Sedimentary Rocks Quiz: Trivia Questions!

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Sedimentary Rocks Quiz: Trivia Questions! - Quiz

This is a sedimentary rocks quiz trivia questions! Sedimentary rocks are made as a result of an accumulation of particles to form a rock. These rocks are formed as a result of different process and have different characteristics as well. In this quiz, you will get to test out the different types of sedimentary rocks, their formation as well as sizes. Give it a try and see how well you do!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Porosity is defined as:

    • A.

      A measure of the ease with which a fluid flows through the connecting voids of a rock

    • B.

      A decrease in the volume of a unit of rock caused by pressures exerted by overlying rock

    • C.

      A ratio of the volume of void space to total volume of rock, representing how much fluid a rock can contain.

    Correct Answer
    C. A ratio of the volume of void space to total volume of rock, representing how much fluid a rock can contain.
    Explanation
    Porosity is a term used to describe the amount of void space within a rock. It is a ratio that compares the volume of empty space (voids) to the total volume of the rock. This measurement helps determine how much fluid a rock can contain, as it represents the amount of space available for the fluid to flow through. The higher the porosity, the more fluid a rock can hold. Therefore, the correct answer is that porosity is a ratio of the volume of void space to the total volume of rock, representing how much fluid a rock can contain.

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  • 2. 

    Permeability is defined as:

    • A.

      A measure of the ease with which a fluid flows through the connecting voids of a rock

    • B.

      A decrease in the volume of a unit of rock caused by pressures exerted by overlying rock

    • C.

      A ratio of the volume of void space to total volume of rock, representing how much fluid a rock can contain.

    Correct Answer
    A. A measure of the ease with which a fluid flows through the connecting voids of a rock
    Explanation
    Permeability is a property that measures the ease with which a fluid can flow through the interconnected void spaces within a rock. It indicates how easily the fluid can move through the rock matrix, indicating the rock's ability to transmit fluids. This property is important in various fields such as geology, hydrology, and petroleum engineering, as it helps in understanding the flow of fluids through porous media and predicting the movement of groundwater or hydrocarbons in subsurface reservoirs.

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  • 3. 

    Evaporites include which of the following?

    • A.

      Gypsum, anhydrite, halite

    • B.

      Quartz, feldspar, sandstone

    • C.

      Dolomite, limestone, sandstone

    • D.

      Shale, siltstone, conglomerate

    Correct Answer
    A. Gypsum, anhydrite, halite
    Explanation
    Evaporites are minerals that form when water evaporates, leaving behind dissolved minerals. Gypsum, anhydrite, and halite are all examples of evaporites. Gypsum is a soft mineral often used in construction, anhydrite is a mineral that forms from the dehydration of gypsum, and halite is commonly known as table salt. These minerals are commonly found in areas where there is a high rate of evaporation, such as salt flats or dried-up lake beds. The other options listed, quartz, feldspar, sandstone, dolomite, limestone, sandstone, shale, siltstone, and conglomerate, are not evaporites and are formed through different processes.

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  • 4. 

    Dolomite is commonly formed by the chemical alteration of which of the following rocks?

    • A.

      Sandstone

    • B.

      Anhydrite

    • C.

      Limestone

    • D.

      Shale

    • E.

      Conglomerate

    Correct Answer
    C. Limestone
    Explanation
    Dolomite is commonly formed by the chemical alteration of limestone. This process occurs when magnesium-rich groundwater or hot springs react with the calcium carbonate in limestone, replacing some of the calcium with magnesium. This alteration results in the formation of dolomite, which is a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is the most likely way for sandstone to form?

    • A.

      Precipitation of sediments from seawater that has been concentrated by evaporation

    • B.

      Compaction and cementation of sediments that have been eroded from pre-existing rocks

    • C.

      Secretion of calcium carbonate by shelled organisms and accumulation of these shells

    Correct Answer
    B. Compaction and cementation of sediments that have been eroded from pre-existing rocks
    Explanation
    Sandstone is a sedimentary rock that is formed through the compaction and cementation of sediments. Sediments are eroded from pre-existing rocks and then transported by wind, water, or ice. As these sediments settle, they become compacted under the weight of overlying layers, and the grains are cemented together by minerals, such as silica or calcium carbonate. This process occurs over time, resulting in the formation of sandstone.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is NOT a requirement for the accumulation of hydrocarbons?

    • A.

      Reservoir

    • B.

      Trap

    • C.

      Migration

    • D.

      Source Bed

    • E.

      Fracturing

    Correct Answer
    E. Fracturing
    Explanation
    Fracturing is not a requirement for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. The accumulation of hydrocarbons typically requires a reservoir to hold the hydrocarbons, a trap to prevent their escape, migration to move the hydrocarbons from the source bed to the reservoir, and a source bed where the hydrocarbons are generated. Fracturing, on the other hand, refers to the process of creating fractures in rocks to enhance the flow of hydrocarbons, but it is not essential for their accumulation.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following sediment sizes forms shale?

    • A.

      Sand

    • B.

      Gravel

    • C.

      Clay

    • D.

      Silt

    Correct Answer
    C. Clay
    Explanation
    Shale is formed from the deposition and compaction of fine-grained sediment particles. Clay is a type of fine-grained sediment that consists of tiny particles. When clay particles accumulate over time, they can be compressed and cemented together to form shale. Therefore, clay is the correct answer as it is the sediment size that forms shale.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following sediment sizes forms a conglomerate?

    • A.

      Sand

    • B.

      Gravel

    • C.

      Clay

    • D.

      Silt

    Correct Answer
    B. Gravel
    Explanation
    Gravel is the correct answer because conglomerate is a type of sedimentary rock that is composed of rounded fragments of larger size particles, typically ranging from 2 to 64 millimeters in diameter. Gravel, which consists of particles larger than 2 millimeters, fits this description and is therefore the sediment size that forms a conglomerate. Sand, clay, and silt are all smaller in size and would not form conglomerates.

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  • 9. 

    Select all of the following whose primary importance are as reservoir rocks.

    • A.

      Sandstone

    • B.

      Limestone

    • C.

      Organic-Rich shale

    • D.

      Conglomerate

    • E.

      Impermeable shale

    • F.

      Dolomite

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sandstone
    B. Limestone
    D. Conglomerate
    F. Dolomite
    Explanation
    Sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, and dolomite are all types of sedimentary rocks that can act as reservoir rocks. Reservoir rocks are rocks that have the ability to hold and store significant amounts of oil, gas, or water. These rocks have high porosity and permeability, allowing fluids to flow through them easily. Sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, and dolomite are all known for their porosity and ability to hold fluids, making them important reservoir rocks in the oil and gas industry. Organic-rich shale and impermeable shale, on the other hand, have low porosity and permeability, making them less suitable as reservoir rocks.

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  • 10. 

    Select all of the rocks that are classified as chemical in origin.

    • A.

      Anhydrite

    • B.

      Limestone

    • C.

      Conglomerate

    • D.

      Shale

    • E.

      Halite

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Anhydrite
    B. Limestone
    E. Halite
    Explanation
    Anhydrite, limestone, and halite are classified as chemical rocks because they are formed through chemical processes. Anhydrite is a mineral that forms from the evaporation of water containing high concentrations of calcium and sulfate ions. Limestone is composed mainly of the mineral calcite, which forms from the accumulation of shells and skeletons of marine organisms. Halite, also known as rock salt, is formed through the evaporation of saline water. These rocks are all examples of chemical precipitation or crystallization, distinguishing them from conglomerate and shale, which are classified as clastic rocks formed from the accumulation of sediment particles.

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  • 11. 

    Select all of the rocks that are considered clastic in origin.

    • A.

      Sandstone

    • B.

      Limestone

    • C.

      Conglomerate

    • D.

      Shale

    • E.

      Halite

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sandstone
    C. Conglomerate
    D. Shale
    Explanation
    Sandstone, conglomerate, and shale are considered clastic rocks because they are formed from the accumulation and compaction of sediment particles. Sandstone is composed of sand-sized grains, conglomerate consists of rounded pebbles and gravel, and shale is made up of fine particles of clay and silt. Limestone, on the other hand, is a non-clastic rock that forms from the accumulation of organic remains or chemical precipitation. Halite is a mineral, not a rock, and is formed through the evaporation of saline water.

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  • 12. 

    Select all of the following that are classified as evaporite.

    • A.

      Limestone

    • B.

      Anhydrite

    • C.

      Halite

    • D.

      Gypsum

    • E.

      Dolomite

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Anhydrite
    C. Halite
    D. Gypsum
    Explanation
    Anhydrite, Halite, and Gypsum are classified as evaporite because they are minerals that form through the evaporation of water. Evaporite minerals are typically found in areas where there is a high rate of evaporation, such as deserts or salt flats. Limestone and Dolomite, on the other hand, are not evaporite minerals. They are sedimentary rocks that form from the accumulation of organic or inorganic material.

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  • 13. 

    Hydrocarbons are associated with sedimentary rocks more than any other rock.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hydrocarbons are associated with sedimentary rocks more than any other rock because sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and compaction of organic materials, such as dead plants and animals, over millions of years. These organic materials contain carbon and hydrogen, which are the primary components of hydrocarbons. As the sedimentary rocks undergo heat and pressure, the organic materials are transformed into hydrocarbons, such as oil and natural gas, which become trapped within the porous spaces of the rock. Therefore, it is true that hydrocarbons are more commonly found in sedimentary rocks compared to other rock types.

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  • 14. 

    What are the three types of rocks?

    • A.

      Igneous

    • B.

      Metamorphic

    • C.

      Sedimentary

    • D.

      Halite

    • E.

      Calcite

    • F.

      Quartz

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Igneous
    B. Metamorphic
    C. Sedimentary
    Explanation
    The three types of rocks are igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Igneous rocks are formed from the cooling and solidification of molten material, such as lava or magma. Metamorphic rocks are formed when existing rocks undergo intense heat and pressure, causing them to change in composition and texture. Sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and compaction of sediments, such as sand, mud, and organic matter, over time. Halite, calcite, and quartz are minerals commonly found in rocks, but they are not types of rocks themselves.

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  • 15. 

    What are the three sub-categories of sedimentary rocks?

    • A.

      Clastic

    • B.

      Chemical

    • C.

      Biochemical

    • D.

      Mechanical

    • E.

      Physical

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Clastic
    B. Chemical
    C. Biochemical
    Explanation
    The three sub-categories of sedimentary rocks are clastic, chemical, and biochemical. Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation of fragments of pre-existing rocks. Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from the precipitation of minerals from solution. Biochemical sedimentary rocks are formed from the remains of plants and animals. These three categories represent different processes of rock formation and provide insight into the environment and conditions in which the rocks were formed.

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  • 16. 

    Clastic sedimentary rocks account for a large percentage of hydrocarbon-producing rocks.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation of fragments of pre-existing rocks, such as sandstone or shale. These rocks have the ability to hold and store hydrocarbons, which are organic compounds that can be converted into fossil fuels like oil and gas. Therefore, it is true that clastic sedimentary rocks account for a large percentage of hydrocarbon-producing rocks.

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  • 17. 

    Chemical sedimentary rocks result from the accumulation of minerals that inorganically precipitate from seawater or lake water.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Chemical sedimentary rocks form when minerals precipitate from seawater or lake water. This process occurs inorganically, meaning it does not involve living organisms. As water evaporates or becomes oversaturated with minerals, these minerals can crystallize and accumulate to form rocks. Examples of chemical sedimentary rocks include limestone, gypsum, and rock salt. Therefore, the statement "Chemical sedimentary rocks result from the accumulation of minerals that inorganically precipitate from seawater or lake water" is true.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following are sub-divisions of a chemical sedimentary rock?

    • A.

      Carbonates

    • B.

      Evaporites

    • C.

      Precipatates

    • D.

      Condensate

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Carbonates
    B. Evaporites
    Explanation
    Carbonates and evaporites are both sub-divisions of a chemical sedimentary rock. Carbonates are formed from the precipitation of carbonate minerals, such as calcite or dolomite, while evaporites are formed when water evaporates and leaves behind dissolved minerals, such as halite or gypsum. These sub-divisions are categorized based on the specific processes and minerals involved in their formation within chemical sedimentary rocks. Precipitates are also a sub-division of chemical sedimentary rocks, as they are formed when dissolved minerals precipitate out of solution. However, condensate is not a sub-division of chemical sedimentary rocks as it refers to a different process of gas condensation rather than the precipitation of minerals.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following are carbonates?

    • A.

      Limestone

    • B.

      Dolomite

    • C.

      Granite

    • D.

      Halite

    • E.

      Gypsum

    • F.

      Anhydrite

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Limestone
    B. Dolomite
    Explanation
    Limestone and dolomite are carbonates because they both contain the carbonate ion (CO3^2-). Limestone is primarily composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), while dolomite contains both calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO3)2). On the other hand, granite is an igneous rock composed of minerals such as quartz, feldspar, and mica, and does not contain carbonates. Halite is a mineral composed of sodium chloride (NaCl) and does not contain carbonates. Gypsum and anhydrite are both minerals composed of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and also do not contain carbonates.

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  • 20. 

    Gypsum and anhydrite do not form hydrocarbon reservoirs but they make excellent seals.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Gypsum and anhydrite are types of evaporite minerals that are commonly found in sedimentary rocks. These minerals have low porosity and permeability, which means they do not have the ability to store or transmit hydrocarbons. However, their low permeability also makes them effective seals or barriers, preventing the migration of hydrocarbons from one reservoir to another. Therefore, while gypsum and anhydrite may not be suitable for hydrocarbon reservoirs, they can still play a crucial role in the containment of hydrocarbons within a reservoir.

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  • 21. 

    Most shales are deposited in very deep marine waters.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that are typically formed from the accumulation of clay and silt particles. These particles settle in quiet and low-energy environments, such as deep marine waters, where there is minimal disturbance from waves and currents. The slow deposition and compaction of these particles over time result in the formation of shale. Therefore, it is true that most shales are indeed deposited in very deep marine waters.

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  • 22. 

    Limestones usually form in much _________ marine waters or lakes

    • A.

      Shallower

    • B.

      Deeper

    Correct Answer
    A. Shallower
    Explanation
    Limestones usually form in much shallower marine waters or lakes because the formation of limestone requires the accumulation of calcium carbonate from the remains of marine organisms such as coral, shells, and algae. These organisms thrive in shallow waters where sunlight can penetrate, allowing for photosynthesis and the growth of calcium carbonate-producing organisms. Deeper waters tend to have lower levels of sunlight and less availability of the necessary nutrients, making it less conducive for the formation of limestone.

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  • 23. 

    Evaporites precipitate in very arid locations like deserts or near coastlines where there is little rainfall.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Evaporites are minerals that form when water evaporates and leaves behind dissolved salts. These salts tend to precipitate in areas with high evaporation rates and low rainfall, such as deserts or near coastlines. In these arid locations, the intense heat and dry conditions cause water to evaporate quickly, leaving behind concentrated solutions of dissolved salts. Over time, these concentrated solutions become saturated and the salts begin to crystallize and precipitate out of the water. Therefore, the statement "Evaporites precipitate in very arid locations like deserts or near coastlines where there is little rainfall" is true.

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  • 24. 

    Sandstones are deposited in a wide variety of environments such as 

    • A.

      Rivers

    • B.

      Beaches

    • C.

      Deltas

    • D.

      Deserts

    • E.

      Deep marine waters

    • F.

      Lakes

    • G.

      Shallow marine waters

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Rivers
    B. Beaches
    C. Deltas
    Explanation
    Sandstones are deposited in rivers, beaches, and deltas because these environments have high energy levels that can transport and deposit sand particles. Rivers carry sand from upstream and deposit it in their channels and floodplains. Beaches are formed by the action of waves that transport and deposit sand along the shoreline. Deltas are formed where rivers meet the sea, and the sediment carried by the river is deposited due to the decrease in energy. Sandstones are not typically deposited in deep marine waters or lakes as the energy levels are usually too low to transport and deposit sand particles.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 30, 2014
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    Taylor
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