Neuroscience Test 1 Review

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| By BrieG3
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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 2,633
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Neuroscience Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What area is located in/on the precentral gyrus? 

    • A.

      Visual association cortex

    • B.

      Primary visual cortex

    • C.

      Primary auditory cortex

    • D.

      Primary motor cortex

    • E.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Primary motor cortex
    Explanation
    The primary motor cortex is located on the precentral gyrus adjacent to the premotor area.

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  • 2. 

    What is the embryological origin of the thalamus? 

    • A.

      Metencephalon

    • B.

      Telencephalon

    • C.

      Myelencephalon

    • D.

      Diencephalon

    • E.

      Mesencephalon

    Correct Answer
    D. Diencephalon
    Explanation
    The diencephalon develops from the posterior prosencephalon and will become the thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland.

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  • 3. 

    The central sulcus separates which lobes? 

    • A.

      Temporal from parietal

    • B.

      Frontal from parietal

    • C.

      Frontal from temporal

    • D.

      Parietal from occipital

    Correct Answer
    B. Frontal from parietal
    Explanation
    The central sulcus runs perpendicular to the lateral sulcus on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, separating the frontal and parietal lobes.

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  • 4. 

    Which area is a major relay center for information going to the cerebral hemispheres? 

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Frontal Lobe

    • C.

      Midbrain

    • D.

      Medulla

    • E.

      Thalamus

    Correct Answer
    E. Thalamus
    Explanation
    The thalamus serves as a switchboard for information going to the cerebral hemispheres. It decides which information needs to be sent to which cerebral areas.

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  • 5. 

    Newly formed neurons use which structures to travel to their final locations in the brain? 

    • A.

      Microglial cells

    • B.

      Ventricular zone cells

    • C.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • D.

      Radial glial cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Radial glial cells
    Explanation
    Neurons form in the ventricular zone adjacent to the lumen of the neural tube. They then travel along radial glial cells, which are present only during development, toward the outside surface of the brain. This requires each successive generation of neurons to travel a longer and longer distance to their final location and means that the most mature neurons are closest to the ventricles and the youngest neurons are closest to the surface of the brain.

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  • 6. 

    .Major sensory and motor deficits that are particularly prominent in the upper extremity would result from a blockage of which of the following arteries? 

    • A.

      .Anterior cerebral artery

    • B.

      .Posterior cerebral artery

    • C.

      .Posterior communicating artery

    • D.

      .Middle cerebral artery

    • E.

      .Anterior communicating artery

    Correct Answer
    D. .Middle cerebral artery
    Explanation
    The middle cerebral artery supplies blood to the lateral portion of the cerebral hemisphere. This is an area where most of the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex is located. As a result, the loss of blood flow though this artery would cause major sensory and motor deficits. However, there may be some sparing of motor usage and sensation in the lower extremity because most of this area of the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex is supplied by the anterior cerebral artery.

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  • 7. 

    .How does cerebrospinal fluid flow into the 4th ventricle? 

    • A.

      .Lateral aperature

    • B.

      .Arachnoid granulations

    • C.

      .Median aperature

    • D.

      .Interventricular foramen (of Monroe)

    • E.

      .Cerebral aqueduct

    Correct Answer
    E. .Cerebral aqueduct
    Explanation
    Cerebrospinal fluid flows from the 3rd ventricle, through the midbrain via the cerebral aqueduct, and into the 4th ventricle.

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  • 8. 

    .Which of the following drain blood into the confluence of sinuses? 

    • A.

      .Straight, transverse, and superior sagittal sinuses

    • B.

      .Superior sagittal, occipital, and sigmoid sinuses

    • C.

      .Straight, occipital, and transverse sinuses

    • D.

      .Superior sagittal, straight, and occipital sinuses

    • E.

      .Sigmoid, straight, and transverse sinuses

    Correct Answer
    D. .Superior sagittal, straight, and occipital sinuses
    Explanation
    The superior sagittal, straight, and occipital sinuses all drain blood into the confluence of sinuses. Blood then leaves the confluence of sinuses through the two transverse sinuses.

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  • 9. 

    .How does cerebrospinal leave the subarachnoid space? 

    • A.

      .Median aperature

    • B.

      .Interventricular foramen (of Monroe)

    • C.

      .Lateral aperature

    • D.

      .Cerebral aqueduct

    • E.

      .Arachnoid granulations

    Correct Answer
    E. .Arachnoid granulations
    Explanation
    Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed into the blood of the dural venous sinuses via the arachnoid granulations.

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  • 10. 

    .What are the three primary bulges that form at the cephalic end of the neural tube at four weeks? 

    • A.

      .Rhombencephalon, prosencephalon, diencephalon

    • B.

      .Myelencephalon, metencephalon, mesencephalon

    • C.

      .Prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon

    • D.

      .Telencephalon, rhombencephalon, metencephalon

    Correct Answer
    C. .Prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
    Explanation
    The prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon are the first three bulges to form. The prosencephalon and rhombencephalon will later divide again to form the 5 secondary vesicles/bulges.

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  • 11. 

    .What is the main ion channel responsible for the depolarization phase of an action potential? 

    • A.

      .Voltage-gated potassium channel

    • B.

      .Potassium leakage channel

    • C.

      .Voltage-gated sodium channel

    • D.

      .Sodium leakage channel

    Correct Answer
    C. .Voltage-gated sodium channel
    Explanation
    During depolarization voltage-gated sodium channels open and allow sodium to rush into the cell. This leads to a spike in membrane potential.

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  • 12. 

    .Which axon type would have the highest action potential conduction velocity? 

    • A.

      .Myelinated, large diameter

    • B.

      .Myelinated small diameter

    • C.

      .Unmyelinated, small diameter

    • D.

      .Unmyelinated, large diameter

    Correct Answer
    A. .Myelinated, large diameter
    Explanation
    The larger the diameter of the axon, the faster the conduction velocity will be. Myelination also increases conduction velocity. Therefore, a large, myelinated axon would have the fastest conduction velocity.

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  • 13. 

    .In the normal axon, why is reverse propagation of the action potential is not possible? 

    • A.

      .A result of sodium ion influx

    • B.

      .Sodium channel inactivation

    • C.

      .Because of potassium ion influx

    • D.

      .Potassium channel inactivation

    Correct Answer
    B. .Sodium channel inactivation
    Explanation
    After the peak of depolarization, the sodium channels become inactivated. This prevents action potential from propagating in the reverse direction. This is the absolute refractory period.

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  • 14. 

    .What happens when an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is being generated on a dendritic membrane? 

    • A.

      .Sodium gates will open first, and then close as potassium gates open

    • B.

      .Specific sodium gates will open

    • C.

      .Both sodium and potassium gates will open

    • D.

      .Sodium and potassium will flow through the same channel

    • E.

      .Specific potassium gates will open

    Correct Answer
    D. .Sodium and potassium will flow through the same channel
    Explanation
    A single cation channel opens allowing sodium ions to flow into the cell and potassium ions to flow out simultaneously. Since the flow of sodium is much greater, more positive charges will enter the cell and it will become depolarized.

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  • 15. 

    .What is the main ion channel responsible for the repolarization phase of an action potential? 

    • A.

      .Potassium leakage channel

    • B.

      .Sodium leakage channel

    • C.

      .Voltage-gated potassium channel

    • D.

      .Voltage-gated sodium channel

    Correct Answer
    C. .Voltage-gated potassium channel
    Explanation
    Following the spike in depolarization, voltage-gated potassium channels open. This allows potassium to escape from the cell carrying positive charge with it. This brings the membrane potential back toward resting levels.

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  • 16. 

    .Which cells form the blood-CSF barrier which is part of the blood-brain barrier? 

    • A.

      .Microglia

    • B.

      .Oligodendrocytes

    • C.

      .Ependymal cells

    • D.

      .Schwann cells

    Correct Answer
    C. .Ependymal cells
    Explanation
    While ependymal cells line the ventricles and form the blood-CSF barrier, which is a part of the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes play a major role in making up the remainder of the blood-brain barrier.

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  • 17. 

    .Which cells create the myelin sheath of axons in the central nervous system? 

    • A.

      .Astrocytes

    • B.

      .Oligodendrocytes

    • C.

      .Microglia

    • D.

      .Schwann cells

    • E.

      .Ependymal cells

    Correct Answer
    B. .Oligodendrocytes
    Explanation
    Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons in the CNS while Schwann cells do it in the PNS. Remember oligodendrocytes can myelinate multiple axons while Schwann cells can only myelinate one axon.

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  • 18. 

    .Opening a ligand-gated chloride channel will cause the resting membrane potential to do which of the following? 

    • A.

      .Fire an action potential

    • B.

      .Depolarize

    • C.

      .Repolarize

    • D.

      .Hyperpolarize

    • E.

      .Generate an excitatory postsynaptic potential

    Correct Answer
    D. .Hyperpolarize
    Explanation
    Opening a chloride channel will allow negatively charged chloride ions to flow into the cell, making the inside more negative.

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  • 19. 

    .What is the main ion channel responsible for the release of neurotransmitter from the axonal terminal? 

    • A.

      .Voltage-gated potassium channel

    • B.

      .Voltage-gated sodium channel

    • C.

      .Voltage-gated calcium channel

    • D.

      .Voltage-gated chloride channel

    Correct Answer
    C. .Voltage-gated calcium channel
    Explanation
    Depolarization of the membrane of the presynaptic axonal terminal leads to opening of voltage-gated calcium channels. This influx of calcium into the neuron terminal, combined with the release of calcium from intracellular stores, triggers the movement of synaptic vesicles toward a release site in the membrane. Synaptic vesicles fuse with the membrane and release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.

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  • 20. 

    .Which neurotransmitter usually causes fast inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in the brain? 

    • A.

      .Dopamine

    • B.

      .Glutamate

    • C.

      .GABA

    • D.

      .Serotonin

    • E.

      Glycine

    Correct Answer
    C. .GABA
    Explanation
    GABA usually causes fast IPSPs in the brain while glycine does the same in the spinal cord.

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  • 21. 

    . What is the inferior boundary of the frontal lobe?

    • A.

      .lateral sulcus

    • B.

      .parietooccipital sulcus

    • C.

      .premotor gyrus

    • D.

      .calcarine sulcus

    Correct Answer
    A. .lateral sulcus
    Explanation
    The inferior boundary of the frontal lobe is the lateral sulcus. The lateral sulcus, also known as the Sylvian fissure, separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe. It is one of the major landmarks in the brain and plays a crucial role in separating different functional regions.

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  • 22. 

    . The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the ________.

    • A.

      .occipital lobe

    • B.

      .frontal lobe

    • C.

      .temporal lobe

    • D.

      .parietal lobe

    Correct Answer
    D. .parietal lobe
    Explanation
    The primary somatosensory cortex is responsible for processing sensory information related to touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. It is located in the parietal lobe of the brain. This region receives input from sensory receptors throughout the body and allows us to perceive and interpret sensations from different parts of our body.

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  • 23. 

    The postcentral gyrus is located in which lobe?

    • A.

      Occipital lobe

    • B.

      .frontal lobe

    • C.

      .temporal lobe

    • D.

      .parietal lobe

    Correct Answer
    D. .parietal lobe
    Explanation
    The postcentral gyrus is located in the parietal lobe. This region of the brain is responsible for processing sensory information from the body, including touch, pain, and temperature. It is also involved in spatial awareness and body perception.

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  • 24. 

    . Which structure divides the occipital lobe into superior and inferior parts?

    • A.

      .parietooccipital sulcus

    • B.

      .lateral sulcus

    • C.

      .central sulcus

    • D.

      .calcarine sulcus

    • E.

      Longitudinal fissure

    Correct Answer
    D. .calcarine sulcus
    Explanation
    The calcarine sulcus is the structure that divides the occipital lobe into superior and inferior parts.

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  • 25. 

    .What is a function of the occipital lobe?

    • A.

      .formation of memories

    • B.

      .processing visual information

    • C.

      .processing somatosensory information

    • D.

      .processing auditory information

    • E.

      Initiation of voluntary movements

    Correct Answer
    B. .processing visual information
    Explanation
    The occipital lobe is responsible for processing visual information. It receives and interprets signals from the eyes, allowing us to perceive and understand the world around us. This includes recognizing shapes, colors, and patterns, as well as perceiving motion and depth. The occipital lobe plays a crucial role in our ability to see and understand visual stimuli.

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  • 26. 

    ​. Which area is involved in coordinating movements?

    • A.

      .thalamus

    • B.

      .cerebellum

    • C.

      .midbrain

    • D.

      .hypothalamus

    • E.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    B. .cerebellum
    Explanation
    The cerebellum is involved in coordinating movements. It receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain to regulate and fine-tune motor activities. It helps in maintaining balance, posture, and coordination of voluntary movements.

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  • 27. 

    What is a function of the limbic lobe? 

    • A.

      .formation of memories

    • B.

      .processing visual information

    • C.

      .processing somatosensory information

    • D.

      .processing auditory information

    • E.

      Initiation of voluntary movements

    Correct Answer
    A. .formation of memories
    Explanation
    The limbic lobe is responsible for the formation of memories. It plays a crucial role in the encoding, storage, and retrieval of memories. This function is supported by structures within the limbic lobe, such as the hippocampus and amygdala, which are involved in memory consolidation and emotional processing.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 17, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    BrieG3
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