The heart lies obliquely in the mediastinum.
Its base is directed anteriorly and slightly superiorly.
Its apex is directed posteriorly and slightly inferiorly.
Two-thirds of the heart's mass lies to the right of the midline of the sternum.
Both the fibrous and parietal serous pericardium are supplied by phrenic
It is attached to the sternum, respiratory diaphragm and great vessels of the heart
Its parietal and visceral serous layers form the pericardial cavity
Both the parietal and visceral serous pericardium are supplied by the vagus nerve
Is the pacemaker of the heart
Is known as the parietal pericardium
Is the visceral pericardium
Lines the heart chambers
Endocardium, connective tissue
Area on the 6th ICS
Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
R aortic sinus at the base of ascending aorta
L aortic sinus at the base of ascending aorta
R aortic sinus at the base of the arch of aorta
L aortic sinus at the base of the arch of aorta
The skeleton of the heart
Bundle of His and its branches
5th left ICS near sternal border
Right lower end of the sternum
2nd L ICS near sternal border
2nd R ICS near medial end of the costal cartilage
The heart will stop.
The ventricles will contract, but the atria will stop.
Another part of the heart, possibly the AV node, will become the pacemaker.
The heart will beat faster.
Cardiac muscle has more sarcoplasmic reticulum than skeletal muscle.
Cardiac muscle has a prolonged period of slow repolarization called the plateau phase.
Cardiac muscle has a shorter refractory period than skeletal muscle.
Depolarization of cardiac muscle occurs when K+ and Na+ diffuse into the cell.
Voltage-gated Ca2+ ion channels open
Voltage-gated K+ ion channels open
Voltage-gated Na+ ion channels close
Both B and C
Depolarization of the atria
Repolarization of the atria
Depolarization of the ventricles
Repolarization of the ventricles
Ectopic action potentials in the atria
Damage to the tricuspid valve
Excessive sympathetic stimulation
Excessive parasympathetic stimulation
70 mm Hg
80 mm Hg
120 mm Hg
100 mm Hg
80 mm Hg
60 mm Hg
Force of contraction