Clinical Chemistry 1 Midterm Exam

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Questions were prepared by MPCA of Block 14.
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20 - October - 2016


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    It is used to verify the acceptability of new methods.

    • A.

      Quality Control

    • B.

      Quality Assurance

    • C.

      Method Evaluation

    • D.

      Comparison of Method

    Correct Answer
    C. Method Evaluation
    Explanation
    Method evaluation is the correct answer because it involves the process of assessing and determining the acceptability and effectiveness of new methods. This evaluation helps in verifying whether the new methods meet the required standards and can be implemented in practice. It is an essential step in quality control and quality assurance to ensure that the methods used are reliable, accurate, and efficient.

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  • 2. 

    Insurance of a method to remain valid over time.

    • A.

      Comparison of Method

    • B.

      Method Evaluation

    • C.

      Quality Assurance

    • D.

      Quality Control

    Correct Answer
    D. Quality Control
    Explanation
    Quality control refers to the process of ensuring that a product or service meets the specified quality requirements. In the context of the given question, insurance of a method to remain valid over time can be seen as a part of quality control. By implementing quality control measures, organizations can ensure that their methods and processes remain effective and reliable over time. This involves monitoring and evaluating the performance of the method, identifying any deviations or issues, and taking corrective actions to maintain the desired level of quality.

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  • 3. 

    It is used for monitoring tests performance and QC. It summarize the data generated by the laboratory.

    • A.

      Descriptive Statistics

    • B.

      Inferential Statistics

    • C.

      Differential Statistics

    • D.

      Scientific Analysis

    Correct Answer
    A. Descriptive Statistics
    Explanation
    Descriptive statistics is the correct answer because it involves summarizing and presenting data in a meaningful way. It is commonly used in monitoring test performance and quality control in laboratories. Descriptive statistics provide measures such as mean, median, and standard deviation, which help to understand the central tendency and variability of the data. By summarizing the data, descriptive statistics enable researchers and analysts to gain insights and draw conclusions about the performance and quality of tests in a laboratory setting.

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  • 4. 

    Which does not belong to the group?

    • A.

      Mean

    • B.

      Variance

    • C.

      Median

    • D.

      Mode

    Correct Answer
    B. Variance
    Explanation
    The given options, mean, median, and mode, are all measures of central tendency, while variance is a measure of dispersion. Variance represents how spread out the data is from the mean. Therefore, variance does not belong to the group of measures of central tendency as it measures the variability in the data rather than the central value.

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  • 5. 

    Represents the relationship of all data points to the mean.

    • A.

      Measure of Spread

    • B.

      Measure of Size

    • C.

      Measure of Shape

    • D.

      Measure of Data

    Correct Answer
    A. Measure of Spread
    Explanation
    The measure of spread represents the relationship of all data points to the mean. It provides information about how the data is distributed or spread out around the average value. It helps to understand the variability or dispersion of the data points. A larger measure of spread indicates a wider distribution, while a smaller measure of spread indicates a more concentrated or narrow distribution. Therefore, the measure of spread is used to quantify the extent to which data deviates or varies from the mean.

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  • 6. 

    It is the most used measure of center and refers to the average.

    • A.

      Median

    • B.

      Mode

    • C.

      Mean

    • D.

      Standard Deviation

    Correct Answer
    C. Mean
    Explanation
    The mean is the most commonly used measure of center and refers to the average. It is calculated by summing up all the values in a dataset and dividing it by the number of values. The mean provides a representative value that represents the central tendency of the data, making it a useful measure for analyzing and comparing datasets.

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  • 7. 

    It is the middle point of the data after it has been rank

    • A.

      Median

    • B.

      Mode

    • C.

      Mean

    • D.

      Center

    Correct Answer
    A. Median
    Explanation
    The median is the middle value of a dataset when it is arranged in ascending or descending order. It is the point that divides the data into two equal halves. To find the median, the data needs to be ranked first. Once the data is ranked, the middle value is identified as the median. This measure of central tendency is useful when dealing with skewed data or outliers, as it is not affected by extreme values.

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  • 8. 

    It is the most frequent occurring value in the data set.

    • A.

      Variance

    • B.

      Mean

    • C.

      Median

    • D.

      Mode

    Correct Answer
    D. Mode
    Explanation
    The mode is the most frequently occurring value in a data set. It is the value that appears the highest number of times. This is different from the mean, which is the average value, and the median, which is the middle value when the data set is arranged in order. The mode is useful for determining the most common value or category in a data set.

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  • 9. 

    Which does not belong to the group?

    • A.

      Range

    • B.

      Standard Deviation

    • C.

      Gaussian Distribution

    • D.

      Coefficient of Variation

    Correct Answer
    C. Gaussian Distribution
    Explanation
    The other three options, Range, Standard Deviation, and Coefficient of Variation, are all measures of dispersion or variability in a set of data. Gaussian Distribution, on the other hand, is a probability distribution that represents a continuous random variable. It is not a measure of dispersion, but rather a mathematical function that describes the likelihood of different outcomes occurring in a dataset. Therefore, Gaussian Distribution does not belong to the group of measures of dispersion.

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  • 10. 

    It represents the average distance from the mean.

    • A.

      Standard Deviation

    • B.

      CV

    • C.

      SD

    • D.

      All, except b

    Correct Answer
    D. All, except b
    Explanation
    The statement "It represents the average distance from the mean" is a correct explanation for the answer "All, except b." Standard deviation is a measure of how spread out the values in a data set are from the mean. It calculates the average distance between each data point and the mean. Therefore, the statement accurately describes the concept of standard deviation.

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  • 11. 

    It allows comparing standard deviation with different units/

    • A.

      Coefficient of Variation

    • B.

      Range

    • C.

      Standard Deviation

    • D.

      Gaussian Curve

    Correct Answer
    A. Coefficient of Variation
    Explanation
    The coefficient of variation is a statistical measure that allows for the comparison of standard deviations with different units. It is calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100. This measure is useful when comparing the variability of data sets that have different means or units of measurement. The coefficient of variation provides a standardized way to compare the dispersion of data, making it a valuable tool in statistical analysis.

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  • 12. 

    It represents the extremes of the data.

    • A.

      Median

    • B.

      Limit

    • C.

      Range

    • D.

      Mode

    Correct Answer
    C. Range
    Explanation
    The range is a statistical measure that represents the difference between the highest and lowest values in a data set. It provides information about the spread or variability of the data. By calculating the range, we can identify the extremes of the data, as it includes both the minimum and maximum values. Therefore, the given statement "It represents the extremes of the data" accurately describes the concept of range.

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  • 13. 

    It is a characteristic of a Gaussian or Normal distribution.

    • A.

      Negative skew

    • B.

      Positive skew

    • C.

      Bell curve

    • D.

      Both a and b

    Correct Answer
    C. Bell curve
    Explanation
    A bell curve, also known as a Gaussian or Normal distribution, is a symmetrical probability distribution where the majority of the data is clustered around the mean, resulting in a characteristic bell-shaped curve. It is called a bell curve because when plotted on a graph, the data points create a shape that resembles a bell. The bell curve is characterized by having equal amounts of data on both sides of the mean, resulting in a skewness value of zero. Therefore, the correct answer is "Bell curve."

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  • 14. 

    Approximately 68 percent of the data falls on what part of the curve? 

    • A.

      ± 2 SD

    • B.

      ± 1 SD

    • C.

      ± 3 SD

    • D.

      + 1 SD

    Correct Answer
    B. ± 1 SD
    Explanation
    Approximately 68 percent of the data falls within ± 1 SD of the curve. This is because in a normal distribution, about 68 percent of the data falls within one standard deviation of the mean. Standard deviation measures the spread of data points around the mean, so ± 1 SD encompasses a significant portion of the data.

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  • 15. 

    What is the total area of the Gaussian curve?

    • A.

      95.4%

    • B.

      68.3%

    • C.

      99.7%

    • D.

      100%

    Correct Answer
    D. 100%
  • 16. 

    It is the ability of a method to detect small quantities of an analyte

    • A.

      Clinically Reportable Range

    • B.

      Analytic Sensitivity

    • C.

      Specificity

    • D.

      Analytic Measurement Range

    Correct Answer
    B. Analytic Sensitivity
    Explanation
    Analytic sensitivity refers to the ability of a method to detect small quantities of an analyte. In other words, it measures how well a test can identify and measure low concentrations of a substance. This is an important aspect in clinical diagnostics as it determines the test's ability to accurately detect and quantify small amounts of a specific analyte in a patient's sample.

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  • 17. 

    Ability of a method to detect only the analyte it is designed to determine

    • A.

      Analytic Specificity

    • B.

      Analytic Sensitivity

    • C.

      AMR

    • D.

      CRR

    Correct Answer
    A. Analytic Specificity
    Explanation
    Analytic specificity refers to the ability of a method to detect only the analyte it is designed to determine. This means that the method should not produce false positive or false negative results for other substances present in the sample. It is an important characteristic of analytical methods as it ensures accurate and reliable identification and quantification of the target analyte. Analytic sensitivity, on the other hand, refers to the ability of a method to detect low concentrations of the analyte. AMR and CRR are not relevant to the given explanation.

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  • 18. 

    Ability of a method to detect only the analyte of interest.

    • A.

      Analytic Sensitivity

    • B.

      Specificity

    • C.

      CRR

    • D.

      AMR

    Correct Answer
    B. Specificity
    Explanation
    Specificity refers to the ability of a method to accurately detect only the analyte of interest, without any interference from other substances. In other words, a highly specific method will not produce false positive results by mistakenly detecting other substances as the analyte. This is an important characteristic in analytical methods as it ensures that the results obtained are reliable and accurate for the specific analyte being measured.

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  • 19. 

    Range of analyte concentrations that can be directly measured without dilution or concentration.

    • A.

      Limit of Detection

    • B.

      Clinically Reportable Range

    • C.

      Analytic Measurement Range

    • D.

      Both b and c

    Correct Answer
    C. Analytic Measurement Range
    Explanation
    The analytic measurement range refers to the range of analyte concentrations that can be directly measured without the need for dilution or concentration. This range is important as it determines the accuracy and reliability of the measurement. The limit of detection, on the other hand, refers to the lowest concentration of an analyte that can be reliably detected but may require further concentration or dilution for accurate measurement. The clinically reportable range is the range of analyte concentrations that are considered clinically significant and can be reported to healthcare providers. Therefore, the correct answer is the Analytic Measurement Range.

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  • 20. 

    Range of analyte that a method can quantitatively report.

    • A.

      Clinically Reportable Range

    • B.

      Analytic Measurement Range

    • C.

      Clinically Important Range

    • D.

      Limit of Detection

    Correct Answer
    A. Clinically Reportable Range
    Explanation
    The clinically reportable range refers to the range of analyte values that a method can accurately and reliably measure and report in a clinical setting. This range is determined based on the method's sensitivity, precision, and accuracy, and is typically defined by the laboratory or regulatory guidelines. It is important for the clinically reportable range to cover the range of analyte values that are clinically relevant and can provide useful information for patient diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

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  • 21. 

    Lowest amount of analyte accurately detected by a method.

    • A.

      Analytic Measurement Range

    • B.

      Clinically Reportable Range

    • C.

      Limit of Detection

    • D.

      Analytic Sensitivity

    Correct Answer
    C. Limit of Detection
    Explanation
    The limit of detection refers to the lowest amount of analyte that can be accurately detected by a method. It is the point at which the analyte signal can be distinguished from the background noise with a certain level of confidence. This parameter is important in analytical chemistry as it determines the sensitivity of the method and its ability to detect low concentrations of the analyte.

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  • 22. 

    What is the difference between the measured value and the mean expressed as a number of SD?

    • A.

      Standard Deviation Index

    • B.

      Standard Deviation Range

    • C.

      Limit of Detection

    • D.

      Clinically Reportable Range

    Correct Answer
    A. Standard Deviation Index
    Explanation
    The Standard Deviation Index (SDI) is a measure that quantifies the difference between a measured value and the mean in terms of the number of standard deviations. It provides a standardized way to express how far away a data point is from the average, taking into account the variability of the data. A positive SDI indicates that the measured value is above the mean, while a negative SDI indicates that it is below the mean. The SDI allows for easy comparison of data points across different datasets and helps to identify outliers or unusual values.

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  • 23. 

    It is the dispersion of repeated measurements about the mean due to analytic error.

    • A.

      Precision

    • B.

      Accuracy

    • C.

      Imprecision

    • D.

      Inaccuracy

    Correct Answer
    C. Imprecision
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Imprecision." Imprecision refers to the dispersion or variability of repeated measurements around the mean. It is caused by analytic errors, which can include random errors, systematic errors, or both. In other words, when measurements are imprecise, they are not consistent or reproducible, indicating a lack of reliability.

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  • 24. 

    It is the difference between a measured value and its true value due to systematic error.

    • A.

      Inaccuracy

    • B.

      Precision

    • C.

      Imprecision

    • D.

      Accuracy

    Correct Answer
    A. Inaccuracy
    Explanation
    Inaccuracy refers to the difference between a measured value and its true value caused by systematic error. Systematic errors are consistent and predictable, leading to a consistent deviation from the true value. Inaccuracy is the opposite of accuracy, which refers to the closeness of a measured value to its true value. While precision relates to the consistency and reproducibility of measurements, imprecision refers to the lack of consistency or repeatability in measurements. Therefore, the given correct answer, inaccuracy, accurately describes the situation where a measured value deviates from its true value due to systematic error.

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  • 25. 

    An error which is always in one direction.

    • A.

      Proportional Error

    • B.

      Total Error

    • C.

      Constant Error

    • D.

      Systematic Error

    Correct Answer
    D. Systematic Error
    Explanation
    Systematic error refers to an error that consistently occurs in the same direction, leading to consistent deviations from the true value. Unlike random errors, which can occur in any direction, systematic errors are predictable and can be attributed to a specific cause or flaw in the measurement process. This type of error can be minimized or eliminated through calibration or adjustment of the measurement system.

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  • 26. 

    It is an error in sample direction and magnitude.

    • A.

      Constant error

    • B.

      Proportional Error

    • C.

      Total Error

    • D.

      Latitudinal Error

    Correct Answer
    A. Constant error
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Constant error." A constant error refers to a consistent deviation from the true value in the same direction and magnitude. In other words, it is a systematic error that occurs consistently and does not change with different measurements. This type of error can be caused by factors such as faulty equipment, calibration issues, or human bias. It is important to identify and account for constant errors in order to improve the accuracy and reliability of measurements.

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  • 27. 

    It refers to the error where the magnitude changes as the percent of the analyte present.

    • A.

      Total error

    • B.

      Proportional error

    • C.

      Latitudinal error

    • D.

      Constant error

    Correct Answer
    B. Proportional error
    Explanation
    Proportional error refers to the error in which the magnitude changes in direct proportion to the percent of the analyte present. In other words, as the amount of the analyte increases or decreases, the error also increases or decreases proportionally. This type of error is commonly observed in analytical chemistry, where the accuracy of measurements can be affected by the concentration or amount of the substance being analyzed.

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  • 28. 

    It is an error that varies from sample to sample.

    • A.

      Proportional error

    • B.

      Constant error

    • C.

      Random error

    • D.

      Total error

    Correct Answer
    C. Random error
    Explanation
    Random error refers to the variation in measurements or observations that occurs due to unpredictable and uncontrollable factors. It is an error that is not consistent and can vary from sample to sample. Random errors can be caused by factors such as human error, instrument limitations, or environmental conditions. Unlike systematic errors, random errors cannot be corrected for and are inherent to the measurement process. Therefore, the given answer, "Random error," is the correct explanation for the statement provided.

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  • 29. 

    It is the threshold at which the value is statistically unlikely.

    • A.

      Detection limit

    • B.

      Control test

    • C.

      Proficiency test

    • D.

      Control limits

    Correct Answer
    D. Control limits
    Explanation
    Control limits are used in statistical process control to determine the range within which a process is considered to be in control. They are calculated based on the data collected from the process and represent the upper and lower boundaries that define the acceptable variation in the process. When a value falls outside of the control limits, it suggests that the process is no longer in control and there may be a problem that needs to be addressed. Therefore, the statement "It is the threshold at which the value is statistically unlikely" accurately describes control limits.

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  • 30. 

    These are the materials analyzed for QC purposes.

    • A.

      Sample

    • B.

      Blood analyte

    • C.

      Control material

    • D.

      Plasma

    Correct Answer
    C. Control material
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Control material" because it is stated in the question that these materials are being analyzed for QC purposes. Control materials are substances with known values that are used to monitor the accuracy and precision of analytical measurements. Therefore, it makes sense that control material would be included in the list of materials being analyzed for QC purposes.

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  • 31. 

    It is a graphical representation of observed values of a control material.

    • A.

      Levey-Jennings Chart

    • B.

      Gaussian Distribution

    • C.

      Deming Plot

    • D.

      Both a and c

    Correct Answer
    A. Levey-Jennings Chart
    Explanation
    A Levey-Jennings Chart is a graphical representation of observed values of a control material. It is commonly used in quality control to monitor the performance of laboratory tests and ensure accuracy and precision. The chart plots the control values over time, allowing for the identification of trends, shifts, or outliers in the data. This helps in detecting and correcting any potential issues in the testing process, ensuring reliable and consistent results. The Levey-Jennings Chart is a valuable tool in maintaining the quality and reliability of laboratory testing.

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  • 32. 

    It is a decision criteria to determine if an analytic run is in control.

    • A.

      Clinically Reportable Range

    • B.

      Multirule Procedure

    • C.

      Decisional level

    • D.

      Parametric method

    Correct Answer
    B. Multirule Procedure
    Explanation
    The multirule procedure is a decision criteria used to determine if an analytic run is in control. This procedure involves applying multiple rules or criteria to the data collected during the analytic run to assess its stability and reliability. By using multiple rules, the multirule procedure enhances the accuracy of detecting any potential errors or deviations in the data, ensuring that the analytic run is within an acceptable range and can be reported with confidence.

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  • 33. 

    Statistical test that makes no specific assumption about the distribution of data.

    • A.

      Nonparametric method

    • B.

      Parametric method

    • C.

      Confidence interval

    • D.

      Bias

    Correct Answer
    A. Nonparametric method
    Explanation
    Statistical test that assumes the observed values following gaussian distribution is Parametric method.

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  • 34. 

    It is a method used to validate a particular measurement process.

    • A.

      Confidence interval

    • B.

      Multirule procedure

    • C.

      Specificity

    • D.

      Proficiency test

    Correct Answer
    D. Proficiency test
    Explanation
    Proficiency sample - specimens that have known concentrations of an analyte for the test of interest.

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  • 35. 

    A pair of medical decision points that span the limits of expected results.

    • A.

      Medical decision level

    • B.

      Reference interval

    • C.

      Normal range

    • D.

      Therapeutic range

    Correct Answer
    B. Reference interval
    Explanation
    Normal range - range of results between two medical points
    Therapeutic range - applied to a therapeutic drug

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  • 36. 

    Ability of a test to detect a given disease or condition.

    • A.

      Diagnostic sensitivity

    • B.

      Diagnostic specificity

    • C.

      Clinically important range

    • D.

      Recovery

    Correct Answer
    A. Diagnostic sensitivity
    Explanation
    Diagnostic sensitivity refers to the ability of a test to correctly identify individuals who have a particular disease or condition. It measures the proportion of true positive results, indicating that the test correctly detects the presence of the disease. A higher sensitivity indicates a lower rate of false negative results, meaning that the test is more likely to correctly identify those who have the disease. This is an important characteristic of a diagnostic test as it helps healthcare professionals accurately diagnose and treat patients.

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  • 37. 

    Effect of a compound on the accuracy of detection of a particular analyte.

    • A.

      Interference

    • B.

      Matrix

    • C.

      Spiked

    • D.

      Both b and c

    Correct Answer
    A. Interference
    Explanation
    Interference refers to the effect of a compound on the accuracy of detecting a particular analyte. When there is interference, the presence of another compound can lead to false readings or inaccurate results in the detection of the analyte. This can occur due to chemical reactions, physical interactions, or other factors that disrupt the accuracy of the detection method. Therefore, interference is a crucial consideration in analytical chemistry to ensure reliable and precise measurements.

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  • 38. 

    It is the overall program that ensures that the final results reported by the laboratory are correct.

    • A.

      Quality Control

    • B.

      Method Evaluation

    • C.

      Quality Assurance

    • D.

      Comparison of Methods

    Correct Answer
    C. Quality Assurance
    Explanation
    Quality Assurance is the process that ensures the accuracy and reliability of the final results reported by the laboratory. It involves implementing and maintaining quality control measures, evaluating methods used in the laboratory, and comparing different methods to ensure consistency and accuracy in the testing process. Quality Assurance is essential to ensure that the laboratory's results are correct and reliable, providing confidence in the accuracy of the testing performed.

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  • 39. 

    It is the reference laboratory for clinical chemistry.

    • A.

      Lung Center of the Philippines

    • B.

      National Kidney and Transplant Institute

    • C.

      Research Institute for Tropical Medicine

    • D.

      San Lazaro Hospital

    Correct Answer
    A. Lung Center of the Philippines
    Explanation
    The Lung Center of the Philippines is the correct answer because it is specifically mentioned as the reference laboratory for clinical chemistry. This means that the center is responsible for conducting tests and analysis related to clinical chemistry, which involves the study of chemical and biochemical processes in relation to patient diagnosis and treatment. As the reference laboratory, the Lung Center of the Philippines plays a crucial role in providing accurate and reliable laboratory results for clinical chemistry, making it an important institution in the field of healthcare.

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  • 40. 

    It is the reference laboratory for Hematology.

    • A.

      Research Institute for Tropical Medicine

    • B.

      Lung Center of the Philippines

    • C.

      National Kidney and Transplant Institute

    • D.

      San Lazaro Hospital

    Correct Answer
    C. National Kidney and Transplant Institute
    Explanation
    The National Kidney and Transplant Institute is the correct answer because it is specifically mentioned as the reference laboratory for Hematology. This implies that it is the designated institution responsible for conducting laboratory tests and research related to blood and blood disorders. The other options, Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Lung Center of the Philippines, and San Lazaro Hospital, are not mentioned as reference laboratories for Hematology, making them incorrect choices.

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  • 41. 

    Measures how closely a measured value agrees with the true value.

    • A.

      Inaccuracy

    • B.

      Accuracy

    • C.

      Imprecision

    • D.

      Precision

    Correct Answer
    B. Accuracy
    Explanation
    Accuracy is the correct answer because it refers to how closely a measured value agrees with the true value. It is a measure of how correct or exact a measurement is. Inaccuracy, on the other hand, refers to the lack of accuracy or the degree to which a measurement differs from the true value. Imprecision and precision are not the correct answers as they do not specifically relate to the agreement between a measured value and the true value.

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  • 42. 

    It is the value approximating the true value. The difference between the two values is negligible.

    • A.

      True value

    • B.

      Precision

    • C.

      Accepted True Value

    • D.

      Accuracy

    Correct Answer
    C. Accepted True Value
    Explanation
    The "Accepted True Value" refers to the value that is commonly agreed upon or accepted as the true value in a given context. It may not be the exact true value, but it is considered to be very close to it. The statement suggests that the difference between the accepted true value and the true value is negligible, meaning that they are almost identical. This indicates a high level of precision in the measurement or estimation process.

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  • 43. 

    If 2 consecutive QC results for one level of control are outside ±2SD.

    • A.

      2-2S Rule

    • B.

      1-2S Rule

    • C.

      1-3S Rule

    • D.

      4-1S Rule

    Correct Answer
    A. 2-2S Rule
    Explanation
    The 2-2S Rule states that if two consecutive QC results for one level of control are outside ±2 standard deviations (SD), it indicates a potential problem with the process. This rule helps identify when the process is not performing within acceptable limits and requires investigation and corrective action. It is important to monitor QC results closely and take appropriate measures to maintain the quality of the process.

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  • 44. 

    It is when 10 consecutive control fall on 1 side of the mean.

    • A.

      10-1S Rule

    • B.

      R-4S Rule

    • C.

      1-10S Rule

    • D.

      10x̅ Rule

    Correct Answer
    D. 10x̅ Rule
    Explanation
    The 10x̅ rule refers to a statistical principle where 10 consecutive data points fall on one side of the mean. This rule helps to identify potential outliers or unusual patterns in a dataset. By observing such a trend, it suggests that there may be a significant deviation from the expected behavior, indicating a need for further investigation or analysis.

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  • 45. 

    Which one does not belong in the group?

    • A.

      Mean, median and mode are identical

    • B.

      Distribution is symmetric

    • C.

      Total Area under the Gaussian curve is 1.0

    • D.

      The following are unique characteristics of a Gaussian curve.

    Correct Answer
    D. The following are unique characteristics of a Gaussian curve.
    Explanation
    The given answer is correct because it states that the characteristics listed are unique to a Gaussian curve. The other options do not specifically mention Gaussian curves or their characteristics, making them not belong in the group.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is the reference laboratory for Microbiology and Parasitology?

    • A.

      Lung Center of the Philippines

    • B.

      Research Institute for Tropical Medicine

    • C.

      East Avenue Medical Center

    • D.

      San Lazaro Hospital

    Correct Answer
    B. Research Institute for Tropical Medicine
    Explanation
    The Research Institute for Tropical Medicine is the reference laboratory for Microbiology and Parasitology. This means that it is the designated institution that specializes in conducting research, testing, and providing expertise in the field of microbiology and parasitology. As a reference laboratory, it serves as a central hub for diagnosing and studying various infectious diseases caused by microorganisms and parasites. Its expertise and resources make it an essential institution for accurate and reliable testing and analysis in this field.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following is caused by a systemic error?

    • A.

      2-2S Rule

    • B.

      R-4S Rule

    • C.

      4-1S Rule

    • D.

      1-3S Rule

    • E.

      10x Rule

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. 2-2S Rule
    C. 4-1S Rule
    E. 10x Rule
  • 48. 

    Which of the following rules is violated if more than six consecutive values fall in one side of the mean?

    • A.

      Systemic Error

    • B.

      Shift

    • C.

      Trend

    • D.

      Random Error

    Correct Answer
    B. Shift
    Explanation
    If more than six consecutive values fall in one side of the mean, it suggests a systematic shift in the data. A shift refers to a consistent deviation of the data points from the mean in one direction. This violates the rule of a random error, which would cause the data points to be distributed evenly around the mean without any consistent pattern. A trend refers to a gradual change in the data over time, which is not applicable in this scenario. Therefore, the correct answer is shift.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following rules is violated?

    • A.

      3-1S Rule

    • B.

      1-3S Rule

    • C.

      3S Rule

    • D.

      1S Rule

    Correct Answer
    B. 1-3S Rule
    Explanation
    The 1-3S Rule is violated.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following rule is violated?

    • A.

      R-6S Rule

    • B.

      4-1S Rule

    • C.

      4-RS Rule

    • D.

      R-4S Rule

    Correct Answer
    D. R-4S Rule
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