Mt Simulation Examination 5

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Mt Simulation Examination 5 - Quiz

This is a Simulated Examination for Gulf Medtech/Labtech Examinations taken from Last Month's HAAD Feedbacks.
This examination contains 100 of the most UPDATED EXAMS from Abu Dhabi, KSA, and UAE.
Take this examination for 120 minutes. You need to get 86% to pass the HAAD. 60% to pass MOH, DHA, or Prometrics.
Please text 0919-286-29-29 in the Philippines or visit our website www. Rtonline. Weebly. Com THIS IS YOUR ASSESSMENT FOR ANY GULF RT EXAMINATIONS INCLUDING HAAD MT, SAUDI PROMETRICS, DUBAI DHA, AND UAE MOH. THE QUESTIONS HERE ARE TAKEN FROM THIS ACTUAL EXAMINATIONS, SO PASSING THIS Read moreASSESSMENT EXAM WILL GIVE YOU A HIGH PROBABILITY OF PASSING THE SAID EXAMINATIONS


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which best describes viruses?

    • A.

      Facultative intracellular parasites

    • B.

      Protein core surrounded by nucleic acid

    • C.

      Contain double or single stranded RNA or DNA

    • D.

      Main opposition from humoral immunity

    Correct Answer
    C. Contain double or single stranded RNA or DNA
    Explanation
    Viruses are microscopic infectious agents that consist of genetic material (either RNA or DNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They are not considered living organisms as they cannot reproduce or carry out metabolic activities on their own. Instead, viruses rely on host cells to replicate and cause infection. The answer "contain double or single stranded RNA or DNA" accurately describes the genetic material found in viruses.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following describes viruses but not bacteria?

    • A.

      Undergo binary fission

    • B.

      Relatively large in size

    • C.

      Replicates with host mechanism

    • D.

      Can replicate without host

    Correct Answer
    C. Replicates with host mechanism
    Explanation
    Viruses replicate by using the host's cellular machinery, whereas bacteria undergo binary fission to reproduce. This means that viruses rely on a host organism to replicate, while bacteria can replicate independently. Therefore, the statement "replicates with host mechanism" accurately describes viruses but not bacteria.

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  • 3. 

    Which is true about Capsids of viruses

    • A.

      Carries the genetic material

    • B.

      Self assembles

    • C.

      Icosahedral form has variable size

    • D.

      Helical form has a defined set of subunits

    • E.

      C & D

    Correct Answer
    B. Self assembles
    Explanation
    Capsids of viruses self-assemble, meaning they spontaneously come together to form the outer protein shell of the virus. This process does not require any external factors or assistance. The capsid is responsible for protecting the genetic material of the virus, which can be DNA or RNA. It can take on different shapes, such as icosahedral or helical, but the icosahedral form can vary in size while the helical form has a defined set of subunits. Therefore, the correct answer is that capsids self-assemble.

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  • 4. 

    Virus spikes are commonly associated with which of the following?

    • A.

      Non enveloped viruses

    • B.

      Glycoproteins

    • C.

      Lipids from the host cell membrane

    • D.

      Inability to cause hemaglutination

    Correct Answer
    B. Glycoproteins
    Explanation
    Glycoproteins are commonly associated with virus spikes. Virus spikes are protein structures that extend from the surface of a virus and play a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect host cells. These spikes are often composed of glycoproteins, which are proteins that have attached carbohydrate molecules. The glycoproteins on virus spikes allow the virus to attach to specific receptors on the surface of host cells, enabling the virus to enter and infect the cell. Therefore, glycoproteins are closely associated with virus spikes and their ability to infect host cells.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following describes the adsorption of nonenveloped viruses

    • A.

      Use glycoproteins

    • B.

      Type III secretion system

    • C.

      Can only attach to specific sites

    • D.

      Exposed regions of capsid proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. Exposed regions of capsid proteins
    Explanation
    Nonenveloped viruses do not have an outer lipid envelope, so they cannot use glycoproteins for adsorption like enveloped viruses. Type III secretion system is a mechanism used by bacteria to deliver virulence factors, so it is not relevant to the adsorption of nonenveloped viruses. Nonenveloped viruses can only attach to specific sites on host cells, which allows for specific recognition and binding. The correct answer, "exposed regions of capsid proteins," is consistent with the fact that the capsid proteins of nonenveloped viruses are responsible for attachment to host cells.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is true about translocation of non enveloped viruses?

    • A.

      Occurs only at specific sites

    • B.

      Uses clathrin coated puts

    • C.

      Endocytosed into cell

    • D.

      Freely crosses plasma membrane

    Correct Answer
    D. Freely crosses plasma membrane
    Explanation
    Non-enveloped viruses are able to freely cross the plasma membrane. Unlike enveloped viruses that require endocytosis into the cell, non-enveloped viruses can enter the cell by directly crossing the plasma membrane. This is possible because non-enveloped viruses have a more stable capsid structure that allows them to withstand the harsh conditions of the extracellular environment and pass through the plasma membrane without the need for specific sites or clathrin-coated pits.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following virus types has nucleic acid that functions directly as mRNA?

    • A.

      Single stranded positive sense RNA viruses

    • B.

      Double stranded RNA viruses

    • C.

      Single stranded negative sense viruses

    • D.

      DNA viruses

    Correct Answer
    A. Single stranded positive sense RNA viruses
    Explanation
    Single stranded positive sense RNA viruses have nucleic acid that functions directly as mRNA. This means that when these viruses enter a host cell, their RNA can be immediately translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes without the need for any additional steps. This is because the RNA of these viruses has the same polarity and sequence as the mRNA that is normally produced by the host cell. As a result, the host cell can directly use the viral RNA as a template for protein synthesis.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following uses genome as a template to make mRNA transcripts corresponding to each viral gene?

    • A.

      Single stranded positive sense RNA viruses

    • B.

      Single stranded negative sens RNA viruses

    • C.

      Double stranded RNA viruses

    • D.

      DNA viruses

    Correct Answer
    B. Single stranded negative sens RNA viruses
    Explanation
    Single stranded negative sense RNA viruses use the genome as a template to make mRNA transcripts corresponding to each viral gene. In these viruses, the RNA genome is complementary to the viral mRNA, and therefore, the viral RNA needs to be transcribed into positive sense mRNA before it can be translated into proteins. This process is carried out by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which synthesizes the mRNA transcripts using the viral genome as a template.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following viruses has information that must be copied into positive sense single strand of RNA

    • A.

      Reoviridae

    • B.

      Parvovirdae

    • C.

      Polyomaviridae

    • D.

      Picornaviridae

    Correct Answer
    A. Reoviridae
    Explanation
    double stranded RNA virus

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following descriptions fit a virus that replicates through a DNA intermediate?

    • A.

      Positive sense RNA used as a template and then DNA incorporated into Host

    • B.

      Nucleic acid of the virion functions directly as mRNA

    • C.

      Needs to use RNA dependent RNA polymerase

    • D.

      A & C

    Correct Answer
    A. Positive sense RNA used as a template and then DNA incorporated into Host
    Explanation
    RNA dependent DNA polymerase

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  • 11. 

    DNA viruses  are best linked to which of the following?

    • A.

      Nucleic acid acts directly as mRNA

    • B.

      Flaviviridae

    • C.

      Picornaviridae

    • D.

      Transcription in host nucleus

    Correct Answer
    D. Transcription in host nucleus
    Explanation
    DNA viruses are best linked to transcription in the host nucleus. This is because DNA viruses have their genetic material in the form of DNA, which needs to be transcribed into mRNA in order to be translated into proteins. Transcription is the process by which the DNA sequence is copied into mRNA by the host cell's transcription machinery, which takes place in the nucleus of the host cell. Therefore, transcription in the host nucleus is the most appropriate association for DNA viruses.

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  • 12. 

    Release of nonenveloped viruses is best described by which of the following?

    • A.

      Released by budding

    • B.

      Released on cell lysis

    • C.

      Disrupt cell membrane and bind to m proteins

    • D.

      A & C

    Correct Answer
    B. Released on cell lysis
    Explanation
    Nonenveloped viruses are released from host cells by cell lysis. This means that the virus particles cause the host cell to burst open, releasing the viral particles into the surrounding environment. This is in contrast to enveloped viruses, which are typically released by budding, where the virus acquires a portion of the host cell's membrane as it exits. The option "disrupt cell membrane and bind to m proteins" is not a correct description of the release of nonenveloped viruses.

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  • 13. 

    Program cell death induced by some viruses during release has an antiviral effect

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Programmed cell death induced by some viruses during release has an antiviral effect because it helps limit viral replication and spread. When a virus infects a cell, it can trigger a process called apoptosis, which leads to the controlled death of the infected cell. This prevents the virus from using the cell's resources to replicate and helps contain the infection. Additionally, apoptosis can stimulate the immune system to recognize and eliminate infected cells. Therefore, programmed cell death induced by some viruses during release can be considered an antiviral defense mechanism.

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  • 14. 

    A defective virus is a virus that

    • A.

      Attacks the wrong site

    • B.

      Cause cell death upon lysis

    • C.

      Needs simultaneous infection

    • D.

      Contain infectious proteins but no nucleic acid

    Correct Answer
    C. Needs simultaneous infection
    Explanation
    A defective virus is a virus that needs simultaneous infection. This means that it requires the presence of a helper virus in order to complete its life cycle and replicate. Without simultaneous infection, the defective virus is unable to reproduce on its own. This makes it dependent on another virus to provide the necessary machinery and components for replication.

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  • 15. 

    Prions are best described as which of the following?

    • A.

      Cannot replicate without a helper virus

    • B.

      Contain nucleic acid surrounded by infectious protein capsid

    • C.

      Susceptible to proteolytic enzymes

    • D.

      Proteins similar to that of normal cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Proteins similar to that of normal cell
    Explanation
    Prions are best described as proteins similar to that of normal cells. Prions are misfolded proteins that can cause other proteins to misfold as well, leading to the formation of abnormal aggregates in the brain. They do not contain nucleic acid and are not surrounded by an infectious protein capsid. Prions are also not susceptible to proteolytic enzymes.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is likely to accumulate in the brain and spinal cord?

    • A.

      Defective virus

    • B.

      DNA virus

    • C.

      Prion

    • D.

      Non enveloped virus

    Correct Answer
    C. Prion
    Explanation
    Prions are likely to accumulate in the brain and spinal cord. Prions are misfolded proteins that can cause other normal proteins to also misfold, leading to the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the brain and spinal cord. This accumulation can result in neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and mad cow disease. Unlike viruses, prions do not have DNA or RNA, and they are not enveloped. Therefore, prions have a higher likelihood of accumulating in the brain and spinal cord compared to the other options listed.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following occurs in the acute phase of viral infection but not in the latent phase?

    • A.

      Infection by DNA viruses of retroviruses

    • B.

      No production of progeny

    • C.

      Reactivation or transformation

    • D.

      Multiple rounds of replication

    Correct Answer
    D. Multiple rounds of replication
    Explanation
    In the acute phase of viral infection, the virus actively replicates and produces a large number of progeny viruses. This rapid replication leads to the characteristic symptoms of viral infection. However, during the latent phase, the virus remains dormant and does not actively replicate. Therefore, multiple rounds of replication occur in the acute phase of viral infection but not in the latent phase.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following describes the chronic phase of viral infection?

    • A.

      Caused by DNA viruses

    • B.

      Caused by RNA viruses

    • C.

      Affects competent immune systems

    • D.

      Viral particles are not present

    Correct Answer
    B. Caused by RNA viruses
    Explanation
    The chronic phase of viral infection is characterized by the presence of RNA viruses. This phase occurs when the virus is able to establish a persistent infection in the host, often leading to long-term or lifelong infections. During this phase, the virus replicates and persists in the body, causing ongoing symptoms or disease. This phase is typically seen in infections caused by RNA viruses rather than DNA viruses.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is true about enteroviruses?

    • A.

      Entry replication and tissue tropism are at the same site

    • B.

      Enter at one site and cause disease then spread

    • C.

      Causes equal symptoms in children and adults

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Enter at one site and cause disease then spread
    Explanation
    Enteroviruses enter the body at one specific site and then cause disease in that particular area. However, they are also capable of spreading to other parts of the body, leading to systemic infections. This ability to spread from the initial site of entry is a characteristic feature of enteroviruses. Therefore, the statement "enter at one site and cause disease then spread" is true about enteroviruses.

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  • 20. 

    During hematogenous spread which of the following is true?

    • A.

      Bacteria spread through blood then replicate

    • B.

      Can be asymtomatic

    • C.

      Never have prodromal symptoms

    • D.

      B & C

    Correct Answer
    B. Can be asymtomatic
    Explanation
    During hematogenous spread, bacteria can spread through the bloodstream and then replicate in different parts of the body. This process can occur without causing any symptoms, which is known as being asymptomatic. It is also possible for individuals with hematogenous spread to not experience prodromal symptoms, which are early signs or symptoms that precede the onset of a disease. Therefore, the correct answer is "can be asymptomatic."

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  • 21. 

    A 40 y/o pt presents with viral infection, he has weakened  cellular immunity, low antibody titers , functional interferons and a defective complement system. Which of these conditions will make elimination of his infection the most difficult?

    • A.

      Weakened CMI

    • B.

      Defective complement

    • C.

      Low antibody response

    • D.

      Age

    Correct Answer
    A. Weakened CMI
    Explanation
    The given question describes a patient with a viral infection and various immune system deficiencies. The options provided are weakened cellular immunity, defective complement system, low antibody response, and age. The correct answer is weakened CMI, which stands for weakened cell-mediated immunity. This means that the patient's immune system is not effectively responding to the viral infection at the cellular level, making it difficult to eliminate the infection. The other options, while also potentially impacting the immune response, do not directly address the cellular immune response.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following inhibits early steps of viral replication and helps to prevent reinfection?

    • A.

      CMI

    • B.

      Antibody response

    • C.

      Interferons

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Antibody response
    Explanation
    The correct answer is antibody response. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection. They bind to specific viral proteins and prevent the virus from entering and infecting host cells. This inhibits the early steps of viral replication and helps to prevent reinfection. Antibodies can also neutralize viruses by blocking their ability to infect cells. Overall, the antibody response is an important defense mechanism against viral infections.

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  • 23. 

    Interferons are best described by which of the following?

    • A.

      Beta interferons produced by leukocytes

    • B.

      Induced by viruses only

    • C.

      Inhibit protein synthesis mechanisms

    • D.

      Gamma interferon is induced by fibroblasts and T cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Inhibit protein synthesis mechanisms
    Explanation
    Interferons are proteins that are produced by cells in response to viral infections. They play a crucial role in the immune response by inhibiting the replication of viruses and regulating the immune system. One of the main functions of interferons is to inhibit protein synthesis mechanisms in infected cells, preventing the virus from replicating and spreading. This helps to limit the viral infection and promote the immune response against the virus.

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  • 24. 

    Vaccination of children may result in which of the following disease causing conditions?

    • A.

      Decreased antibody response

    • B.

      Viral evasion of the immune system

    • C.

      Virus induced immunopathology

    • D.

      Weakened CMI

    Correct Answer
    C. Virus induced immunopathology
    Explanation
    Vaccination of children can sometimes lead to virus-induced immunopathology. This refers to a situation where the immune response triggered by the vaccine actually causes damage to the body's tissues. In some cases, the immune response can be too strong or misdirected, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This is a rare occurrence but can happen with certain vaccines. It is important to note that the benefits of vaccination in preventing infectious diseases far outweigh the potential risks of immunopathology.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following methods of virus DX, relies on comparison of acute phase and covalescent phases titers?

    • A.

      Clinical presentation

    • B.

      Tissue cultures

    • C.

      Immunocytochemical staining of cell cultures

    • D.

      Serological studies

    Correct Answer
    D. Serological studies
    Explanation
    Serological studies involve the analysis of blood samples to detect the presence of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. In the case of virus DX, comparing the titers (levels) of antibodies during the acute phase (when the virus is actively replicating) and the convalescent phase (when the person is recovering) can provide valuable information. This comparison helps determine if the antibody levels have increased, indicating a recent infection, or if they have remained stable or decreased, suggesting a past infection or immunity. Therefore, serological studies are the method that relies on the comparison of acute phase and convalescent phase titers in virus DX.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following is a double stranded DNA virus?

    • A.

      Picornaviridae

    • B.

      Paramyxoviridae

    • C.

      Parvoviridae

    • D.

      Polyomaviridae

    Correct Answer
    D. Polyomaviridae
    Explanation
    Polyomaviridae is a double stranded DNA virus. This family of viruses includes several species that infect mammals, including humans. The double stranded DNA genome of polyomaviruses allows them to efficiently replicate and produce viral proteins. These viruses are known to cause various diseases in humans, such as polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is a single stranded RNA virus

    • A.

      Togaviridae

    • B.

      Reoviridae

    • C.

      Papillomaviridae

    • D.

      Hepadnoviridae

    Correct Answer
    A. Togaviridae
    Explanation
    Togaviridae is a single stranded RNA virus. This family of viruses includes the genus Alphavirus, which are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. These viruses are known to cause diseases such as chikungunya and eastern equine encephalitis in humans.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is not true regarding viruses?

    • A.

      May be DNA, RNA, Single, or Double-stranded

    • B.

      All are obligate intracellular parasites

    • C.

      All have a protein capsid and envelope

    • D.

      Release virions during cell lysis or budding

    • E.

      All are true

    Correct Answer
    C. All have a protein capsid and envelope
    Explanation
    All have a protein capsid and envelope: This statement is not true regarding viruses. While many viruses do have a protein capsid, not all of them have an envelope. Some viruses, such as bacteriophages, do not have an envelope.

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  • 29. 

    What type of immunity is most responsible for fighting viral infections?

    • A.

      Humoral Immunity

    • B.

      Cell-Mediated Immunity

    • C.

      Innate Immunity

    • D.

      All

    Correct Answer
    B. Cell-Mediated Immunity
    Explanation
    Cell-mediated immunity is most responsible for fighting viral infections. This type of immunity involves the activation of T-cells, which directly attack and destroy infected cells. T-cells recognize viral antigens presented on the surface of infected cells and initiate an immune response to eliminate the virus. This response is particularly effective against intracellular pathogens like viruses. Humoral immunity, on the other hand, primarily deals with extracellular pathogens and involves the production of antibodies to neutralize viruses. Innate immunity provides immediate, non-specific defense mechanisms against a wide range of pathogens but may not be as effective against specific viral infections.

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  • 30. 

    How are viruses different from bacteria?

    • A.

      Viruses do not replicate by binary fission

    • B.

      Viruses are smaller

    • C.

      Viruses are obligate intracellularly

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      All

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B
    Explanation
    Viruses are different from bacteria because they do not replicate by binary fission, which is the process by which bacteria divide and reproduce. Additionally, viruses are smaller in size compared to bacteria. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B.

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  • 31. 

    Which is not true regarding adsorption?

    • A.

      Virus attaches to host membrane

    • B.

      Process is random and reversible

    • C.

      Requires ATP

    • D.

      Nonenveloped viruses attach via exposed capsid regions

    • E.

      All are true

    Correct Answer
    C. Requires ATP
    Explanation
    Adsorption is the process by which a virus attaches to a host membrane. It is a random and reversible process, meaning that the virus can attach and detach from the host membrane multiple times. Nonenveloped viruses attach to host cells via exposed capsid regions. However, it is not true that adsorption requires ATP. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a molecule that provides energy for cellular processes, but it is not involved in the adsorption of viruses to host cells.

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  • 32. 

    Viruses are classified according to all of the following except:

    • A.

      Type of replication

    • B.

      Structure of virion

    • C.

      Host required for survival

    • D.

      Type of nucleic acid

    • E.

      Structure of virus

    Correct Answer
    C. Host required for survival
    Explanation
    Viruses are classified based on various factors such as type of replication, structure of the virion, type of nucleic acid, and structure of the virus. However, the host required for survival is not a factor used to classify viruses. This means that the dependence on a host for survival is not considered when categorizing viruses into different groups.

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  • 33. 

    Which is not true regarding capsids?

    • A.

      Composed of repeating subunits

    • B.

      Able to self-assemble into virions

    • C.

      Helical structure has fixed number of subunits and is spherical in shape

    • D.

      Only A and B

    • E.

      All

    Correct Answer
    D. Only A and B
    Explanation
    This question is asking for the statement that is not true regarding capsids. The correct answer is "Only A and B". This means that it is not true that capsids are composed of repeating subunits and able to self-assemble into virions. Capsids are indeed composed of repeating subunits and have the ability to self-assemble into virions. The other statements in the question are true, such as the helical structure having a fixed number of subunits and being spherical in shape.

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  • 34. 

    A particular virus' genetic material first needs to be copied into positive sense SS-RNA (Single Strand RNA). What type of virus is this?

    • A.

      SS Positive-Sense RNA

    • B.

      SS Negative-Sense RNA

    • C.

      DS RNA

    • D.

      DS DNA

    Correct Answer
    C. DS RNA
    Explanation
    This virus is classified as DS RNA because it requires its genetic material to be copied into positive sense SS-RNA. DS RNA viruses have a double-stranded RNA genome, which means they have two complementary strands of RNA. In this case, one of the strands is copied into positive sense SS-RNA, allowing the virus to replicate and produce proteins.

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  • 35. 

    Primary replication of the virus takes place before spread. This happens with:

    • A.

      Neural spread

    • B.

      Hematogenous spread

    • C.

      Tissue spread

    • D.

      Viremia

    • E.

      All

    Correct Answer
    B. Hematogenous spread
    Explanation
    Hematogenous spread refers to the spread of the virus through the bloodstream. In the context of the given question, it suggests that the primary replication of the virus occurs before it spreads through the bloodstream. This means that the virus first replicates in a specific location, such as the respiratory tract or another site of initial infection, before entering the bloodstream and spreading to other parts of the body.

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  • 36. 

    Adenoviidae, Poxviridae, and Herpesviridae are:

    • A.

      Single-stranded DNA virus

    • B.

      Single-stranded RNA virus

    • C.

      Double-stranded DNA

    • D.

      Double-stranded RNA

    • E.

      Mixed-stranded DNA

    Correct Answer
    C. Double-stranded DNA
    Explanation
    Adenoviidae, Poxviridae, and Herpesviridae are classified as double-stranded DNA viruses. This means that their genetic material consists of two strands of DNA that are complementary to each other. These viruses replicate their DNA using a double-stranded intermediate, and their genetic information is encoded in the form of double-stranded DNA.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is mixed-stranded?

    • A.

      Reoviridiae

    • B.

      Rhabdoviridae

    • C.

      Poxviridae

    • D.

      Hepadnoviridae

    • E.

      Parvoviridae

    Correct Answer
    D. Hepadnoviridae
    Explanation
    Hepadnoviridae is the correct answer because it is a family of viruses that have a mixed-stranded DNA genome. This means that the genome of these viruses contains both single-stranded and double-stranded regions. The other options, Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Poxviridae, and Parvoviridae, do not have mixed-stranded genomes.

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  • 38. 

    What is a virion?

    • A.

      Nucleic acid and surrounding protein shell.

    • B.

      Major protein component of the shell of the core.

    • C.

      Single virus particle.

    • D.

      Membrane surrounding virus core.

    Correct Answer
    C. Single virus particle.
    Explanation
    A virion refers to a single virus particle. It is the complete infectious unit of a virus that consists of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein shell called a capsid. The virion is capable of infecting a host cell and reproducing, leading to the spread of the virus.

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  • 39. 

    What is the core?

    • A.

      Nucleic acid and surrounding protein shell.

    • B.

      Major protein component of the shell of the core.

    • C.

      Single virus particle.

    • D.

      Membrane surrounding virus core.

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleic acid and surrounding protein shell.
    Explanation
    The core refers to the nucleic acid and the surrounding protein shell. This means that the core of a virus consists of genetic material (nucleic acid) and a protective protein coat (protein shell). These components are essential for the replication and survival of the virus.

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  • 40. 

    What is a capsid?

    • A.

      Nucleic acid and surrounding protein shell.

    • B.

      Single virus particle.

    • C.

      Major protein component of the shell of the core.

    • D.

      Membrane surrounding virus core.

    Correct Answer
    C. Major protein component of the shell of the core.
    Explanation
    A capsid is the major protein component of the shell of the core. It is the protective protein coat that surrounds the nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) of a virus. The capsid is responsible for protecting the viral genome and facilitating its entry into host cells. It also plays a role in the assembly and release of new virus particles.

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  • 41. 

    What is the envelope?

    • A.

      Nucleic acid and surrounding protein shell.

    • B.

      Major protein component of the shell of the core.

    • C.

      Single virus particle.

    • D.

      Membrane surrounding virus core.

    Correct Answer
    D. Membrane surrounding virus core.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Membrane surrounding virus core." This is because the envelope refers to the outer layer or membrane that surrounds the core of a virus. The envelope is composed of lipids and proteins and is derived from the host cell's membrane during the process of viral replication. It plays a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect and enter host cells.

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  • 42. 

    Viruses can survive outside of the cell.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens. They lack metabolic and protein synthesis machinery.

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  • 43. 

    Viruses can replicate in the:

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Both cytoplasm and nucleus.

    Correct Answer
    C. Both cytoplasm and nucleus.
    Explanation
    Viruses can replicate in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of a host cell. Some viruses replicate solely in the cytoplasm, while others replicate in the nucleus. The location of replication depends on the type of virus and its specific life cycle. Viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm usually do not require access to the host cell's nucleus, as they can utilize the host cell's machinery in the cytoplasm to replicate. On the other hand, viruses that replicate in the nucleus require access to the host cell's nucleus to access the necessary cellular machinery for replication.

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  • 44. 

    Viruses can result in acute death of the host.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pathogenesis can range from asymptomatic to acute death.

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  • 45. 

    Match the following terms with the definitions below: Host Range, Susceptibility.1. The capacity of a cell, tissue, or species to support virus replication - qualitatative measurement - number of receptor molecules and ability of host cell to support virus replciation.2. The cells, tissues, species that a virus can productively infect - absolute measurement - determined by receptor availability for virus binding/entry and presence of intracellular cell factors to support virus replication.

    • A.

      Host Range = 1, Susceptibility = 2.

    • B.

      Susceptibility = 1, Host Range = 2.

    • C.

      The definitions provided do not match the terms given.

    Correct Answer
    B. Susceptibility = 1, Host Range = 2.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Susceptibility = 1, Host Range = 2. This is because the first definition provided matches the term "Susceptibility," which refers to the capacity of a cell, tissue, or species to support virus replication. The second definition matches the term "Host Range," which refers to the cells, tissues, or species that a virus can productively infect. Therefore, the correct match is Susceptibility = 1 and Host Range = 2.

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  • 46. 

    The virus' structure is a:

    • A.

      Dodecahedron.

    • B.

      Icosahedron.

    • C.

      Square.

    • D.

      Tetrakaidecagon.

    • E.

      Tetradecagon.

    Correct Answer
    B. Icosahedron.
    Explanation
    Icosahedron: A solid with 20 triangular faces and 12 vertices related by 2-, 3-, and 5-fold axes of symmetry.

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  • 47. 

    How do most viruses acquire membranes/envelopes?

    • A.

      By the host cell phagocytizing the virus.

    • B.

      By generating it themselves.

    • C.

      Through glycosylation.

    • D.

      By budding through a host cell membrane.

    Correct Answer
    D. By budding through a host cell membrane.
    Explanation
    Plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi aparatus, or nuclear membrane.

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  • 48. 

    Enveloped viruses may enter the host cell through:

    • A.

      Fusion with plasma membrane.

    • B.

      Penetration through plasma membrane.

    Correct Answer
    A. Fusion with plasma membrane.
    Explanation
    Enveloped viruses have a lipid envelope surrounding their protein coat. This envelope allows them to fuse with the host cell's plasma membrane, enabling the virus to enter the cell. Fusion with the plasma membrane is a common mechanism used by enveloped viruses to gain entry into the host cell and initiate infection. Penetration through the plasma membrane is not a typical mode of entry for enveloped viruses.

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  • 49. 

    Non-enveloped viruses may enter the host cell through:

    • A.

      Fusion with plasma membrane.

    • B.

      Penetration through plasma membrane.

    Correct Answer
    B. Penetration through plasma membrane.
    Explanation
    Non-enveloped viruses are characterized by the absence of a lipid envelope surrounding their protein coat. Unlike enveloped viruses, which can enter host cells through fusion with the plasma membrane, non-enveloped viruses cannot fuse directly with the plasma membrane. Instead, they rely on other mechanisms such as receptor-mediated endocytosis or direct penetration through the plasma membrane to gain entry into the host cell. Therefore, the correct answer is penetration through the plasma membrane.

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  • 50. 

    Replication of RNA viruses typically occurs in the:

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Golgi

    • C.

      ER

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    D. Cytoplasm
    Explanation
    may involve specialized "replication complexes"

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