Biology 1406: Exam 3

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Biology 1406: Exam 3 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are the inputs of the dark reactions?

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      NADH

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      CO2

    • E.

      NAD

    • F.

      H2O

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. ATP
    B. NADH
    D. CO2
    Explanation
    The dark reactions, also known as the Calvin cycle, are a series of chemical reactions that occur in the stroma of chloroplasts. These reactions use the energy from ATP and the reducing power of NADPH (derived from NADH) to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into glucose through a process called carbon fixation. Therefore, the inputs of the dark reactions are ATP, NADH, and CO2.

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  • 2. 

    In C4 plants, CO2 fixation by PEP carboxylase occurs in ________ CO2 fixation by RuBisCO occurs in ________.

    • A.

      Bundle sheath cells; bundle sheath cells

    • B.

      Bundle sheath cells; mesophyll cells

    • C.

      Mesophyll cells; bundle sheath cells

    • D.

      Mesophyll cells; mesophyll cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesophyll cells; bundle sheath cells
    Explanation
    In C4 plants, CO2 fixation by PEP carboxylase occurs in mesophyll cells, while CO2 fixation by RuBisCO occurs in bundle sheath cells. This is because C4 plants have a specialized carbon fixation pathway that allows them to minimize photorespiration and maximize efficiency in low CO2 environments. In this pathway, mesophyll cells initially fix CO2 using PEP carboxylase to form a four-carbon compound. This compound is then transported to bundle sheath cells, where it is decarboxylated to release CO2, which is then fixed by RuBisCO. This spatial separation of CO2 fixation in different cell types allows C4 plants to efficiently concentrate CO2 around RuBisCO, enhancing photosynthetic efficiency.

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  • 3. 

    In non-cyclic photophosphorylation, what gas is released when water is hydrolyzed? It is a one-word answer and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer
    oxygen
    Explanation
    In non-cyclic photophosphorylation, water is hydrolyzed to release oxygen gas as a byproduct. This process occurs in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during photosynthesis. Oxygen is essential for aerobic respiration and is also released into the atmosphere, contributing to the oxygen levels in the environment.

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  • 4. 

    Chlorophyll is the main pigment found in plants. Other pigments are also present. If these other pigments were lost from a plant, but chlorophyll remained, the plant would no longer be able to absorb wavelengths of light outside those absorbed by chlorophyll.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    If the other pigments in a plant were lost but chlorophyll remained, the plant would only be able to absorb the wavelengths of light that chlorophyll can absorb. This is because chlorophyll is responsible for capturing light energy for photosynthesis. Without the other pigments, the plant would not be able to capture a broader range of wavelengths, limiting its ability to convert light energy into chemical energy. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 5. 

    In photosynthesis, the light dependent reactions take place in the ________and the light-independent reactions take place in the ________.

    Correct Answer
    thylakoid; stroma
    Explanation
    In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts. This is where light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll and converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. The light-independent reactions, also known as the Calvin cycle, take place in the stroma of the chloroplasts. In this stage, ATP and NADPH produced in the light-dependent reactions are used to convert carbon dioxide into glucose through a series of enzymatic reactions.

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  • 6. 

    Below is the electromagnetic spectrum showing the wavelength. Which has greater energy, the red color or violet color.

    • A.

      Violet

    • B.

      Red

    Correct Answer
    A. Violet
    Explanation
    Violet color has greater energy compared to red color in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is because violet light has a shorter wavelength and higher frequency than red light. According to the wave-particle duality of light, higher frequency corresponds to higher energy. Therefore, violet light carries more energy per photon than red light.

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  • 7. 

    Which statements describe light reaction of photosynthesis?

    • A.

      It converts light energy to chemical energy

    • B.

      CO2 is produced

    • C.

      Water is one of the outputs

    • D.

      It takes place in the thylakoid

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. It converts light energy to chemical energy
    D. It takes place in the thylakoid
    Explanation
    The light reaction of photosynthesis is a process that converts light energy into chemical energy. This energy is then used to produce ATP and NADPH, which are essential for the dark reaction (also known as the Calvin cycle) to occur. In the light reaction, water is split, releasing oxygen as a byproduct, and the electrons from water are used to generate energy. This entire process takes place in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts.

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  • 8. 

    Which events below are present in both non--cyclic and cyclic photophosphorylation?

    • A.

      Production of ATP

    • B.

      Transport of electron to primary electron acceptor

    • C.

      Production of O2

    • D.

      Hydrolysis of water

    Correct Answer
    A. Production of ATP
    Explanation
    The production of ATP is a common event in both non-cyclic and cyclic photophosphorylation. In both processes, light energy is used to generate ATP molecules through the phosphorylation of ADP. In non-cyclic photophosphorylation, ATP is produced through the movement of electrons in a linear pathway, while in cyclic photophosphorylation, ATP is produced through a cyclic pathway. Therefore, the production of ATP is present in both types of photophosphorylation.

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  • 9. 

    What happens in stage 2 of Calvin cycle?

    • A.

      Phosphoglyceric acid is formed

    • B.

      ATP and NADH are used to form glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate from phosphoglyceric acid

    • C.

      RuBP is regenerated

    • D.

      Glucose is synthesized

    • E.

      CO2 combines with RuBP

    Correct Answer
    B. ATP and NADH are used to form glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate from phosphoglyceric acid
    Explanation
    In stage 2 of the Calvin cycle, ATP and NADH are used to form glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate from phosphoglyceric acid. This step is crucial for the production of glucose during the cycle. ATP provides the necessary energy, while NADH acts as a reducing agent to convert phosphoglyceric acid into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. This conversion is an important intermediate step in the overall process of glucose synthesis.

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  • 10. 

    During what stage in photosynthesis, NADP is converted to NADPH and ADP + Pi converted to ATP?

    • A.

      Light independent reactions

    • B.

      Light-dependent reactions

    • C.

      Neither light-dependent reactions or light independent reactions

    • D.

      Both light-dependent reactions and light independent reactions 

    Correct Answer
    B. Light-dependent reactions
    Explanation
    In the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, NADP is converted to NADPH and ADP + Pi is converted to ATP. This occurs in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts, where light energy is captured and used to generate chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. These energy-rich molecules are then utilized in the light-independent reactions (also known as the Calvin cycle) to convert carbon dioxide into glucose. Therefore, the correct answer is light-dependent reactions.

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  • 11. 

    In non-cyclic photophosphorylation, the lost electron in PS II is replaced by electrons coming from _________.

    Correct Answer
    water
    Explanation
    In non-cyclic photophosphorylation, the lost electron in PS II is replaced by electrons coming from water. During photosynthesis, water molecules are split in a process called photolysis, releasing electrons, protons, and oxygen. The electrons from water replace the lost electrons in PS II, allowing the electron transport chain to continue and generate ATP. This process is crucial for the production of energy-rich molecules in plants.

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  • 12. 

    In non-cyclic photophosphorylation, what replaces the lost electron in PS I?

    • A.

      Electrons from ATP

    • B.

      Electrons from chlorophyll in PS II

    • C.

      Electrons from water

    • D.

      Electrons from itself (PS I)

    Correct Answer
    B. Electrons from chlorophyll in PS II
    Explanation
    In non-cyclic photophosphorylation, electrons from chlorophyll in PS II replace the lost electron in PS I. This process occurs during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. PS II absorbs light energy and uses it to excite electrons, which are then transferred to PS I through an electron transport chain. The electrons from PS II replace the lost electron in PS I, allowing it to continue the flow of electrons and generate ATP.

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  • 13. 

    ________ is the green pigment in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. It is a one-word answer (singular) and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer
    chlorophyll
    Explanation
    Chlorophyll is the green pigment found in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. It is responsible for capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is essential for plants to carry out photosynthesis and is what gives them their green color.

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  • 14. 

    In the light reaction of photosynthesis, 8 photons yield 3ATP and 2 NADPH. In the Calvin cycle, 18 ATP and 12 NADPH are required to make one molecule of glucose. How many photons then were absorbed to make one molecule of glucose? Your answer must be numeral only such as 10

    Correct Answer
    48
    Explanation
    In the light reaction of photosynthesis, 8 photons yield 3 ATP and 2 NADPH. In the Calvin cycle, 18 ATP and 12 NADPH are required to make one molecule of glucose. Since the ratio of ATP to NADPH in the light reaction is 3:2, and the ratio of ATP to NADPH in the Calvin cycle is 18:12, we can conclude that for every 6 ATP and 4 NADPH produced in the light reaction, 1 molecule of glucose is produced in the Calvin cycle. Therefore, to produce 1 molecule of glucose, 48 photons (8 photons x 6) must have been absorbed in the light reaction.

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  • 15. 

    What are the outputs of the light reactions?

    • A.

      O2

    • B.

      CO2

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      H2O

    • E.

      Glucose

    • F.

      NADH

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. O2
    C. ATP
    F. NADH
    Explanation
    The outputs of the light reactions in photosynthesis are O2, ATP, and NADH. During the light reactions, light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll and used to split water molecules, producing oxygen as a byproduct. The energy from the absorbed light is also used to generate ATP, which is a molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. Additionally, NADH is produced as an electron carrier, which plays a crucial role in the subsequent dark reactions of photosynthesis.

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  • 16. 

    The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are those that ________.

    • A.

      Occur only at night

    • B.

      Convert glucose into ATP

    • C.

      Convert water into hydrogen and oxygen

    • D.

      Convert CO2 into sugar

    Correct Answer
    D. Convert CO2 into sugar
    Explanation
    The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis, also known as the Calvin cycle, occur in the stroma of the chloroplasts and are not dependent on light. These reactions use the energy stored in ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into sugar molecules, specifically glucose. This process is known as carbon fixation and is essential for the production of carbohydrates, which are used as a source of energy by plants and other organisms.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following statement is correct?

    • A.

      The thylakoid is located in the chlorophyll in the chloroplast in the mesophyll cell in the leaf

    • B.

      The chlorophyll is located in the thylakoid in the chloroplast in the mesophyll cell in the leaf

    • C.

      The thylakoid is located in the chloroplast in the chlorophyll in the mesophyll cell in the leaf

    • D.

      The chlorophyll is located in the thylakoid in the mesophyll cell in the chloroplast in the leaf

    Correct Answer
    B. The chlorophyll is located in the thylakoid in the chloroplast in the mesophyll cell in the leaf
    Explanation
    The chlorophyll is located in the thylakoid in the chloroplast in the mesophyll cell in the leaf. This statement accurately describes the location of chlorophyll, which is a pigment responsible for capturing light energy during photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is specifically found within the thylakoid membranes, which are located inside the chloroplasts. The chloroplasts themselves are present within the mesophyll cells of the leaf, where they perform photosynthesis.

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  • 18. 

    In the reaction below, which is the reducing agent? 6CO2  +   6H2O      à    C6H12O6   +   6O2

    • A.

      6H2O

    • B.

      6CO2

    • C.

      C6H12O6

    • D.

      6O2

    Correct Answer
    A. 6H2O
    Explanation
    The reducing agent is the substance that donates electrons and gets oxidized in a redox reaction. In this reaction, 6H2O is being oxidized to form 6O2. Therefore, 6H2O is the reducing agent because it is losing electrons and getting oxidized.

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  • 19. 

    In CAM plants, CO2 fixation by PEP carboxylase occurs at (daytime or night time) in  (mesophyll cells or bundle sheath cells).

    • A.

      Daytime; mesophyll cells

    • B.

      Daytime; bundle sheath cells

    • C.

      Night time; mesophyll cells

    • D.

      Night time; bundle sheath cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Night time; mesophyll cells
    Explanation
    In CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) plants, CO2 fixation by PEP carboxylase occurs at night time in mesophyll cells. This is because CAM plants have a unique adaptation where they open their stomata at night to minimize water loss through transpiration. During the night, CO2 is fixed into organic acids using PEP carboxylase in the mesophyll cells. These organic acids are stored in vacuoles. During the day, when the stomata are closed to conserve water, the stored organic acids are broken down, releasing CO2 for the Calvin cycle in the bundle sheath cells.

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  • 20. 

    Below is an illustration of a chloroplast. Identify the part that is labeled B. It is a one-word answer (singular) and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer
    stroma
    Explanation
    The part labeled B in the illustration of a chloroplast is the stroma. The stroma is the fluid-filled region within the chloroplast where various metabolic reactions, including the synthesis of carbohydrates through photosynthesis, take place. It is surrounded by the inner membrane of the chloroplast and contains enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, and other components necessary for the functioning of the chloroplast.

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  • 21. 

    Animal cells typically achieve cytokinesis by ________.

    • A.

      Forming a cleavage furrow that pinches the cell into two

    • B.

      Forming a cell plate across the middle of the cell

    • C.

      Chromosome elongation

    • D.

      Binary fission

    Correct Answer
    A. Forming a cleavage furrow that pinches the cell into two
    Explanation
    Animal cells typically achieve cytokinesis by forming a cleavage furrow that pinches the cell into two. During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm of the cell divides, resulting in the formation of two daughter cells. In animal cells, a contractile ring made of actin and myosin filaments forms around the equator of the cell. This ring contracts, causing the plasma membrane to invaginate and form a furrow. The furrow deepens until it pinches the cell into two separate daughter cells. This process is known as cleavage furrow formation and is the most common method of cytokinesis in animal cells.

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  • 22. 

    If a cell has 46 double copy chromosomes, how many sister chromatids are there? Your answer must be numeral only such as 10.

    Correct Answer
    92
    Explanation
    In a cell with 46 double copy chromosomes, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids. Therefore, the total number of sister chromatids would be 46 multiplied by 2, which equals 92.

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  • 23. 

    A cell with 2n = 10, divides by mitosis. How many chromosomes are there in the nucleus in each of the two daughter cells? Your answer must be numeral only such as 10.

    Correct Answer
    10
    Explanation
    During mitosis, the parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells. In this case, the parent cell has 10 chromosomes (2n = 10), so each daughter cell will also have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Therefore, there will be 10 chromosomes in each of the two daughter cells.

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  • 24. 

    If there are 32 sister chromatids in a normal somatic cell, what is the haploid number for that cell? Your answer must be numeral only such as 10.

    Correct Answer
    16
    Explanation
    The haploid number represents the number of chromosomes in a cell that contains only one set of chromosomes. In a normal somatic cell, the number of sister chromatids is double the number of chromosomes. Therefore, if there are 32 sister chromatids, the haploid number for that cell would be half of that, which is 16.

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  • 25. 

    If there are 20 centromeres in a cell at anaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis? Your answer must be numeral only such as 10.

    Correct Answer
    10
    Explanation
    During anaphase, the sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles of the cell. Each chromatid contains one centromere. Therefore, if there are 20 centromeres in a cell at anaphase, it means that there are 20 sister chromatids. After cytokinesis, the cell divides into two daughter cells. Each daughter cell will receive half of the sister chromatids, resulting in 10 chromosomes in each daughter cell.

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  • 26. 

    A cell with two chromosomes (2n=2) is undergoing cell division. Which cell below illustrates that it is a anaphase?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    C. C
    Explanation
    In anaphase, the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and move towards opposite poles of the cell. In the given options, only cell C shows the separation of sister chromatids, with each chromatid moving towards opposite poles. Therefore, cell C illustrates anaphase.

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  • 27. 

    The stage of the cell cycle during which the cytoplasm divides to form two cells is called ________.

    • A.

      Cytokinesis

    • B.

      G1

    • C.

      G2

    • D.

      S

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytokinesis
    Explanation
    Cytokinesis is the stage of the cell cycle during which the cytoplasm divides to form two cells. This process occurs after the nuclear division (mitosis or meiosis) and ensures that each daughter cell receives a complete set of genetic material. During cytokinesis, the cytoplasmic components, including organelles and cytosol, are evenly distributed between the two daughter cells, resulting in the formation of two separate cells. It is an essential step in cell division and plays a crucial role in the growth and development of organisms.

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  • 28. 

    In what phase of interphase is the DNA doubled?

    • A.

      G2 phase

    • B.

      G1 phase

    • C.

      S phase

    • D.

      G0 phase

    Correct Answer
    C. S phase
    Explanation
    During the S phase of interphase, the DNA is doubled. This is because S phase stands for synthesis phase, where DNA replication takes place. In this phase, the cell prepares to divide by duplicating its DNA, ensuring that each daughter cell will have a complete set of genetic information. The S phase is a crucial step in the cell cycle and is followed by the G2 phase, where the cell prepares for mitosis or cell division.

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  • 29. 

    Refer to the figure below. In which part does the nucleus divide into two?

    • A.

      X

    • B.

      G2

    • C.

      G1

    • D.

      Y

    Correct Answer
    A. X
    Explanation
    The correct answer is X. In the figure, the X part represents the phase of cell division called mitosis. During mitosis, the nucleus divides into two daughter nuclei, each containing a complete set of chromosomes. This process ensures that each new cell formed during cell division receives the correct number of chromosomes. Therefore, X is the correct answer as it represents the division of the nucleus into two.

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  • 30. 

    How many sets of chromosomes are there in somatic cells of humans?

    • A.

      1 set

    • B.

      2 sets

    • C.

      23 sets

    • D.

      46 sets

    Correct Answer
    B. 2 sets
    Explanation
    In somatic cells of humans, there are two sets of chromosomes. This is because humans are diploid organisms, meaning they have two copies of each chromosome, one from each parent. Each set consists of 23 chromosomes, resulting in a total of 46 chromosomes in somatic cells.

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  • 31. 

    How many chromosomes are there in the cell below? Are they single copies or double copies?

    • A.

      12 chromosomes, double copies

    • B.

      6 chromosomes, single copies

    • C.

      6 chromosomes; double copies

    • D.

      12 chromosomes, single copies

    Correct Answer
    C. 6 chromosomes; double copies
    Explanation
    The cell below contains 6 chromosomes, and each chromosome has double copies. This means that there are a total of 12 copies of chromosomes in the cell.

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  • 32. 

    What does not happen in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle?

    • A.

      Division of the nucleus

    • B.

      Division of the cytoplasm

    • C.

      Duplication of DNA

    • D.

      None, all occur in mitotic phase

    Correct Answer
    C. Duplication of DNA
    Explanation
    In the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, the division of the nucleus and the division of the cytoplasm occur. This is known as mitosis, where the nucleus divides into two identical sets of chromosomes, and then the cytoplasm divides to form two separate daughter cells. However, the duplication of DNA actually occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle, which is before the mitotic phase. During the S phase, the DNA is replicated to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete set of genetic material. Therefore, the correct answer is that the duplication of DNA does not happen in the mitotic phase.

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  • 33. 

    If a cell has 46 double copy chromosomes, how many molecules of DNA are there? Your answer must be numeral only such as 10.

    Correct Answer
    92
    Explanation
    If a cell has 46 double copy chromosomes, it means that there are 46 pairs of chromosomes in the cell. Each pair of chromosomes consists of two identical molecules of DNA. Therefore, the total number of molecules of DNA in the cell is equal to the number of pairs of chromosomes, which is 46. Hence, the correct answer is 46, not 92.

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  • 34. 

    Which is the first step of binary fission in bacteria?

    • A.

      Division of the cells into two

    • B.

      Duplication of the DNA

    • C.

      Cell elongation

    • D.

      Septum formation

    Correct Answer
    B. Duplication of the DNA
    Explanation
    The first step of binary fission in bacteria is the duplication of the DNA. This process involves the replication of the bacterial chromosome to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material. Once the DNA is duplicated, the cell can proceed with division, where the cells split into two, followed by cell elongation and septum formation to complete the process of binary fission.

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  • 35. 

    A plant cell with a diploid number of chromosome = 2 is undergoing cytokinesis. Which cell below illustrates the process?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    C. C
  • 36. 

    Mouse has a diploid number of chromosome of 40 (2n=40). How many chromosomes does an sperm cell of a mouse has? Your answer must be numeral only such as 10.

    Correct Answer
    20
    Explanation
    The diploid number of chromosomes in a mouse is 40, which means that each cell has two sets of chromosomes. Since a sperm cell is a haploid cell, it only contains one set of chromosomes. Therefore, the number of chromosomes in a sperm cell of a mouse would be half of the diploid number, which is 20.

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  • 37. 

    The checkpoint that checks if the chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle fibers is located in which part in the figure below.

    • A.

      S

    • B.

      Z

    • C.

      Y

    • D.

      X

    Correct Answer
    C. Y
    Explanation
    The checkpoint that checks if the chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle fibers is located in part Y in the figure.

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  • 38. 

    A cell below is undergoing one of the stages of mitosis. How many chromosomes are there in the parent cell? Your answer must be numeral only such as 10.

    Correct Answer
    4
    Explanation
    The given answer is 4 because during mitosis, the parent cell undergoes replication of its DNA, resulting in two identical sets of chromosomes. Each set contains the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Since the answer is asking for the number of chromosomes in the parent cell, it is equal to the number of chromosomes in one set, which is 4.

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  • 39. 

    What are functions of cell division?

    • A.

      Tissue renewal

    • B.

      Growth

    • C.

      Development

    • D.

      Reproduction

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Tissue renewal
    B. Growth
    C. Development
    D. Reproduction
    Explanation
    Cell division is a vital process in living organisms that helps in tissue renewal, growth, development, and reproduction. Tissue renewal occurs through cell division as old or damaged cells are replaced by new ones. Growth is facilitated by cell division as cells multiply in number, leading to an increase in size and overall body development. During development, cell division plays a crucial role in the formation of different tissues and organs. Reproduction involves the division of cells to produce offspring, whether through asexual or sexual reproduction. Therefore, these functions highlight the significance of cell division in various biological processes.

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  • 40. 

    Refer to figure of cells below. Which cell is undergoing metaphase II if the cell has 2n=6? Your answer must be a letter only like A.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A because during metaphase II, the chromosomes align at the equatorial plate of the cell. In the given figure, only cell A shows chromosomes aligned at the equatorial plate, indicating that it is undergoing metaphase II.

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  • 41. 

    Which of these events are unique (occurs only) in meiosis?

    • A.

      Lining of the chromosomes in the center of the cell

    • B.

      Condensation of the chromosomes

    • C.

      Separation of sister chromatids

    • D.

      Separation of the pair of homologous chromosome

    Correct Answer
    D. Separation of the pair of homologous chromosome
    Explanation
    The separation of the pair of homologous chromosomes is unique to meiosis. This event, also known as homologous chromosome disjunction, occurs during meiosis I. It is the process in which the two homologous chromosomes, one from each parent, separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. This separation is crucial for the formation of haploid cells with a unique combination of genetic material. In mitosis, sister chromatids separate, but homologous chromosomes do not pair up and separate as they do in meiosis.

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  • 42. 

    A cell with 2n = 8 is undergoing meiosis. Which of the cells below is illustrating metaphase I? Your answer must be a letter only like A.

    Correct Answer
    C
  • 43. 

    In oogenesis, the first polar body and the secondary oocyte complete meiosis II and produce two polar bodies and one haploid ovum (upon or before) fertilization.

    Correct Answer
    upon
    Explanation
    In oogenesis, the first polar body and the secondary oocyte undergo meiosis II. This process results in the production of two polar bodies and one haploid ovum. The term "upon" indicates that this event occurs either before or at the moment of fertilization. Therefore, the correct answer is "upon."

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  • 44. 

    You are studying meiosis in an organism where 2n = 24. How many chromosomes will each nucleus have after meiosis II is complete? Your answer must be numeral only such as 10.

    Correct Answer
    12
    Explanation
    After meiosis II is complete, each nucleus will have 12 chromosomes. This is because meiosis II is the second division of meiosis, where the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. In this organism, the original cell had 24 chromosomes (2n = 24), and after meiosis I, the resulting cells have 12 chromosomes each. Therefore, after meiosis II, each nucleus will also have 12 chromosomes.

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  • 45. 

    Meiosis involves how many divisions producing a total of how many daughter cells?

    • A.

      2 divisions; 4 daughter cells

    • B.

      4 divisions; 5 daughter cells

    • C.

      1 division; 2 daughter cells

    • D.

      2 divisions; 2 daughter cells

    Correct Answer
    A. 2 divisions; 4 daughter cells
    Explanation
    Meiosis involves two divisions, known as meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, the cell undergoes a reduction division, resulting in two daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. In meiosis II, each of these daughter cells divides again, resulting in a total of four daughter cells. These four daughter cells are genetically different from each other and from the parent cell, allowing for genetic diversity.

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  • 46. 

    Crossing over between homologous chromosomes takes place during ________.

    • A.

      Prophase I

    • B.

      Interphase

    • C.

      Metaphase II

    • D.

      Prophase II

    Correct Answer
    A. Prophase I
    Explanation
    Crossing over between homologous chromosomes takes place during prophase I of meiosis. This is the stage where the homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over. This genetic exchange increases genetic diversity and results in the shuffling of alleles between homologous chromosomes. This process is crucial for the proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis and the production of genetically diverse gametes.

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  • 47. 

    The chromosomes in egg cells and sperm cells are located in the ________.

    • A.

      Mitochondrion

    • B.

      Cytoplasm

    • C.

      Nucleoid

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The chromosomes in egg cells and sperm cells are located in the nucleus. The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle within the cell that contains the genetic material, including the chromosomes. The chromosomes carry the DNA that contains the instructions for the development and functioning of an organism. Therefore, the nucleus is the correct location for the chromosomes in both egg and sperm cells.

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  • 48. 

    How many chromosomes are there in a human somatic cell? How many of them are coming from the father? How many are coming from the mother?

    • A.

      46, 46, 46

    • B.

      23, 23, 46

    • C.

      46, 23, 23

    • D.

      23, 23, 23

    Correct Answer
    C. 46, 23, 23
    Explanation
    A human somatic cell has a total of 46 chromosomes. Half of these chromosomes, 23, come from the father and the other half also come from the mother. Therefore, the correct answer is 46 chromosomes in total, with 23 coming from each parent.

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  • 49. 

    ________ is the process of producing haploid egg cells and sperm cells. It is a one-word answer and spelling matters.

    Correct Answer
    meiosis
    Explanation
    Meiosis is the process of producing haploid egg cells and sperm cells. It is a type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, resulting in the formation of gametes. During meiosis, DNA replication occurs followed by two rounds of cell division, resulting in the formation of four genetically unique haploid cells. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and ensures genetic diversity in offspring.

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  • 50. 

    The short period of rest after meiosis I is called ________.

    • A.

      Prophase II

    • B.

      Interphase

    • C.

      S phase

    • D.

      Interkinesis

    Correct Answer
    D. Interkinesis
    Explanation
    Interkinesis refers to the short period of rest that occurs between meiosis I and meiosis II. During this time, the cell does not undergo DNA replication, and there is no pairing of homologous chromosomes. Instead, the cell prepares for meiosis II by synthesizing new proteins and replenishing energy stores. This period allows the cell to recover before proceeding to the second round of division.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jan 02, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 25, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Katie Robbins
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