Cell Bio - Chapter 7 (Photosynthesis)

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Cell Bio - Chapter 7 (Photosynthesis) - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Describe the overall process of photosynthesis.

  • 2. 

    Compare the carbon input and output of the Calvin cycle. 

  • 3. 

    Examine how ATP and NADPH are produced from redox reactions and membrane gradients. 

  • 4. 

    Examine the significance of RuBP carboxylase enzyme to photosynthesis.

  • 5. 

    Compare and contrast C3, C4, and CAM plants. 

  • 6. 

    ____ is a product of the Calvin Cycle that is used to form glucose phosphate, amino acids or fatty acids. 

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      Ribulose biphosphate (RuBP)

    • C.

      Glyceradehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)

    • D.

      PEP carboxylase (PEPcase)

    • E.

      Carbon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    C. Glyceradehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)
    Explanation
    Glyceradehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) is a product of the Calvin Cycle that is used to form glucose phosphate, amino acids, or fatty acids. G3P is an important molecule in photosynthesis as it serves as a precursor for the synthesis of various organic compounds. It can be converted into glucose phosphate, which is used in the production of glucose, a vital energy source for cells. G3P can also be used in the synthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, and fatty acids, which are essential components of cell membranes and energy storage molecules.

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  • 7. 

    The action spectrum of photosynthesis shows a high light absorption for violet/blue and orange/red and a low absorption for green/yellow. If we were to set up an experiment where narrow bands of unicolored light were shown on an aquatic plant such as Elodea, and we counted the number of bubbles of oxygen produced as an indicator of photosynthetic rate, how would the graph appear?

    • A.

      Just like the action spectrum with peaks at violet/blue and orange/red and a trough at yellow/green

    • B.

      Exactly inverted from the action spectrum with a peak for yellow/green

    • C.

      Perfectly flat because many wavelengths are used by chlorophyll

    • D.

      A descending line because ultra-violet has more energy than infra-red

    • E.

      There is no way to guess without actually running the experiment

    Correct Answer
    A. Just like the action spectrum with peaks at violet/blue and orange/red and a trough at yellow/green
    Explanation
    The graph would appear just like the action spectrum with peaks at violet/blue and orange/red and a trough at yellow/green. This is because the action spectrum indicates the wavelengths of light that are most efficiently absorbed by chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Therefore, when narrow bands of unicolored light are shown on the aquatic plant, the highest rate of photosynthesis, indicated by the number of oxygen bubbles produced, would be observed for the violet/blue and orange/red light, while the lowest rate would be observed for the green/yellow light.

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  • 8. 

    C-4 plants:

    • A.

      Store carbon dioxide temporarily as oxaloacetate

    • B.

      Are found in hot, dry climates

    • C.

      Have a net photosynthetic rate two to three times that of C-3 plants

    • D.

      All of the choices are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the choices are correct
    Explanation
    The given answer states that all of the choices are correct. This means that C-4 plants indeed store carbon dioxide temporarily as oxaloacetate, are found in hot, dry climates, and have a higher net photosynthetic rate compared to C-3 plants. Therefore, all the statements provided in the options are accurate.

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  • 9. 

    Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis occurs in the cytosol of the cell.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis does not occur in the cytosol of the cell. It actually occurs in the mitochondria, specifically in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This process involves the movement of protons across the membrane, creating an electrochemical gradient, which is then used by ATP synthase to generate ATP.

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  • 10. 

    An early experiment by Van Helmont (1600s) describes how he "grew a tree in a large pot and found that after five years, the amount of soil in the pot had not changed. He concluded that the increase in weight was due to the addition of water." At that time, the compounds in the air had not yet been identified. Today, you know that he only discovered half the store. Which additional experiment would provide evidence for the rest of the story?

    • A.

      A very careful audit of the water taken in and lost by the tree would have revealed only half the added weight gained by the tree.

    • B.

      Carbon is discovered as a major element in trees and is lacking in water molecules.

    • C.

      Radioactive carbon in CO2 in the air is soon located as part of tree structures.

    • D.

      The critical experiment involves the conversation of nutrients in the soil.

    • E.

      All but the nutrient conversion is correct.

    Correct Answer
    E. All but the nutrient conversion is correct.
    Explanation
    The given correct answer states that all of the options provided are correct except for the nutrient conversion. This means that the additional experiment that would provide evidence for the rest of the story is not related to the conversion of nutrients in the soil. However, without further information, it is not clear what specific experiment would provide evidence for the rest of the story.

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  • 11. 

    The first event in the Calvin cycle is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule, which: decreases cell carbon dioxide levels, which increases the diffusion gradient. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the Calvin cycle, the first event involves the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule. This process decreases the levels of carbon dioxide in the cell, which in turn increases the diffusion gradient. This means that there is a higher concentration of carbon dioxide outside the cell compared to inside, leading to the movement of carbon dioxide into the cell. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 12. 

    The first event in the Calvin cycle is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule which: forms a six-carbon molecule that immediately breaks down into three-carbon PGA molecules.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the Calvin cycle, the first event is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule. This forms a six-carbon molecule, which then immediately breaks down into two three-carbon PGA molecules. Therefore, the statement that the attachment of carbon dioxide forms a six-carbon molecule that immediately breaks down into three-carbon PGA molecules is true.

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  • 13. 

    The first event in the Calvin cycle is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule which: immediately becomes a six-carbon sugar that is the base for starch, sucrose, cellulose, etc. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In the Calvin cycle, the first event is not the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule. The first event is the attachment of carbon dioxide to a three-carbon molecule called ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), forming an unstable six-carbon molecule. This six-carbon molecule then breaks down into two molecules of a three-carbon compound called 3-phosphoglycerate, which is the base for starch, sucrose, cellulose, and other organic molecules. Therefore, the statement that the attachment of carbon dioxide immediately becomes a six-carbon sugar is false.

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  • 14. 

    The first event in the Calvin cycle is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule which: is a reaction assisted by large quantities of RuBP carboxylase enzyme. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the Calvin cycle, the first event is the attachment of carbon dioxide to the five-carbon RuBP molecule. This reaction is assisted by large quantities of RuBP carboxylase enzyme. This enzyme helps to catalyze the reaction and facilitate the attachment of carbon dioxide to RuBP. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 15. 

    Fossil fuels are full of energy stored from photosynthesis millions of years ago. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. These organisms absorbed energy from the sun through photosynthesis and stored it in their tissues. Over time, these organic materials were buried and subjected to heat and pressure, which transformed them into fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Therefore, it is true that fossil fuels contain energy that was originally derived from photosynthesis.

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  • 16. 

    The function of sunlight in photosynthesis is to: 

    • A.

      Reduce NADPH to NADP

    • B.

      Fix O2 in the Calvin cycle

    • C.

      Excite electrons in chlorophyll

    • D.

      Combine carbon dioxide and water to form ATP and NADPH

    Correct Answer
    C. Excite electrons in chlorophyll
    Explanation
    Sunlight plays a crucial role in photosynthesis by exciting electrons in chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is a pigment found in chloroplasts, which absorbs light energy. When sunlight hits chlorophyll molecules, it energizes the electrons within them, causing them to become excited. These excited electrons are then used in the process of converting carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Thus, the function of sunlight in photosynthesis is to excite electrons in chlorophyll, initiating the process of converting light energy into chemical energy.

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  • 17. 

    G3P (glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate) is used by plants for all of the following EXCEPT the formation of

    • A.

      Fatty acids

    • B.

      Amino acids

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Sucrose

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygen
    Explanation
    G3P (glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate) is a molecule that plays a crucial role in the process of photosynthesis in plants. It is used in the formation of fatty acids, amino acids, and sucrose. However, it is not involved in the production or formation of oxygen. Oxygen is a byproduct of photosynthesis and is released into the atmosphere as plants convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Therefore, G3P is not used by plants for the formation of oxygen.

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  • 18. 

    Characterize the reactions involved in these reactions of the Calvin cycle. 

    • A.

      These reactions involved in the regeneration of RuBP. The reactions include an exergonic reaction (ATP - ADP) and the reduction of the coenzyme NADPH.

    • B.

      These reactions are involved in the reduction of CO2. Energy is required in the form of ATP, which is hydrolyzed to ADP. The substrate BPG is reduced, while the coenzyme NADPH is oxidized

    • C.

      These reactions are involved in the fixation of CO2. Energy is required in the form of ADP, which is hydrolyzed to ATP. The substrate BPG is oxidized, while the coenzyme NADPH is reduced.

    • D.

      These reactions are part of Light Reactions in noncyclic pathway. ATP and NADPH are used during these reactions.

    Correct Answer
    B. These reactions are involved in the reduction of CO2. Energy is required in the form of ATP, which is hydrolyzed to ADP. The substrate BPG is reduced, while the coenzyme NADPH is oxidized
    Explanation
    The given answer accurately describes the reactions involved in the reduction of CO2 in the Calvin cycle. It states that energy in the form of ATP is required and is hydrolyzed to ADP. The substrate BPG is reduced, while the coenzyme NADPH is oxidized. This explanation aligns with the information provided in the question and accurately characterizes the reactions involved in the Calvin cycle.

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  • 19. 

    If plants were only able to undergo the cyclic pathway, which of the following would NOT be true?

    • A.

      Plants would not produce oxygen.

    • B.

      Carbohydrates could still be produced but in much smaller quantities.

    • C.

      More NADPH would be produced during the cyclic electron pathway.

    • D.

      ATP production would decrease due to a smaller amount of H+ being available.

    Correct Answer
    C. More NADPH would be produced during the cyclic electron pathway.
    Explanation
    If plants were only able to undergo the cyclic pathway, more NADPH would not be produced during the cyclic electron pathway. The cyclic pathway only produces ATP and does not generate NADPH. NADPH is produced during the non-cyclic pathway, also known as the linear electron pathway.

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  • 20. 

    If the Calvin cycle uses three molecules of CO2 to produce six molecules of G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate), but only one G3P molecule is used to form a carbohydrate molecule, what happens to the other carbons that were taken in?

    • A.

      Any unused CO2 is released into the environment.

    • B.

      The other five G3P molecules are used to regenerate more RuBP.

    • C.

      Any unused G3P molecule is converted and stored as starch.

    • D.

      The remaining five G3P molecules are used to reduce CO2.

    Correct Answer
    B. The other five G3P molecules are used to regenerate more RuBP.
    Explanation
    The Calvin cycle uses three molecules of CO2 to produce six molecules of G3P. However, only one G3P molecule is used to form a carbohydrate molecule. The other five G3P molecules are used to regenerate more RuBP, which is an important molecule in the Calvin cycle. This regeneration process ensures that the Calvin cycle can continue and produce more carbohydrate molecules.

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  • 21. 

    The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis actually occur in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast, not in the stroma. The thylakoid membrane contains chlorophyll and other pigments that capture light energy, which is then used to generate ATP and NADPH. These reactions take place in the thylakoid membrane, while the stroma is the fluid-filled space surrounding the thylakoid membrane where the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle) occur.

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  • 22. 

    The major enzyme that 'fixes' carbon dioxide is called

    • A.

      Ribulose biphosphate carboxylase(rubisco)

    • B.

      Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)

    • C.

      PEP carboxylase (PEPcase)

    • D.

      Lactate dehydrogenase

    Correct Answer
    A. Ribulose biphosphate carboxylase(rubisco)
    Explanation
    Ribulose biphosphate carboxylase, also known as rubisco, is the major enzyme responsible for carbon dioxide fixation in photosynthesis. It catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle, where carbon dioxide is converted into an organic molecule. Rubisco combines carbon dioxide with a five-carbon sugar, ribulose biphosphate, to produce two molecules of a three-carbon compound called 3-phosphoglycerate. This reaction is crucial for plants and other photosynthetic organisms to convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into usable organic compounds for growth and energy production.

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  • 23. 

    Oxygen production in photosynthesis involves all of the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Photosystem one

    • B.

      Photosystem two

    • C.

      Splitting of water

    • D.

      Light reactions

    Correct Answer
    A. Photosystem one
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy, and oxygen is produced as a byproduct. Photosystem one and photosystem two are both involved in capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy. The splitting of water is a crucial step in photosynthesis that provides electrons and protons for the production of oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is photosystem one, as it is an essential component in the process of oxygen production during photosynthesis.

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  • 24. 

    Phosphoenylpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase) fixes carbon dioxide (C1) to PEP (C3) to form oxaloacetate (C4) within mesophyll cells of the C-4 plants. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Phosphoenylpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in C4 photosynthesis. It catalyzes the fixation of carbon dioxide (C1) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), a three-carbon compound, to form oxaloacetate (C4). This reaction occurs within the mesophyll cells of C4 plants. C4 plants have a specialized carbon fixation pathway that allows them to minimize photorespiration and enhance their efficiency in capturing and utilizing carbon dioxide. Therefore, the given statement is correct.

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  • 25. 

    Photorespiration is the process by which light is used to release the stored energy in carbohydrate molecules to perform all work in plant cells. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Photorespiration is not the process by which light is used to release the stored energy in carbohydrate molecules. Instead, it is a wasteful process that occurs in plants when there is a shortage of carbon dioxide. During photorespiration, instead of fixing carbon dioxide, plants use oxygen, resulting in the release of carbon dioxide and the consumption of energy. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 26. 

    Photorespiration occurs mainly in:

    • A.

      C3 plants

    • B.

      C4 plants

    • C.

      CAM plants

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. C3 plants
    Explanation
    Photorespiration is a process that occurs in plants when there is a shortage of carbon dioxide. It involves the breakdown of organic compounds in the presence of light, leading to the release of carbon dioxide. C3 plants, which include the majority of plant species, are more prone to photorespiration compared to C4 and CAM plants. C4 plants have adapted mechanisms to minimize photorespiration, while CAM plants have a different carbon fixation pathway that reduces the occurrence of photorespiration. Therefore, the correct answer is C3 plants.

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  • 27. 

    Plants that conduct C-4 metabolism are desert plants.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Plants that conduct C-4 metabolism are desert plants because C-4 metabolism is an adaptation that allows plants to efficiently use carbon dioxide in environments with high temperatures and limited water availability, such as deserts. C-4 plants have specialized leaf anatomy and biochemical pathways that enable them to minimize water loss and maximize carbon fixation, making them well-suited for arid conditions. Therefore, it is true that desert plants often employ C-4 metabolism.

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  • 28. 

    A product of photosynthesis, _____, is the chief source of energy for most organisms. 

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Sucrose

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is the correct answer because it is a product of photosynthesis and serves as the chief source of energy for most organisms. Through cellular respiration, glucose is broken down to release energy that is used for various metabolic processes in cells. Oxygen is produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis, but it is not the chief source of energy. Sucrose is a disaccharide that can be broken down into glucose and fructose, so it is not the direct product of photosynthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is glucose.

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  • 29. 

    Protons (H+) accumulate in the thylakoid space during electron transport between photosystems I and II. The excess of protons in the thylakoid space

    • A.

      Enters the photorespiration pathway

    • B.

      Converts NADP to NADPH and generates ATP in the process

    • C.

      Is small enough to diffuse back out through the lipid bilayer

    • D.

      Raises the pH of the space until the processes stop

    • E.

      Moves from the thylakoid space to the stroma through an ATP synthase complex channel that generates ATP

    Correct Answer
    E. Moves from the thylakoid space to the stroma through an ATP synthase complex channel that generates ATP
    Explanation
    During electron transport between photosystems I and II, protons accumulate in the thylakoid space. These excess protons then move from the thylakoid space to the stroma through an ATP synthase complex channel that generates ATP. This movement of protons is essential for the production of ATP, which is a form of energy that can be used by the cell. Therefore, this process allows for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP.

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  • 30. 

    To what does the term grana refer?

    • A.

      The double membrane of the chloroplast

    • B.

      A flattened disc or sac in the chloroplast

    • C.

      A stack of thylakoid membrane structures

    • D.

      The central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast

    • E.

      The cytochrome system in the membranes of the thylakoids

    Correct Answer
    C. A stack of thylakoid membrane structures
    Explanation
    Grana refers to a stack of thylakoid membrane structures in the chloroplast. Thylakoid membranes are where the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur, and they contain chlorophyll and other pigments that capture sunlight. The grana are important for increasing the surface area available for photosynthesis and for organizing the thylakoid membranes in an efficient manner. They play a crucial role in the process of converting light energy into chemical energy in plants.

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  • 31. 

    To what does the term stroma refer?

    • A.

      The double membrane of the chloroplast

    • B.

      A flattened disk or sac in the chloroplast

    • C.

      A stack of thylakoid membrane structures

    • D.

      The central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast

    • E.

      The cytochrome system in the membranes of the thylakoids

    Correct Answer
    D. The central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast
    Explanation
    The stroma refers to the central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast. This space is where various metabolic reactions occur, including the synthesis of organic molecules through photosynthesis. The stroma also contains enzymes, DNA, and ribosomes, which are necessary for the chloroplast to carry out its functions.

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  • 32. 

    What are the products of photosynthesis?

    • A.

      Water and carbon dioxide

    • B.

      Water and oxygen

    • C.

      Oxygen and carbohydrate

    • D.

      Carbohydrate and water

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygen and carbohydrate
    Explanation
    During photosynthesis, plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and carbohydrates (such as glucose). Oxygen is released as a byproduct, which is essential for the survival of many organisms, including humans. Carbohydrates, on the other hand, serve as a source of energy for plants and are also important for the growth and development of the plant. Therefore, the correct answer is oxygen and carbohydrate.

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  • 33. 

    What organisms are capable of photosynthesis?

    • A.

      Plants only

    • B.

      Plants and algae only

    • C.

      Plants and some bacteria only

    • D.

      Plants, algae, and some bacteria

    Correct Answer
    D. Plants, algae, and some bacteria
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the process by which organisms convert sunlight into energy. Plants are well-known for their ability to perform photosynthesis, but algae and some bacteria are also capable of this process. Algae are simple, plant-like organisms that can be found in various aquatic environments, while certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria, possess pigments that enable them to carry out photosynthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is that plants, algae, and some bacteria are capable of photosynthesis.

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  • 34. 

    When an electron has been excited to a higher energy state, it can then drop back to the original level, re-emitting the light as fluorescence. When chlorophyll is extracted in solution, and a bright red or blue light is shown on it, the chlorophyll fluoresces brightly. However, when the chlorophyll is packaged inside chloroplasts and the red or blue light is turned on, there is no fluorescence. This most likely indicates that

    • A.

      The red and blue light waves are reflected by the chlorophyll membrane

    • B.

      Chlorophyll in solution is a different molecule than chlorophyll in a chloroplast

    • C.

      Excited electrons are transferred to electron acceptors in the chloroplast

    • D.

      Fluorescence does not work in living cells

    • E.

      Green light must be used to make living cells fluoresce

    Correct Answer
    C. Excited electrons are transferred to electron acceptors in the chloroplast
    Explanation
    When chlorophyll is extracted and exposed to red or blue light, it fluoresces brightly. However, when chlorophyll is inside chloroplasts and exposed to the same light, there is no fluorescence. This suggests that the excited electrons in chlorophyll are being transferred to electron acceptors in the chloroplast, rather than being emitted as fluorescence.

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  • 35. 

    When the stomata in a leaf close during the day, then

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide in the air spaces in the leaf decreases

    • B.

      Oxygen in the air spaces in the leaf increases

    • C.

      C3 plants carry on photorespiration, using O2 and producing PGA and CO2

    • D.

      All photosystems as well as photorespiration come to a halt

    • E.

      All choices but the halting of photosystems are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All choices but the halting of photosystems are correct
  • 36. 

    Which is most closely related with the Calvin cycle?

    • A.

      ATP production

    • B.

      Oxygen production

    • C.

      Carbon dioxide fixation

    • D.

      Carbon dioxide production

    • E.

      Removal of electrons from water for passage through an electron transport system

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon dioxide fixation
    Explanation
    The Calvin cycle is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the chloroplasts of plants during photosynthesis. It is responsible for converting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into glucose, a process known as carbon dioxide fixation. This glucose can then be used for energy production or stored as starch. Therefore, carbon dioxide fixation is most closely related to the Calvin cycle.

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  • 37. 

    Which of these is NOT a major photosynthetic pigment in plants?

    • A.

      Chlorophyll a

    • B.

      Chlorophyll b

    • C.

      Chlorophyll c

    • D.

      Carotenoid pigments

    Correct Answer
    C. Chlorophyll c
    Explanation
    Chlorophyll c is not a major photosynthetic pigment in plants. The major photosynthetic pigments in plants are chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid pigments. Chlorophyll c is found in certain algae but is not as prevalent in plants.

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  • 38. 

    Which statement is NOT true about photosystems?

    • A.

      Photosystem I passes electrons on to Photosystem II

    • B.

      Each photosystem contains numerous pigment molecules that act as antennas to capture light

    • C.

      Photosystem I contains a reaction center molecule that loses electrons which are then replaced by electrons from water

    • D.

      Electrons in the reaction center molecule are excited by absorbed solar energy and are passed along to an acceptor molecule

    Correct Answer
    A. Photosystem I passes electrons on to Photosystem II
    Explanation
    Photosystem I passes electrons on to Photosystem II. This statement is not true because in the process of photosynthesis, it is actually Photosystem II that passes electrons on to Photosystem I. Photosystem II is responsible for capturing light energy and using it to split water molecules, releasing electrons in the process. These electrons are then passed on to Photosystem I, where they are further energized and used in the production of ATP and NADPH.

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  • 39. 

    Which statement is NOT true about the cyclic electron pathway?

    • A.

      It produces ATP.

    • B.

      It involves Photosystem I.

    • C.

      It produces NADPH.

    • D.

      Electrons lost from Photosystem I eventually return to Photosystem I.

    Correct Answer
    C. It produces NADPH.
    Explanation
    The cyclic electron pathway is a process in photosynthesis that involves only Photosystem I. It produces ATP by generating a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, but it does not produce NADPH. NADPH is produced in the non-cyclic electron pathway, which involves both Photosystem I and Photosystem II. In the cyclic pathway, electrons lost from Photosystem I return to Photosystem I, completing a closed loop.

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  • 40. 

    Which statement is NOT true about the noncyclic electron pathway?

    • A.

      Electrons are boosted to higher energy level in Photosystem I.

    • B.

      Sunlight excites electrons in Photosystem II.

    • C.

      It produces ATP.

    • D.

      It produces NADPH.

    • E.

      It produces carbohydrates through carbon dioxide fixation.

    Correct Answer
    E. It produces carbohydrates through carbon dioxide fixation.
    Explanation
    The noncyclic electron pathway does not produce carbohydrates through carbon dioxide fixation. This pathway is responsible for producing ATP and NADPH, which are used in the Calvin cycle to fix carbon dioxide and produce carbohydrates. However, the actual fixation of carbon dioxide occurs in the Calvin cycle, not in the noncyclic electron pathway.

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  • 41. 

    Which would be a CAM plant?

    • A.

      Cactus

    • B.

      Corn

    • C.

      Rice

    • D.

      Wheat

    • E.

      Oak tree

    Correct Answer
    A. Cactus
    Explanation
    Cactus would be a CAM plant because CAM plants, or Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants, have a unique adaptation to arid environments. They open their stomata at night to reduce water loss through transpiration and store carbon dioxide as organic acids. During the day, the stomata close to conserve water. Cacti are well-known examples of CAM plants as they are able to survive in hot and dry desert conditions by using this specialized mechanism.

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  • 42. 

    While C-4 plants have carbon dioxide fixation and carbon dioxide uptake separated by location within the plant, CAM plants

    • A.

      Have these processes separated by time.

    • B.

      Fix much greater amounts of carbon dioxide than C-4 plants.

    • C.

      Are found in tropical regions where nutrients are abundant.

    • D.

      All of the choices are correct.

    Correct Answer
    A. Have these processes separated by time.
    Explanation
    CAM plants have carbon dioxide fixation and carbon dioxide uptake separated by time. Unlike C-4 plants, which have these processes separated by location within the plant, CAM plants open their stomata at night to take in carbon dioxide and store it as an organic acid. During the day, the stomata remain closed to prevent water loss, and the stored carbon dioxide is used for photosynthesis. This adaptation allows CAM plants to survive in arid environments with limited water availability. Therefore, the correct answer is "have these processes separated by time."

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  • 43. 

    Why are plants green?

    • A.

      They absorb only green wavelengths of light.

    • B.

      They absorb only yellow and blue wavelengths of light.

    • C.

      They reflect nearly all wavelengths of light.

    • D.

      They reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light.

    • E.

      They reflect yellow and blue wavelengths of light.

    Correct Answer
    D. They reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light.
    Explanation
    Plants appear green because they reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light. This is due to the presence of chlorophyll, the pigment responsible for photosynthesis. Chlorophyll absorbs light energy in the blue and red parts of the spectrum, while reflecting green light. This allows plants to utilize the absorbed light for energy production, while the reflected green light gives them their characteristic color.

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