Assessment 2: Sedimentology And Sedimentary Structures

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Assessment 2: Sedimentology And Sedimentary Structures - Quiz

You have one hour to complete this online examination. Every question must be answered or attempted.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What type of sedimentary structure is this?

    • A.

      Wave ripples

    • B.

      Graded bedding

    • C.

      Large scale bedding

    • D.

      Small scale cross bedding

    Correct Answer
    B. Graded bedding
    Explanation
    Graded bedding refers to a type of sedimentary structure where the sediment particles within a layer gradually change in size from coarse at the bottom to fine at the top. This occurs due to the settling of sediment in a water column, with the largest and heaviest particles settling first, followed by progressively smaller particles. This process creates distinct layers within the sedimentary rock, with each layer representing a different stage of sediment deposition. Graded bedding is commonly found in environments such as deep-sea fans, turbidity currents, and river deltas.

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  • 2. 

    Select 7 of the below which are types of sedimentary rocks.

    • A.

      Sandstone

    • B.

      Granite

    • C.

      Gniess

    • D.

      Limestone

    • E.

      Halite

    • F.

      Gypsum

    • G.

      Slate

    • H.

      Shale

    • I.

      Chert

    • J.

      Conglomerate

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sandstone
    D. Limestone
    E. Halite
    F. Gypsum
    H. Shale
    I. Chert
    J. Conglomerate
    Explanation
    Sandstone, limestone, halite, gypsum, shale, chert, and conglomerate are all types of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation and compaction of sediments over time. Sandstone is composed of sand-sized grains, limestone is composed of calcium carbonate, halite is composed of rock salt, gypsum is composed of hydrated calcium sulfate, shale is composed of fine-grained clay minerals, chert is composed of microcrystalline quartz, and conglomerate is composed of rounded gravel-sized particles. Granite and gneiss, on the other hand, are types of igneous rocks, which are formed from the solidification of molten material.

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  • 3. 

    What is the texture of this sedimentary rock?

    • A.

      Small grained

    • B.

      Medium grained

    • C.

      Coarse grained

    • D.

      Fine grained

    Correct Answer
    C. Coarse grained
    Explanation
    Coarse grained texture refers to sedimentary rocks that have larger-sized grains or particles. This suggests that the rock was formed from larger fragments or particles that were deposited and compacted together. The larger grain size indicates that the rock likely formed in an environment with higher energy, such as a river or beach, where larger sediment could be transported and deposited.

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  • 4. 

    What is the name of this sedimentary rock?

    • A.

      Breccia

    • B.

      Sandstone

    • C.

      Limestone

    • D.

      Conglomerate

    Correct Answer
    D. Conglomerate
    Explanation
    Conglomerate is the correct answer because it is a type of sedimentary rock that is composed of rounded fragments of rock, minerals, and pebbles that are cemented together. It is characterized by its coarse-grained texture and can contain a variety of different rock types within it. This rock is typically formed in high-energy environments such as riverbeds or beaches, where the fragments are transported and deposited by water or ice.

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  • 5. 

    Which 3 of the following are methods of weathering?

    • A.

      Biological

    • B.

      Physical

    • C.

      Geological

    • D.

      None as weathering is the process of moving rock fragments

    • E.

      Chemical

    • F.

      Evaporation

    • G.

      Melting

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Biological
    B. Physical
    E. Chemical
    Explanation
    Weathering refers to the process by which rocks and minerals on the Earth's surface are broken down into smaller pieces. Biological weathering occurs when living organisms such as plants and animals contribute to the breakdown of rocks through activities like root growth and burrowing. Physical weathering involves the physical breakdown of rocks without any chemical changes, often caused by factors like temperature changes, wind, and water erosion. Chemical weathering occurs when rocks are broken down through chemical reactions, such as when acidic rainwater reacts with minerals in the rocks. Therefore, the correct answer includes Biological, Physical, and Chemical methods of weathering.

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  • 6. 

    The picture shows a type of weathering which is common with igneous rocks. This type of weathering is called ________

    Correct Answer(s)
    exfoliation, exfoliate
    Explanation
    The picture depicts a process known as exfoliation, which is commonly observed in igneous rocks. Exfoliation occurs when layers of rock peel away due to the release of pressure, often resulting in curved or rounded surfaces. This weathering process is caused by the expansion and contraction of rock layers due to temperature changes, which leads to the separation of outer layers. Exfoliation is a significant form of mechanical weathering that contributes to the erosion and shaping of igneous rock formations over time.

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  • 7. 

    Chemical weathering is often caused by ________...

    Correct Answer(s)
    acid rain
    Explanation
    Chemical weathering refers to the process by which rocks and minerals are broken down and altered through chemical reactions. Acid rain, which is rainwater that has become acidic due to air pollutants like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, is a significant cause of chemical weathering. When acid rain falls on rocks and minerals, it reacts with them, dissolving or corroding their surfaces. This can lead to the weakening and disintegration of the rocks over time. Acid rain is particularly damaging to limestone and marble, which are composed of calcium carbonate.

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  • 8. 

    Which four of the below are common methods of rock erosion?

    • A.

      Biological

    • B.

      Chemical

    • C.

      Water

    • D.

      Ice

    • E.

      Wind

    • F.

      Physical

    • G.

      Gravity

    • H.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Water
    D. Ice
    E. Wind
    G. Gravity
    Explanation
    Water, ice, wind, and gravity are common methods of rock erosion. Water erosion occurs when water wears away rocks through processes like rivers, waves, and rain. Ice erosion happens when freezing and thawing of water causes rocks to crack and break apart. Wind erosion occurs when strong winds carry and deposit particles that wear away rocks. Gravity erosion occurs when rocks are moved or transported downhill due to the force of gravity. These four methods are significant contributors to the natural process of rock erosion.

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  • 9. 

    In what type of depositional environment would you expect to see these pebbles? 

    • A.

      Ocean

    • B.

      Land

    • C.

      River

    • D.

      Mountain

    Correct Answer
    C. River
    Explanation
    The presence of pebbles suggests a high-energy environment where water can transport and deposit larger particles. Rivers are known for their ability to transport and deposit sediments, including pebbles, due to their strong currents and flow. In contrast, oceans typically have more fine-grained sediments, while land and mountains are not specific enough environments to indicate the presence of pebbles. Therefore, the most likely depositional environment for these pebbles is a river.

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  • 10. 

    What type of sedimentary structure is seen here? 

    • A.

      Graded bedding

    • B.

      Wave ripples

    • C.

      Mud cracks

    • D.

      Imbrication

    Correct Answer
    D. Imbrication
    Explanation
    Imbrication refers to the arrangement of sedimentary particles in a way that they overlap each other, indicating a directional flow of water or wind. In this case, without any visual aid or context provided, it is difficult to determine the exact sedimentary structure seen. However, if the image or description shows sedimentary particles arranged in a layered, overlapping pattern, it would be indicative of imbrication.

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  • 11. 

    What is the average grain size of sandstones? ________ 

    Correct Answer
    medium grained, medium
    Explanation
    Sandstones are classified based on their grain size, which refers to the size of the individual particles that make up the rock. The options provided indicate that the average grain size of sandstones is medium grained. This means that the sandstone contains particles that are neither very large nor very small, but of a moderate size. The second option "medium" further reinforces this, suggesting that the grain size falls within the medium range. Therefore, the correct answer is "medium grained, medium."

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  • 12. 

    The difference between conglomerates and breccias is that conglomerates have more ________ grains. 

    Correct Answer
    rounded, round, rounded grains
    Explanation
    Conglomerates and breccias are both types of sedimentary rocks composed of different types of grains. However, the main difference lies in the shape of the grains. Conglomerates have more rounded grains, while breccias have more angular grains. The roundness of the grains in conglomerates is due to the transportation and erosion processes that smooth out the edges and corners of the grains over time.

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  • 13. 

    What is the name given to this type of SEDIMENTARY rock?

    • A.

      Limestone

    • B.

      Slate

    • C.

      Shale

    • D.

      Sandstone

    Correct Answer
    C. Shale
    Explanation
    Shale is the correct answer because it is a type of sedimentary rock that is formed from the accumulation of clay, silt, and other fine-grained particles. It is characterized by its fissile nature, meaning it easily splits into thin layers. Shale is typically composed of very small particles and has a smooth texture. It is commonly found in areas where there has been the deposition of fine-grained sediment, such as in lakes, ocean basins, or river deltas.

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  • 14. 

    The sediment shown below has a well sorted texture. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The sediment shown below does not have a well sorted texture.

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  • 15. 

    The sediment shown below has a well sorted texture. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The sediment shown below has a well sorted texture. True.

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  • 16. 

    What is the average grain shape of the sedimentary rock fragments below? 

    Correct Answer
    angular, not well rounded, poorly rounded
    Explanation
    The sedimentary rock fragments described as angular, not well rounded, and poorly rounded suggest that the average grain shape of the fragments is characterized by sharp edges and corners, indicating that they have not undergone significant weathering or transportation. This implies that the sedimentary rock is likely composed of freshly broken or eroded material that has not been subjected to long periods of erosion and transportation by water or wind.

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  • 17. 

    What does the grain shape of this rock tell us about the erosion that has occurred? 

    • A.

      It has travelled far

    • B.

      It has travelled a little

    • C.

      It hasn't travelled much

    Correct Answer
    C. It hasn't travelled much
    Explanation
    The grain shape of the rock suggests that it hasn't traveled much. This is because if the rock had traveled a significant distance, it would have undergone more erosion, resulting in a smoother and more rounded grain shape. The fact that the rock has retained its original grain shape indicates that it hasn't been subjected to extensive erosion during transportation.

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  • 18. 

    What type of weathering has caused this rock to begin to erode? 

    Correct Answer
    Freeze-thaw, freeze thaw, freezing, thawing, ice, water
    Explanation
    The correct answer is freeze-thaw weathering. This type of weathering occurs when water seeps into cracks in the rock and freezes, expanding and putting pressure on the surrounding rock. When the ice thaws, the pressure is released, causing the rock to weaken and break apart. The repeated freezing and thawing cycles accelerate the erosion process.

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  • 19. 

    Which 4 of the below are examples of clastic sedimentary rocks? 

    • A.

      Sandstone

    • B.

      Limestone

    • C.

      Conglomerate

    • D.

      Breccia

    • E.

      Shale

    • F.

      Slate

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sandstone
    C. Conglomerate
    D. Breccia
    E. Shale
    Explanation
    Sandstone, conglomerate, breccia, and shale are examples of clastic sedimentary rocks. Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and lithification of fragments of pre-existing rocks. Sandstone is composed of sand-sized particles, conglomerate consists of rounded pebbles and cobbles, breccia is made up of angular fragments, and shale is composed of fine-grained particles. Limestone and slate, on the other hand, are not clastic sedimentary rocks. Limestone is a chemical sedimentary rock formed from the precipitation of calcium carbonate, and slate is a metamorphic rock formed from the alteration of shale.

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  • 20. 

    Which 3 of the below are examples of chemical sedimentary rocks? 

    • A.

      Breccia

    • B.

      Halite

    • C.

      Gypsum

    • D.

      Sandstone

    • E.

      Conglomerate

    • F.

      Chert

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Halite
    C. Gypsum
    F. Chert
    Explanation
    Halite, gypsum, and chert are examples of chemical sedimentary rocks. Halite is a chemical sedimentary rock formed from the evaporation of saline water, leaving behind deposits of salt. Gypsum is also a chemical sedimentary rock formed from the evaporation of water, but it contains calcium sulfate. Chert, on the other hand, is a chemical sedimentary rock formed from the accumulation of microcrystalline quartz. These rocks are all formed through chemical processes rather than the compaction and cementation of sediment like other sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, conglomerate, and breccia.

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  • 21. 

    You have been provided with a permeability vs porosity graph, which rock has the greatest porosity? 

    • A.

      Shale

    • B.

      Till

    • C.

      Conglomerate

    • D.

      Sandstone

    • E.

      Limestone

    Correct Answer
    D. Sandstone
    Explanation
    Sandstone has the greatest porosity based on the permeability vs porosity graph. This means that it has the highest ability to hold and transmit fluids within its pore spaces compared to the other rocks listed.

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  • 22. 

    Why does limestone not fit the trend of the other sedimentary rocks?

    • A.

      Because it is fine grained and the others are coarse grained

    • B.

      Because it has matrix and the others don't

    • C.

      Because it is a biological rock whereas the others are all clastics

    • D.

      Because it is lighter in colour whereas the others are darkers

    Correct Answer
    C. Because it is a biological rock whereas the others are all clastics
  • 23. 

    The image shows a sedimentary rock which has a high porosity and a high permeability. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The image shows a sedimentary rock with high porosity, which means it has many small spaces or pores. This allows fluids to flow through the rock easily, indicating high permeability. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 24. 

    This image shows a sedimentary rock which has a high permeability and a low porosity. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The image shows a sedimentary rock with high permeability and low porosity. However, this statement is false. Permeability refers to the ability of a rock to allow fluid to flow through it, while porosity refers to the amount of empty space or voids in a rock. A rock with high permeability would allow fluid to flow easily through it, while a rock with low porosity would have fewer empty spaces. Therefore, a sedimentary rock with high permeability would typically have high porosity as well.

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  • 25. 

    What is the name given to a sediment gravity flow which commonly occurs in the deep ocean? 

    • A.

      Alluvial fan

    • B.

      Wave ripples

    • C.

      Turbidite

    • D.

      Storm deposit

    Correct Answer
    C. Turbidite
    Explanation
    A turbidite is the correct answer because it refers to a sediment gravity flow that commonly occurs in the deep ocean. Turbidites are formed when sediment-laden water flows down the continental slope and deposits sediment layers on the ocean floor. These sediment layers are characterized by a distinct sequence of coarse and fine-grained sediments. Turbidites are an important geological feature as they provide valuable information about past underwater sedimentary processes and can be used to interpret ancient environments.

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  • 26. 

    What sedimentary structure is often found in turbidite flows? 

    • A.

      Imbrication

    • B.

      Graded bedding

    • C.

      Ripples

    • D.

      Cross bedding

    Correct Answer
    B. Graded bedding
    Explanation
    Graded bedding is often found in turbidite flows. Turbidite flows are sedimentary deposits that are formed by the movement of sediment-laden water currents. These currents can carry a range of sediment sizes, from coarse to fine particles. As the water current slows down, the larger and heavier particles settle first, followed by the smaller and lighter particles. This results in a distinct layering of sediment with larger particles at the bottom and finer particles towards the top, known as graded bedding. This sedimentary structure is commonly observed in turbidite flows.

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  • 27. 

    What 3 features would you expect to find in a fluvial (river) depositional environment? 

    • A.

      Conglomerates

    • B.

      Siltstones

    • C.

      Well rounded pebbles

    • D.

      Imbrication

    • E.

      Granite

    • F.

      Mud cracks

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Conglomerates
    B. Siltstones
    D. Imbrication
    Explanation
    In a fluvial (river) depositional environment, conglomerates are expected because they are formed by the accumulation of rounded pebbles and cobbles that are transported and deposited by the river. Siltstones are also expected as they are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be deposited by rivers. Imbrication is another feature that can be found in a fluvial depositional environment, as it refers to the arrangement of sediment particles in a tilted or overlapping manner, indicating the direction of flow of the river.

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  • 28. 

    In what depositional environment would you expect to find symmetrical wave ripples? 

    • A.

      River

    • B.

      Beach

    • C.

      Deep water

    • D.

      Land

    Correct Answer
    B. Beach
    Explanation
    Symmetrical wave ripples are typically formed in beach environments. Beaches are characterized by the constant action of waves breaking onto the shore, causing sediment to be transported and deposited in a rhythmic pattern. The back-and-forth motion of waves in a beach environment creates symmetrical wave ripples, which are evenly spaced and have a gentle slope. In contrast, rivers, deep water, and land environments do not experience the same wave action as beaches, making them less likely to exhibit symmetrical wave ripples.

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  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 01, 2017
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    MissofAwesome
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