressure of the tumor on the optic and occulomotor cranial nerves

    Correct Answer
    C. Pressure of the tumor on the optic chiasm
    Explanation
    Pressure on the optic chiasm causes a variety of visual disturbances.

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  • 16. 

    A primary adenoma causes thyroid and adrenal hypofunction because the tumor:

    • A.

      Metastasizes to the thyroid and adrenal glands through the lymphatic system causing reduced secretion of necessary hormones

    • B.

      Has a paradoxical effect on adjacent cells, which results in hyposecretion of other anterior pituitary hormones

    • C.

      Invades the hypothalamus adjacent to it and causes a reduction in the amount of hormones produced

    • D.

      Releases tumor markers that occupy the hormone receptor sites of other endocrine organs

    Correct Answer
    B. Has a paradoxical effect on adjacent cells, which results in hyposecretion of other anterior pituitary hormones
    Explanation
    The pressure produced by the tumor on neighboring anterior pituitary cells results in the hyposecretion of growth hormone, gonadotropin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone.

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  • 17. 

    Which disorder is caused by hypersecretion of the growth hormone (GH) in adults?

    • A.

      Cushing syndrome

    • B.

      Acromegaly

    • C.

      Giantism

    • D.

      Myxedema

    Correct Answer
    B. Acromegaly
    Explanation
    Acromegaly is the term for adults who have been exposed to continuously high levels of GH, whereas giantism is reserved for children and adolescents. The remaining options are not related to GH.

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  • 18. 

    Giantism only occurs in children and adolescents because their:

    • A.

      Growth hormones are still diminshed

    • B.

      Epiphyseal plates have not yet closed

    • C.

      Skeletal muscles are not fully developed

    • D.

      Metabolic rate are higher than in adulthood

    Correct Answer
    B. Epiphyseal plates have not yet closed
    Explanation
    The condition is related to the effects of GH on the growth of long bones.

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  • 19. 

    Amenorrhea, galatorhhea, hirsutism, and osteopenia are each caused by a:

    • A.

      Posterior pituitary adenoma

    • B.

      Thymoma

    • C.

      Prolactinoma

    • D.

      Growth hormone adenoma

    Correct Answer
    C. Prolactinoma
    Explanation
    The hallmark of prolactinoma is the sustained elevation of serum prolactin that is responsible for the symptomology referred to.

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  • 20. 

    Graves disease develops from a(n):

    • A.

      Viral infection

    • B.

      Autoimmune process in which thyroid tissue is replaced by lymphocytes and fibrous tissue

    • C.

      Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins that causes overproduction thyroid hormones

    • D.

      Ingestion of goitrogens that inhibits synthesis of the thyroid hormones, causing a goiter

    Correct Answer
    C. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins that causes overproduction thyroid hormones
    Explanation
    The pathology of Graves disease indicates that normal regulatory mechanisms are overridden by abnormal immunologic mechanisms that result in the stimulation of excessive TH.

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  • 21. 

    The signs of thyroid crisis resulting from Graves disease include:

    • A.

      Constipation with gastric distention

    • B.

      Bradycardia and bradypnea

    • C.

      Hyerthermia and tachycardia

    • D.

      Constipation and lethargy

    Correct Answer
    C. Hyerthermia and tachycardia
    Explanation
    The systemic symptoms of thyrotoxic crisis include hyperthermia and tachycardia; the remaining options are not associated with this disorder.

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  • 22. 

    Pathologic changes associated with Graves disease include:

    • A.

      High levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins

    • B.

      High levels of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

    • C.

      Diminshed levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

    • D.

      Diminshed levels of thyroid-binding globulin

    Correct Answer
    A. High levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins
    Explanation
    High levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins are found in more than 95% of individuals experiencing Graves disease.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 23, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Msnstudent
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