12-botany-unit-v & VI Plant Physiology & Biology In Human Welfare

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12-botany-unit-v & VI  Plant Physiology  & Biology In Human Welfare - Quiz

Prepared by
Mr. D. Rajamani, M. Sc.,M. Ed., P. G. Asst Botany A. C. S Mat. Hr Sec. School, Arni. Tiruvannamalai Dist
  ; &nbs p; &
www. Padasalai. Net



Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The term enzyme was coined by

    • A.

      Kuhne

    • B.

      Fischer

    • C.

      Buchner

    • D.

      Koshland

    Correct Answer
    A. Kuhne
    Explanation
    The term "enzyme" was coined by Kuhne.

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  • 2. 

    The lock and key theory of enzyme action was proposed by 

    • A.

      Fischer

    • B.

      Kuhne

    • C.

      Buchner

    • D.

      Koshland

    Correct Answer
    A. Fischer
    Explanation
    The lock and key theory of enzyme action was proposed by Fischer. This theory suggests that the active site of an enzyme is like a lock, and the substrate is like a key that fits into the lock. The active site has a specific shape that only allows certain substrates to bind and undergo a chemical reaction. This theory explains how enzymes are able to catalyze specific reactions and shows the importance of the complementary shape between the enzyme and substrate for efficient enzyme activity.

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  • 3. 

    An example for transverase is

    • A.

      Transaminase

    • B.

      Pyruvic carboxylase

    • C.

      Histidine decarboxylase

    • D.

      G-3-P dehydrogenase

    Correct Answer
    A. Transaminase
    Explanation
    Transaminase is an example of a transverase. Transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from one molecule to another, typically from an amino acid to a keto acid. This process is important in amino acid metabolism and the synthesis of non-essential amino acids. Therefore, transaminase fits the definition of a transverase, making it the correct answer.

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  • 4. 

    Photosynthesis takes place in  

    • A.

      chloroplasts

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Peroxisomes

    • D.

      ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    A. chloroplasts
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose and oxygen. This process occurs in the chloroplasts, which are specialized organelles found in plant cells. Chloroplasts contain a pigment called chlorophyll, which captures the energy from sunlight and uses it to carry out photosynthesis. Mitochondria are responsible for cellular respiration, not photosynthesis. Peroxisomes are involved in various metabolic processes, but not photosynthesis. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis and are not directly involved in photosynthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is chloroplasts.

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  • 5. 

    During cyclic electron transport, which one of the following is produced  

    • A.

      ATP only

    • B.

      NADPH2 only

    • C.

      NADH2 only

    • D.

      both ATP and NADPH2

    Correct Answer
    A. ATP only
    Explanation
    During cyclic electron transport, only ATP is produced. This process occurs in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts during photosynthesis. It involves the movement of electrons from photosystem I to the cytochrome complex and then back to photosystem I. This cyclic flow of electrons generates a proton gradient, which is used by ATP synthase to produce ATP through chemiosmosis. NADPH2 is produced during non-cyclic electron transport, which involves both photosystem I and photosystem II.

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  • 6. 

    Which one of the following is a five carbon compound?  

    • A.

      Ribose

    • B.

      DHAP

    • C.

      fructose

    • D.

      erythrose

    Correct Answer
    A. Ribose
    Explanation
    Ribose is a five carbon compound. It is a monosaccharide and a key component of RNA molecules. It is a pentose sugar, meaning it has five carbon atoms in its structure. Ribose is important for the synthesis of nucleotides and plays a crucial role in genetic processes.

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  • 7. 

    The essential component for the formation of chlorophyll  

    • A.

      Mg

    • B.

      Fe

    • C.

      Cl

    • D.

      Mn

    Correct Answer
    A. Mg
    Explanation
    Magnesium (Mg) is the essential component for the formation of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is a pigment found in plants and is responsible for capturing light energy during photosynthesis. Magnesium is a central atom in the chlorophyll molecule and plays a crucial role in converting light energy into chemical energy. It is required for the synthesis of chlorophyll molecules, and without magnesium, plants would not be able to produce chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis effectively.

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  • 8. 

    Which one of the following is a C4 plant?  

    • A.

      Sugarcane

    • B.

      Potato

    • C.

      Rice

    • D.

      Wheat

    Correct Answer
    A. Sugarcane
    Explanation
    Sugarcane is a C4 plant because it uses the C4 photosynthetic pathway. This pathway allows the plant to efficiently fix carbon dioxide and minimize water loss. C4 plants are adapted to hot and dry environments, making sugarcane a suitable example.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following bacterium oxidizes ammonia to nitrate  

    • A.

      Nitrosomonas

    • B.

      Rhizobium

    • C.

      Closteridium

    • D.

      E. coli

    Correct Answer
    A. Nitrosomonas
    Explanation
    Nitrosomonas is the correct answer because it is a type of bacterium that is known to oxidize ammonia to nitrate. This process is called nitrification and is an important step in the nitrogen cycle. Nitrosomonas converts ammonia, which is toxic to many organisms, into nitrite, and then other bacteria convert the nitrite into nitrate. Nitrate is a form of nitrogen that can be used by plants and other organisms as a nutrient.

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  • 10. 

    The pigment which is highly efficient in absorbing solar energy is  

    • A.

      Chlorophyll

    • B.

      Phycobilins

    • C.

      Carotinoids

    • D.

      Xanthophyll

    Correct Answer
    A. Chlorophyll
    Explanation
    Chlorophyll is the pigment that is highly efficient in absorbing solar energy. It is responsible for the green color of plants and is essential for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into chemical energy. Chlorophyll molecules are able to absorb light energy from the sun and transfer it to other molecules in the plant, where it is used to produce glucose and oxygen. This high efficiency in absorbing solar energy makes chlorophyll the primary pigment involved in photosynthesis.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is a total parasite  

    • A.

      Cuscuta

    • B.

      Viscum

    • C.

      Drosera

    • D.

      Monotropa

    Correct Answer
    A. Cuscuta
    Explanation
    Cuscuta is a total parasite because it lacks chlorophyll and is unable to produce its own food through photosynthesis. Instead, it attaches itself to a host plant and derives all its nutrients and water from the host. This dependency on the host plant for survival classifies Cuscuta as a total parasite.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following wavelengths of light is most effective for photosynthesis  

    • A.

      400 nm to 700 nm

    • B.

      700 nm to 900 nm

    • C.

      100 nm to 200 nm

    • D.

      200 nm to 300 nm

    Correct Answer
    A. 400 nm to 700 nm
    Explanation
    The wavelength range of 400 nm to 700 nm is most effective for photosynthesis. This is because it includes the visible light spectrum, which is the range of light that plants can absorb and use for photosynthesis. Within this range, different pigments in the plants, such as chlorophyll, can absorb specific wavelengths of light to drive the photosynthetic process.

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  • 13. 

    Dark respiration is the function of  

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Peroxisomes

    • C.

      Chloroplast

    • D.

      Ribosome

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    Dark respiration is the process by which cells break down organic compounds to release energy in the absence of light. This process occurs in the mitochondria, which are known as the powerhouses of the cell. Mitochondria are responsible for generating ATP, the energy currency of the cell, through the process of cellular respiration. Therefore, the correct answer is mitochondria.

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  • 14. 

    Dark reaction is also known as  

    • A.

      Calvin cycle

    • B.

      Krebs cycle

    • C.

      Pentosephosphate pathway

    • D.

      photorespiration

    Correct Answer
    A. Calvin cycle
    Explanation
    The dark reaction, also known as the Calvin cycle, is the second stage of photosynthesis. It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplasts and does not require light. During this process, carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using the energy from ATP and NADPH produced in the light-dependent reactions. The Calvin cycle is essential for the synthesis of organic compounds, including glucose, which is used as a source of energy by plants and other organisms. The Krebs cycle and pentose phosphate pathway are metabolic processes that occur in cellular respiration, while photorespiration is a wasteful process that occurs in plants when there is a lack of carbon dioxide.

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  • 15. 

    The gas evolved during photosynthesis is  

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      hydrogen

    • C.

      carbondioxide

    • D.

      Nitrogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Oxygen
    Explanation
    During photosynthesis, plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen. Oxygen is released as a byproduct of photosynthesis, making it the correct answer.

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  • 16. 

    C4 pathway is otherwise known as  

    • A.

      Hatch-Slack pathway

    • B.

      EMP pathway

    • C.

      photorespiration

    • D.

      Electron transport chain

    Correct Answer
    A. Hatch-Slack pathway
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Hatch-Slack pathway. The Hatch-Slack pathway, also known as the C4 pathway, is a photosynthetic process that is found in certain plants. It is named after the scientists Marshall Davidson Hatch and Charles Roger Slack who first described it. This pathway is an alternative carbon fixation pathway that allows plants to minimize photorespiration and increase their efficiency in hot and dry conditions. It involves the initial fixation of CO2 into a four-carbon compound, which is then transported to specialized cells where it is decarboxylated to release CO2 for the Calvin cycle.

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  • 17. 

    An example for insectivorous plant is  

    • A.

      Drosera

    • B.

      Viscum

    • C.

      Monotropa

    • D.

      Vanda

    Correct Answer
    A. Drosera
    Explanation
    Drosera is an example of an insectivorous plant because it is commonly known as the sundew plant, which has leaves covered in sticky hairs that trap and digest insects. This plant obtains nutrients from the insects it captures, supplementing its diet as it typically grows in nutrient-poor environments. The other options, Viscum, Monotropa, and Vanda, are not insectivorous plants.

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  • 18. 

    Photorespiration is otherwise called as  

    • A.

      C2 cycle

    • B.

      C3 cycle

    • C.

      C4 cycle

    • D.

      C5 cycle

    Correct Answer
    A. C2 cycle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is C2 cycle. Photorespiration is also known as the C2 cycle because it involves the addition of one carbon dioxide molecule to a molecule of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), resulting in the production of a two-carbon compound called phosphoglycolate. This process occurs in plants when the concentration of carbon dioxide is low and oxygen levels are high, leading to the wasteful consumption of energy and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is regarded as primary pigment?  

    • A.

      Chlorophyll ‘a’

    • B.

      Chlorophyll ‘b’

    • C.

      Carotenoid

    • D.

      Xanthophyll

    Correct Answer
    A. Chlorophyll ‘a’
    Explanation
    Chlorophyll 'a' is regarded as the primary pigment because it is the main pigment responsible for capturing light energy during photosynthesis. It absorbs light in the red and blue regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and reflects green light, giving plants their characteristic green color. Chlorophyll 'b', carotenoids, and xanthophylls are also pigments involved in photosynthesis, but they play secondary roles and assist chlorophyll 'a' in capturing light energy.

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  • 20. 

    The dark reactions of photosynthesis were discovered by  

    • A.

      Melvin Calvin

    • B.

      Krebs

    • C.

      Embden and Meyer

    • D.

      Parnas

    Correct Answer
    A. Melvin Calvin
    Explanation
    Melvin Calvin is credited with discovering the dark reactions of photosynthesis. In the 1950s, Calvin and his team conducted experiments using radioactive carbon to trace the pathway of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. Through their research, they were able to elucidate the series of chemical reactions that occur in the dark reactions, also known as the Calvin cycle. This cycle is responsible for converting carbon dioxide into glucose, the primary energy source for plants. Calvin's discovery was a significant contribution to our understanding of photosynthesis and earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1961.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is a 5C compound?  

    • A.

      RuBP

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Fructose

    • D.

      Phosphoglyceric acid

    Correct Answer
    A. RuBP
    Explanation
    RuBP, or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, is a 5C compound. It is an important molecule in the Calvin cycle, which is the process by which plants convert carbon dioxide into glucose. RuBP is involved in the initial step of carbon fixation, where it reacts with carbon dioxide to form an unstable 6C compound that eventually breaks down into two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. Therefore, RuBP is a 5C compound and is crucial for photosynthesis in plants.

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  • 22. 

    In C3 plants light reactions and dark reactions occur in  

    • A.

      Mesophyll cells

    • B.

      bundle sheath cells

    • C.

      Epidermal cells

    • D.

      Vascular cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Mesophyll cells
    Explanation
    In C3 plants, the light reactions and dark reactions of photosynthesis occur in the mesophyll cells. Mesophyll cells are located in the middle layer of the leaf, where they contain chloroplasts that are responsible for capturing light energy during the light reactions and carrying out the Calvin cycle during the dark reactions. The bundle sheath cells, epidermal cells, and vascular cells do not directly participate in these reactions.

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  • 23. 

    In C3 pathway acceptor molecule of CO2 is  

    • A.

      RuBP

    • B.

      Phosphoenol pyruvate

    • C.

      PGA

    • D.

      DHAP

    Correct Answer
    A. RuBP
    Explanation
    RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) is the acceptor molecule of CO2 in the C3 pathway, also known as the Calvin cycle. It is a 5-carbon compound that combines with CO2 in the first step of the cycle to form an unstable 6-carbon compound. This compound then breaks down into two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA), which is further converted into other molecules to produce glucose. Therefore, RuBP is the correct answer as it is the initial acceptor molecule for CO2 in the C3 pathway.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is not a C4 plant?  

    • A.

      Wheat

    • B.

      Amaranthus

    • C.

      Maize

    • D.

      Tribulus

    Correct Answer
    A. Wheat
    Explanation
    Wheat is not a C4 plant because it follows the C3 photosynthetic pathway. C4 plants have a specialized mechanism that allows them to efficiently fix carbon dioxide, while C3 plants do not possess this mechanism. Wheat belongs to the C3 group of plants, which means it uses the C3 photosynthetic pathway. This pathway is less efficient in capturing carbon dioxide compared to the C4 pathway used by plants like Amaranthus, Maize, and Tribulus.

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  • 25. 

    Vanda plant is a/an ----  

    • A.

      Epiphyte

    • B.

      total parasite

    • C.

      Partial parasite

    • D.

      Saprophyte

    Correct Answer
    A. Epiphyte
    Explanation
    An epiphyte is a type of plant that grows on the surface of another plant, usually a tree, but does not derive nutrients from it. Instead, it obtains nutrients from the air, rain, and debris that accumulate around it. Vanda plants are commonly found growing on trees in tropical regions, making them epiphytes.

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  • 26. 

    The reducing power produced in the light reaction is  

    • A.

      NADPH2

    • B.

      ADP

    • C.

      NADP

    • D.

      ATP

    Correct Answer
    A. NADPH2
    Explanation
    In the light reaction of photosynthesis, NADPH2 is produced as a reducing power. This molecule carries high-energy electrons that are used in the Calvin cycle to convert carbon dioxide into glucose. NADPH2 is formed by the transfer of electrons from water to NADP+ through a series of electron transport reactions. It acts as a source of reducing power for the synthesis of carbohydrates and other organic molecules in the dark reaction of photosynthesis.

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  • 27. 

    Which one of the following plant hormones was first discovered?  

    • A.

      Auxin

    • B.

      Cytokinin

    • C.

      Gibberellin

    • D.

      thylene

    Correct Answer
    A. Auxin
    Explanation
    Auxin was the first plant hormone to be discovered. In the 1920s, scientists observed that when the tip of a plant shoot was removed, the plant would stop growing. They hypothesized that there must be a substance produced at the tip that promoted growth. This substance was later identified as auxin. Further research revealed that auxin plays a crucial role in various plant processes such as cell elongation, root formation, and tropisms. Its discovery paved the way for further investigations into plant hormones and their functions.

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  • 28. 

    The photosynthetic pigments are located in  

    • A.

      Thylakoid

    • B.

      Cristae

    • C.

      Cisternae

    • D.

      Stroma

    Correct Answer
    A. Thylakoid
    Explanation
    The photosynthetic pigments are located in the thylakoid. Thylakoids are membrane-bound compartments found in the chloroplasts of plant cells. They are stacked together to form structures called grana, where the pigments are embedded. The pigments, such as chlorophyll, capture light energy during photosynthesis and convert it into chemical energy. Therefore, the thylakoid is the correct location for photosynthetic pigments.

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  • 29. 

    The number of high energy terminal bonds present in ATP is  

    • A.

      Two

    • B.

      One

    • C.

      Three

    • D.

      Four

    Correct Answer
    A. Two
    Explanation
    ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a molecule that stores and transfers energy within cells. It consists of a ribose sugar, an adenine base, and three phosphate groups. The high energy terminal bonds in ATP are the bonds between the phosphate groups. In ATP, there are two high energy terminal bonds, which are located between the second and third phosphate groups. These bonds are easily broken, releasing energy that can be used for cellular processes.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following is the common respiratory substrate?  

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Vitamins

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Lipids

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbohydrates
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are the common respiratory substrate because they are the primary source of energy for cellular respiration. When carbohydrates are broken down through various metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, they release energy in the form of ATP. This ATP is then used by cells for various physiological processes, including muscle contraction and active transport. Therefore, carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy for cellular respiration and are considered the common respiratory substrate.

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  • 31. 

    Cisaconitic acid is converted into isocitric acid by the addition of a molecule of water. This reaction is catalyzed by  

    • A.

      Aconitase

    • B.

      Citric acid synthetase

    • C.

      Fumarase

    • D.

      Malic dehydrogenase

    Correct Answer
    A. Aconitase
    Explanation
    Aconitase is the correct answer because it catalyzes the conversion of cisaconitic acid into isocitric acid by adding a molecule of water.

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  • 32. 

    The first step in aerobic respiration is  

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Krebs cycle

    • C.

      terminal oxidation

    • D.

      Cyclic photophosphorylation

    Correct Answer
    A. Glycolysis
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the first step in aerobic respiration. It is the process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate molecules, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH in the process. This occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and does not require oxygen. The pyruvate molecules then enter the Krebs cycle, where further ATP and electron carriers are produced. Terminal oxidation refers to the final step in aerobic respiration, where the electron carriers produced in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are used to generate a large amount of ATP in the presence of oxygen. Cyclic photophosphorylation is a process that occurs in photosynthesis, not aerobic respiration.

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  • 33. 

    Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is cleaved to two molecules of 3 carbon compounds by  

    • A.

      hexokinase

    • B.

      Aldolase

    • C.

      Enolase

    • D.

      Pyruvic kinase

    Correct Answer
    A. hexokinase
    Explanation
    Hexokinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate. It does not cleave fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into two molecules of 3 carbon compounds. Therefore, the given answer is incorrect.

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  • 34. 

    Glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate by the enzyme  

    • A.

      Aldolase

    • B.

      Enolase

    • C.

      pyruvic kinase

    • D.

      Hexokinase

    Correct Answer
    A. Aldolase
    Explanation
    Aldolase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. This reaction is an important step in glycolysis, the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into energy. Aldolase specifically acts on fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, splitting it into two three-carbon molecules, one of which is glucose-6-phosphate. Therefore, aldolase is the correct answer for the enzyme that phosphorylates glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.

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  • 35. 

    Complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose yields  

    • A.

      38 ATP

    • B.

      36 ATP

    • C.

      35 ATP

    • D.

      2 ATP

    Correct Answer
    A. 38 ATP
    Explanation
    The complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose yields 38 ATP. This is because during cellular respiration, glucose is broken down through a series of reactions, such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. These reactions generate energy in the form of ATP. In total, the complete oxidation of glucose produces a net gain of 38 ATP molecules.

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  • 36. 

    Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid is catalysed by  

    • A.

      pyruvic dehydrogenase

    • B.

      Pyruvic kinase

    • C.

      pyruvic mutase

    • D.

      Pyruvic isomerase

    Correct Answer
    A. pyruvic dehydrogenase
    Explanation
    Pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl-CoA through a process called oxidative decarboxylation. This reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme called pyruvic dehydrogenase. Pyruvic dehydrogenase removes a carboxyl group from pyruvic acid and produces NADH and CO2 as byproducts. Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in cellular respiration as it enters the citric acid cycle to generate energy. Therefore, pyruvic dehydrogenase plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose.

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  • 37. 

    A - ketoglutaric acid is a _____ carbon compound  

    • A.

      five

    • B.

      Four

    • C.

      two

    • D.

      Three

    Correct Answer
    A. five
    Explanation
    Ketoglutaric acid is a five-carbon compound.

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  • 38. 

    Glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate by  

    • A.

      Hexokinase

    • B.

      Mutase

    • C.

      Aldolase

    • D.

      kinase

    Correct Answer
    A. Hexokinase
    Explanation
    Hexokinase is the enzyme responsible for phosphorylating glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate. This phosphorylation step is an important regulatory step in glucose metabolism and occurs in many different tissues and cell types. Hexokinase catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the sixth carbon of glucose, resulting in the formation of glucose-6-phosphate. This phosphorylation step traps glucose within the cell and allows for further processing and utilization of glucose in various metabolic pathways.

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  • 39. 

    Respiratory quotient of glucose is  

    • A.

      Unity

    • B.

      zero

    • C.

      More than one

    • D.

      less than one

    Correct Answer
    A. Unity
    Explanation
    The respiratory quotient (RQ) is the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed during cellular respiration. In the case of glucose, the RQ is equal to 1 because glucose is completely oxidized during respiration, producing equal amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is "unity".

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  • 40. 

    One molecule of FADH2 on oxidation yields  

    • A.

      Two ATP

    • B.

      One ATP

    • C.

      Three ATP

    • D.

      four ATP

    Correct Answer
    A. Two ATP
    Explanation
    When FADH2 is oxidized, it donates its electrons to the electron transport chain in cellular respiration. This results in the pumping of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, creating an electrochemical gradient. The energy from this gradient is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP. Each FADH2 molecule produces enough energy to generate 1.5 ATP molecules. Therefore, when one molecule of FADH2 is oxidized, it yields approximately two ATP molecules.

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  • 41. 

    One molecule of NADH2 on oxidation yields  

    • A.

      Three ATP

    • B.

      One ATP

    • C.

      Two ATP

    • D.

      Four ATP

    Correct Answer
    A. Three ATP
    Explanation
    When NADH2 is oxidized, it donates its electrons to the electron transport chain in cellular respiration. This generates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is used by ATP synthase to produce ATP. Each NADH2 molecule can generate enough proton gradient to produce three ATP molecules. Therefore, one molecule of NADH2 on oxidation yields three ATP.

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  • 42. 

    Formation of ATP during electron transport chain is known as  

    • A.

      Oxidative phosphorylation

    • B.

      dephosphorylation

    • C.

      Phtophosphorylation

    • D.

      Substate level phosphorylation

    Correct Answer
    A. Oxidative phosphorylation
    Explanation
    Oxidative phosphorylation refers to the process in which ATP is formed during the electron transport chain. This process occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane and involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back into the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase generates ATP. Therefore, oxidative phosphorylation is the correct term for the formation of ATP during the electron transport chain.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following is referred to as EMP pathway?  

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Krebs cycle

    • C.

      Electron transport chain

    • D.

      Pentose phosphate pathway

    Correct Answer
    A. Glycolysis
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is referred to as the EMP pathway because it stands for Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, which is another name for glycolysis. Glycolysis is the process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH in the process. It is the first step in cellular respiration and occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. The other options mentioned - Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, and pentose phosphate pathway - are all part of cellular respiration, but they are not specifically referred to as the EMP pathway.

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  • 44. 

    The total amount of energy released from one molecule of glucose on oxidation is about  

    • A.

      2900 kJ

    • B.

      2500 kJ

    • C.

      1600 kJ

    • D.

      2300 kJ

    Correct Answer
    A. 2900 kJ
    Explanation
    One molecule of glucose undergoes complete oxidation in cellular respiration, which results in the release of a large amount of energy. The correct answer is 2900 kJ, as this value represents the approximate total amount of energy released from one molecule of glucose during oxidation.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following is a 5C compound?  

    • A.

      Xylulose phosphate

    • B.

      Sedoheptulose phosphate

    • C.

      Phosphoglyceraldehyde

    • D.

      Erythrosephosphate

    Correct Answer
    A. Xylulose phosphate
    Explanation
    Xylulose phosphate is a 5C compound because it contains a 5-carbon sugar called xylulose. The phosphate group attached to xylulose makes it a phosphorylated compound. This compound is important in various metabolic pathways, such as the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. It plays a role in the production of ribose-5-phosphate, which is used in nucleotide synthesis, and also serves as a precursor for the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

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  • 46. 

    An example for synthetic auxin is  

    • A.

      NAA

    • B.

      IAA

    • C.

      PAA

    • D.

      ABA

    Correct Answer
    A. NAA
    Explanation
    NAA is an example of synthetic auxin. Auxins are plant hormones that regulate various growth and developmental processes in plants. NAA, or naphthaleneacetic acid, is a synthetic form of auxin that is commonly used in horticulture and agriculture. It is used to promote root development, stimulate fruit growth, and prevent premature fruit drop. NAA is also used as a herbicide to control the growth of unwanted plants. Therefore, NAA is a synthetic auxin that has multiple applications in plant growth and development.

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  • 47. 

    Apical dominance is due to  

    • A.

      Auxin

    • B.

      Cytokinin

    • C.

      Gibberellin

    • D.

      Ethylene

    Correct Answer
    A. Auxin
    Explanation
    Apical dominance refers to the phenomenon where the main, central stem of a plant inhibits the growth of lateral branches. This is due to the presence of auxin, a plant hormone, which is produced in the apical meristem (the growing tip of the plant). Auxin inhibits the growth of lateral buds, promoting the elongation of the main stem. When the apical meristem is removed or damaged, the inhibitory effect of auxin is reduced, allowing lateral buds to grow and develop into branches. Therefore, auxin is responsible for apical dominance in plants.

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  • 48. 

    Bakanae disease in paddy is caused by  

    • A.

      Gibberellic acid

    • B.

      Naphthelene acetic acid

    • C.

      Abscissic acid

    • D.

      Phenyl acetic acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Gibberellic acid
    Explanation
    Bakanae disease in paddy is caused by gibberellic acid. Gibberellic acid is a plant hormone that promotes plant growth and elongation. In the case of Bakanae disease, the presence of gibberellic acid leads to excessive elongation of the infected plant, causing symptoms such as tall and weak stems, reduced grain yield, and ultimately death of the plant. This disease is commonly found in paddy fields and can have significant economic impacts on rice production.

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  • 49. 

    Auxin prevents  

    • A.

      abscission

    • B.

      Apical dominance

    • C.

      Ageing process

    • D.

      parthinocarpy

    Correct Answer
    A. abscission
    Explanation
    Auxin prevents abscission, which is the process of shedding or dropping of leaves, fruits, or flowers from a plant. Auxin promotes cell elongation and strengthens the cell walls, preventing the detachment of plant parts. This allows the plant to retain its leaves, fruits, and flowers for a longer period of time.

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  • 50. 

    In sigmoid curve the rapid growth phase is designated as  

    • A.

      Log phase

    • B.

      lag phase

    • C.

      Dormant phase

    • D.

      Steady state phate

    Correct Answer
    A. Log phase
    Explanation
    The correct answer is log phase. In sigmoid curve, the log phase represents the period of rapid growth where the population or system experiences exponential growth. During this phase, the growth rate is at its maximum, and the population size increases rapidly. This phase is characterized by a steep upward slope on the sigmoid curve.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 04, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Padasalai12bot
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