Food Science -- Vitamins And Minerals Test

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| By DianeMoroney
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Quizzes Created: 18 | Total Attempts: 5,435
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Food Science Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A deficiency disease in children caused by a lack of vitmain D and characterized by soft, misshapen bones.

    • A.

      Rickets

    • B.

      Osteomalacia

    • C.

      Scurvy

    • D.

      Erythrocyte hemolysis

    Correct Answer
    A. Rickets
    Explanation
    Rickets is a deficiency disease in children that occurs due to a lack of vitamin D. This condition is characterized by soft and misshapen bones. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, which are essential for bone health. A deficiency in vitamin D can lead to impaired bone mineralization, resulting in weakened and deformed bones. Osteomalacia is a similar condition that affects adults, while scurvy refers to a deficiency of vitamin C and erythrocyte hemolysis involves the breakdown of red blood cells.

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  • 2. 

    A vitamin D deficiency disease in adults that causes the bones to become misshapen.

    • A.

      Perricious anemia

    • B.

      Pellagra

    • C.

      Beriberi

    • D.

      Osteomalacia

    Correct Answer
    D. Osteomalacia
    Explanation
    Osteomalacia is a condition characterized by a vitamin D deficiency in adults, leading to the bones becoming misshapen. This condition is caused by a lack of vitamin D, which is essential for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the body. Without adequate levels of these minerals, the bones become weak and soft, resulting in deformities and fractures. Perricious anemia, pellagra, and beriberi are unrelated conditions caused by deficiencies in other vitamins or nutrients, making osteomalacia the correct answer.

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  • 3. 

    A vitamin E deficiency condtion that is sometimes seen in premature babies and is characterized by broken red blood cells, resulting in weakeness and listlessness.

    • A.

      Neural tube damage

    • B.

      Rickets

    • C.

      Erythrocyte hemolysis

    • D.

      Scurvy

    Correct Answer
    C. Erythrocyte hemolysis
    Explanation
    Erythrocyte hemolysis is the correct answer because it refers to the condition of broken red blood cells, which is described in the question. This condition is often seen in premature babies and can result in weakness and listlessness.

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  • 4. 

    The thiamin deficiency dieases, which is characterized by weakness, loss of appetite, irritability, poor arm and leg corrdination, and a tingling throughout the body.

    • A.

      Pellagra

    • B.

      Night blindness

    • C.

      Beriberi

    • D.

      Osteomalcia

    Correct Answer
    C. Beriberi
    Explanation
    Beriberi is a thiamin deficiency disease that is characterized by weakness, loss of appetite, irritability, poor arm and leg coordination, and a tingling sensation throughout the body. This condition occurs due to a lack of thiamin (vitamin B1) in the diet, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system and the conversion of carbohydrates into energy. The symptoms of beriberi can vary from mild to severe and can affect multiple body systems. Treatment involves thiamin supplementation and addressing the underlying cause of the deficiency.

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  • 5. 

    The  niacin defieciency disease, which is characterized by diarrhea and dermititis and can lead to dementia and death.

    • A.

      Pellagra

    • B.

      Night blindness

    • C.

      Erythrocyte hemolysis

    • D.

      Perricious anemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Pellagra
    Explanation
    Pellagra is a niacin deficiency disease that is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea and dermatitis. If left untreated, it can progress to more severe complications like dementia and even death. Therefore, pellagra is the correct answer for the given question.

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  • 6. 

    Vitamins are considered to be nonessential nutrients.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vitamins are actually considered to be essential nutrients. They are required by the body in small amounts for various vital functions, such as growth, development, and maintenance of overall health. The body cannot produce enough vitamins on its own, so they need to be obtained through the diet. Therefore, the statement that vitamins are nonessential nutrients is incorrect.

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  • 7. 

    Provitamins are compunds the body can convert into active forms of vitamins

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Provitamins are substances that can be converted by the body into active forms of vitamins. These compounds are usually found in food and undergo chemical reactions within the body to become biologically active vitamins. This conversion process allows the body to utilize these compounds as essential nutrients. Therefore, the statement "Provitamins are compounds the body can convert into active forms of vitamins" is true.

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  • 8. 

    Vitamin toxicity occurs when daily vitamin needs are not met over an extended period.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vitamin toxicity occurs when daily vitamin needs are exceeded over an extended period, not when they are not met. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 9. 

    With exposure to sunlight, the body can make vitamin D.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Exposure to sunlight allows the body to produce vitamin D because sunlight triggers a chemical reaction in the skin, converting a type of cholesterol into an inactive form of vitamin D. This inactive form is then converted into its active form in the liver and kidneys. Vitamin D is essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth, as it helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus from the diet. Therefore, it is true that the body can make vitamin D with exposure to sunlight.

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  • 10. 

    Milk and milk products are good sources of riboflavin.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Milk and milk products are good sources of riboflavin because they contain a significant amount of this essential nutrient. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, plays a crucial role in energy production, growth, and development. It is involved in various metabolic processes in the body, including the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Since milk and milk products are derived from animals, they naturally contain riboflavin. Regular consumption of these dairy products can help ensure an adequate intake of riboflavin, which is important for maintaining overall health and well-being.

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  • 11. 

    Because pathogenic acid and biotin are found in only a limited number of food sources, deficiencies are fairly common.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the answer being False is that deficiencies of pathogenic acid and biotin are not fairly common because these nutrients are found in only a limited number of food sources. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that deficiencies are fairly common.

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  • 12. 

    Vitamin B6 helps the body make essential amino acids.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vitamin B6 does not directly help the body make essential amino acids. However, it does play a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Vitamin B6 helps convert the amino acid tryptophan into niacin and serotonin, and also aids in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids. Therefore, while it is involved in the metabolism of amino acids, it does not directly make essential amino acids.

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  • 13. 

    Cigarette smoke hinders the body's use of vitamin C.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cigarette smoke contains harmful chemicals that can interfere with the body's ability to absorb and utilize vitamin C. These chemicals can damage cells and tissues, leading to increased oxidative stress and depletion of vitamin C levels. Therefore, it is true that cigarette smoke hinders the body's use of vitamin C.

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  • 14. 

    Research provides evidence that extra vitamin C in the diet will prevent people from getting the common cold.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. While vitamin C is commonly believed to help prevent the common cold, research does not provide conclusive evidence to support this claim. Some studies suggest that vitamin C may help reduce the duration or severity of cold symptoms, but it does not necessarily prevent people from getting the common cold altogether. Therefore, the statement is incorrect.

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  • 15. 

    Natural vitamins are more effective in the body than synthetic vitamins.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. Both natural and synthetic vitamins can be effective in the body. Natural vitamins are derived from whole foods and are often accompanied by other beneficial compounds. However, synthetic vitamins are chemically identical to their natural counterparts and can be just as effective when taken in the appropriate dosage. The body does not differentiate between natural and synthetic vitamins once they are absorbed. Ultimately, the effectiveness of a vitamin depends on factors such as its quality, dosage, and individual needs.

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  • 16. 

    Canned green beans are likely to have higher vitamin content than fresh green beans that are not stored properly.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Canned green beans are likely to have higher vitamin content than fresh green beans that are not stored properly because the canning process helps to preserve the nutrients in the beans. Improper storage of fresh green beans can lead to nutrient loss over time. Canning ensures that the beans are sealed in an airtight container, protecting them from exposure to light, air, and moisture which can degrade vitamins. Additionally, the canning process involves heat treatment which can help to retain the nutrient content of the beans. Therefore, it is likely that canned green beans have higher vitamin content compared to fresh green beans that are not stored properly.

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  • 17. 

    Cutting foods into smaller pieces increases their exposure to vitamin losses.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cutting foods into smaller pieces increases their surface area, which in turn increases their exposure to air and heat. This increased exposure can lead to higher vitamin losses as some vitamins are sensitive to air and heat. Therefore, it is true that cutting foods into smaller pieces can increase their exposure to vitamin losses.

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  • 18. 

    What will eventually happen if a vitamin is missing from the diet?

    • A.

      A craving for rich food sources of the vitamin will develop.

    • B.

      Deficiency symptoms will appear.

    • C.

      The body will adapt to getting alog without the vitamin.

    • D.

      The body will produce the missing vitamin.

    Correct Answer
    B. Deficiency symptoms will appear.
    Explanation
    If a vitamin is missing from the diet, deficiency symptoms will appear. Vitamins are essential nutrients that the body needs in small amounts to function properly. Each vitamin has specific functions in the body, and a deficiency of any particular vitamin can lead to a range of symptoms and health problems. These symptoms can vary depending on the specific vitamin that is lacking, but commonly include fatigue, weakness, impaired immune function, and various other health issues. Therefore, it is important to have a balanced diet that includes all the necessary vitamins to prevent deficiency symptoms.

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  • 19. 

    A deficiency disease caused by an inability to absorb vitamin B12, which is characterized by fatigue;weakness; a red, painful tongue; and a a tingling or burning in the skin

    • A.

      Beriberi

    • B.

      Perricious anemia

    • C.

      Neural tube damage

    • D.

      Osteomalacia

    Correct Answer
    B. Perricious anemia
    Explanation
    Perricious anemia is the correct answer because it is a deficiency disease caused by an inability to absorb vitamin B12. It is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, a red and painful tongue, and tingling or burning in the skin.

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  • 20. 

    Mauricio chooses lightly processed foods and doesn't prepare them often

    • A.

      Good Job, Mauricio!

    • B.

      What the heck were you thinking, Mauricio? Rookie Mistake!

    Correct Answer
    A. Good Job, Mauricio!
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Good Job, Mauricio!" This suggests that Mauricio made a good decision by choosing lightly processed foods and not preparing them often. It implies that this choice is commendable and aligns with healthy eating habits.

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  • 21. 

    Jatavia counts on carrots for her thiamin supply.

    • A.

      Thiamin? Girlfriend, carrots don't have thiamin.

    • B.

      Jatavia, you are brilliant! Carrots are an excellent source of thiamin! And bunny rabbits like them, too!

    Correct Answer
    A. Thiamin? Girlfriend, carrots don't have thiamin.
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Thiamin? Girlfriend, carrots don't have thiamin." This answer is correct because it contradicts the statement made by Jatavia that she counts on carrots for her thiamin supply. The person responding to Jatavia's statement correctly points out that carrots do not contain thiamin.

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  • 22. 

    Saul doesn't look for ways to add sodium to his diet.

    • A.

      Saul, dude, great job -- you don't want to much sodium.

    • B.

      Saul, sodium tastes great, you want to get your fair share!

    Correct Answer
    A. Saul, dude, great job -- you don't want to much sodium.
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that Saul is doing a great job by not wanting too much sodium in his diet. This implies that having excessive sodium can be harmful or unhealthy. The answer also praises Saul for his decision, indicating that it is commendable to be conscious of one's sodium intake.

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  • 23. 

    Knowing that bone development occurs in the teen years, Stephanie takes megadoses of calcium.

    • A.

      Sweetie, you only need to get what you need, too much isn't a good thing.

    • B.

      Way to go Stephanie! You are a nutrition expert!

    Correct Answer
    A. Sweetie, you only need to get what you need, too much isn't a good thing.
    Explanation
    The correct answer emphasizes that taking megadoses of calcium is not necessary and can be harmful. It suggests that getting the right amount of calcium is sufficient for bone development and excessive intake can have negative consequences.

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  • 24. 

    Shay transfers the last few cups of milk to a glass jar to save refrigerator space.

    • A.

      Silly girl! You are losing some vitamins that shouldn't be exposed to light.

    • B.

      Way to be practical! Your mom must be so proud!

    Correct Answer
    A. Silly girl! You are losing some vitamins that shouldn't be exposed to light.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is referring to the fact that by transferring the milk to a glass jar, Shay is exposing the milk to light, which can cause the loss of some vitamins. This suggests that the vitamins in the milk are sensitive to light and can degrade when exposed to it. The statement also uses a sarcastic tone by calling Shay a "silly girl" for not considering this fact.

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  • 25. 

    Jayleen notices that citrus fruits are really expensive this time of year. He buys strawberries and green peppers instead.

    • A.

      Jayleen, Mrs. Moroney and Coach are so proud of you! You paid attention during notes!

    • B.

      Really? Really? Maybe you should have paid attention during notes instead of flirting and texting!

    Correct Answer
    A. Jayleen, Mrs. Moroney and Coach are so proud of you! You paid attention during notes!
  • 26. 

    Sahmirah eats very little meat, so she takes a Vitamin B-12 supplement.  Coach tells her:

    • A.

      "Dang Girl! You obviously know your vitamins! Good Job!"

    • B.

      "Supplements are for losers. You really don't need to take a B-12 vitamin."

    Correct Answer
    A. "Dang Girl! You obviously know your vitamins! Good Job!"
    Explanation
    The answer "Dang Girl! You obviously know your vitamins! Good Job!" is the correct response because Sahmirah is making a wise decision by taking a Vitamin B-12 supplement. Since she eats very little meat, which is a primary source of Vitamin B-12, taking a supplement ensures that she is getting enough of this essential vitamin. The coach's statement that supplements are for losers and Sahmirah doesn't need to take a B-12 vitamin is incorrect and dismissive of Sahmirah's informed choice.

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  • 27. 

    A big fan of Coach's hair and hairline, Bruce Almighty decides to take a supplement to improve his hair. Which one should should he choose?

    • A.

      Biotin

    • B.

      Vitamin C

    • C.

      Vitamin K

    • D.

      Niacin

    Correct Answer
    A. Biotin
    Explanation
    Biotin is a B-vitamin that is known for its role in promoting healthy hair growth. It helps in the production of keratin, a protein that makes up the structure of hair. By taking a biotin supplement, Bruce Almighty can improve the health and strength of his hair, potentially enhancing his hairline as well. Vitamin C and Vitamin K do not specifically target hair health, while niacin is more commonly associated with improving skin health. Therefore, biotin would be the most suitable choice for Bruce Almighty's goal.

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  • 28. 

    Auriell limits foods rich in Vitamin A to avoid getting excessive doses of that nutrient.

    • A.

      Silly girl! You really don't get too much from food, only from supplements.

    • B.

      You are obviously well versed in Vitamin knowledge!

    Correct Answer
    A. Silly girl! You really don't get too much from food, only from supplements.
    Explanation
    The correct answer emphasizes that excessive doses of Vitamin A are not obtained from food but rather from supplements. This implies that Auriell's decision to limit foods rich in Vitamin A is unnecessary as she is unlikely to consume excessive amounts of the nutrient through her diet alone.

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  • 29. 

    When his doctor prescribes antibiotics for a respiratory infection, Dominic adds broccoli and mustard greens to his plate.

    • A.

      Very Smart Dominic! Dark green veggies are powerhouses for a lot of vitamins and minerals.

    • B.

      What were you thinking? You should eat ice cream and frozen yogurt to pamper yourself. Poor Baby!

    Correct Answer
    A. Very Smart Dominic! Dark green veggies are powerhouses for a lot of vitamins and minerals.
    Explanation
    The given answer is correct because dark green veggies like broccoli and mustard greens are indeed rich in vitamins and minerals. These vegetables are known to be packed with nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, and potassium, which can help boost the immune system and support overall health. By adding these vegetables to his plate, Dominic is making a smart choice to support his recovery from the respiratory infection.

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  • 30. 

    Dre'Shianna uses iodized salt.

    • A.

      Great way to avoid goiter!

    • B.

      Salt is salt, it doesn't really matter what kind you use.

    Correct Answer
    A. Great way to avoid goiter!
    Explanation
    Iodized salt is a great way to avoid goiter because goiter is caused by a deficiency of iodine in the diet. Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones, and when there is not enough iodine in the body, the thyroid gland enlarges in an attempt to compensate. By using iodized salt, which is salt that has been fortified with iodine, Dre'Shianna ensures that she is getting enough iodine in her diet, thereby reducing the risk of developing goiter.

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  • 31. 

    Omid notices that when he cut himself chopping carrots it took forever to stop bleeding. He decides to:

    • A.

      Increase his wheat germ, dark greens and salad oils to increase his Vitamin K.

    • B.

      Drink more tomato juice for Vitamin C.

    • C.

      Ask Coach for a candy bar.

    • D.

      Drink more caffeine. The phytochemicals in coffee help staunch the flow of blood.

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase his wheat germ, dark greens and salad oils to increase his Vitamin K.
    Explanation
    Increasing the intake of wheat germ, dark greens, and salad oils will help increase Omid's Vitamin K levels. Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting, and a deficiency in this vitamin can lead to prolonged bleeding. By increasing his consumption of foods rich in Vitamin K, Omid can promote blood clotting and reduce the time it takes for his cuts to stop bleeding. The other options, such as drinking tomato juice for Vitamin C, asking for a candy bar, or consuming more caffeine, do not directly address the issue of blood clotting and are therefore not the correct answer.

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  • 32. 

    Recent discoveries about ________________ in plants show that much remains unknown about the role of nutrients in preventing illness.

    • A.

      Phytochemicals

    • B.

      Vitamins

    • C.

      Minerals

    • D.

      Free radicals

    Correct Answer
    A. Phytochemicals
    Explanation
    Recent discoveries about phytochemicals in plants show that much remains unknown about the role of nutrients in preventing illness. Phytochemicals are naturally occurring compounds found in plants that have been found to have various health benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These compounds are not classified as vitamins or minerals, but they are believed to play a significant role in promoting health and preventing diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. The ongoing research on phytochemicals suggests that there is still much to learn about their specific mechanisms of action and their potential therapeutic uses.

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  • 33. 

    A(n) _____________ is the only type of ailment that can be cured by taking large doses of a vitamin or mineral.

    • A.

      Deficiency disease

    • B.

      Common cold

    • C.

      Long-term illness

    • D.

      Precursor

    Correct Answer
    A. Deficiency disease
    Explanation
    A deficiency disease is the only type of ailment that can be cured by taking large doses of a vitamin or mineral. This is because deficiency diseases occur when the body lacks essential nutrients, and taking large doses of the deficient nutrient can reverse the symptoms and restore proper functioning. In contrast, common colds and long-term illnesses are caused by viruses, bacteria, or other factors that cannot be cured by simply increasing vitamin or mineral intake. Precursors are substances that are converted into active forms in the body and do not directly relate to the concept of curing ailments.

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  • 34. 

    A vitamin A deficiency condition in which the cells in the eyes adjust slowly to dim light, causing night vision to become poor.

    • A.

      Beriberi

    • B.

      Night blindness

    • C.

      Pellagra

    • D.

      Rickets

    Correct Answer
    B. Night blindness
    Explanation
    Night blindness is a condition caused by a deficiency in vitamin A, where the cells in the eyes take longer to adjust to dim light. This leads to poor night vision, making it difficult for individuals to see in low-light conditions. The other options, beriberi, pellagra, and rickets, are unrelated conditions caused by deficiencies in other vitamins and nutrients.

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  • 35. 

    Among the many functions of _________________ are helping the body heal wounds and absorb iron.

    • A.

      Vitamin C

    • B.

      Vitamin D

    • C.

      Thiamin

    • D.

      Vitamin K

    Correct Answer
    A. Vitamin C
    Explanation
    Vitamin C is responsible for various functions in the body, including aiding in the healing of wounds and facilitating the absorption of iron. It is a crucial nutrient that supports the production of collagen, a protein that helps in the formation of new tissue and promotes wound healing. Additionally, vitamin C enhances the absorption of iron from plant-based sources, which is essential for the production of red blood cells and overall iron balance in the body.

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  • 36. 

    ___________________ are often carried by lipoproteins in the blood, along with the lipids in which they are stored.

    • A.

      Fat-soluble vitamins

    • B.

      Water-soluble vitamins

    • C.

      Minerals

    • D.

      Trace minerals

    Correct Answer
    A. Fat-soluble vitamins
    Explanation
    Fat-soluble vitamins are often carried by lipoproteins in the blood, along with the lipids in which they are stored. This means that these vitamins, which include vitamins A, D, E, and K, are transported through the bloodstream in combination with proteins and fats. This is because fat-soluble vitamins are insoluble in water and need to bind with lipids for proper absorption and transportation in the body.

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  • 37. 

    A food that contains a certain vitamin ________________ is a source of that vitamin only after the food is eaten and the vitamin is produced

    • A.

      Precursor

    • B.

      Trace

    • C.

      Source

    • D.

      Niacin

    Correct Answer
    A. Precursor
    Explanation
    A food that contains a certain vitamin precursor is a source of that vitamin only after the food is eaten and the vitamin is produced. This means that the food itself does not contain the vitamin in its active form, but rather contains a compound that can be converted into the active form of the vitamin once it is ingested and processed by the body. In this context, the term "precursor" refers to a substance that can be transformed into another substance, in this case, a vitamin.

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  • 38. 

    __________________ is one of the few nutrients that a strict vegetarian diet cannot supply

    • A.

      Vitamin B-12

    • B.

      Vitamin A

    • C.

      Vitamin C

    • D.

      Vitamin E

    Correct Answer
    A. Vitamin B-12
    Explanation
    Vitamin B-12 is one of the few nutrients that a strict vegetarian diet cannot supply. This is because vitamin B-12 is primarily found in animal products such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy. Vegetarians who do not consume these animal products may be at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Vitamin A, C, and E can be obtained from plant-based sources, making them more accessible for strict vegetarians.

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  • 39. 

    Your body probably makes enough ______________ if you study your food science lesson in a sunny spot a few times a week

    • A.

      Vitamin D

    • B.

      Vitamin A

    • C.

      Vitamin E

    • D.

      Vitamin K

    Correct Answer
    A. Vitamin D
    Explanation
    Exposure to sunlight helps the body produce Vitamin D. Therefore, studying in a sunny spot a few times a week would allow the body to make enough Vitamin D. Vitamin A, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K are not produced by the body in response to sunlight.

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  • 40. 

    While _______________ is thought of mostly as a bone builder, its role in maintaining hearbeat and balancing cell fluids is more important to the body.

    • A.

      Calcium

    • B.

      Phosphorus

    • C.

      Vitamin D

    • D.

      Zinc

    Correct Answer
    A. Calcium
    Explanation
    Calcium is commonly known for its role in building bones, but it also plays a crucial role in maintaining heartbeat and balancing cell fluids in the body. Calcium ions are involved in the electrical conduction system of the heart, regulating the heartbeat and ensuring its proper functioning. Additionally, calcium is essential for maintaining the balance of fluids within cells, which is important for various cellular processes. Therefore, while calcium is often associated with bone health, its functions in maintaining heartbeat and balancing cell fluids are equally significant.

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  • 41. 

    Because it is crucial in forming DNA, ______________ is needed by every living organism.

    • A.

      Niacin

    • B.

      Calcium

    • C.

      Vitamin A

    • D.

      Vitamin E

    Correct Answer
    A. Niacin
    Explanation
    Niacin is needed by every living organism because it is crucial in forming DNA. DNA is the genetic material that carries the instructions for the development, functioning, and reproduction of all living organisms. Niacin plays a vital role in the synthesis and repair of DNA, ensuring the proper functioning and growth of cells. Without niacin, organisms would not be able to effectively produce and maintain their genetic material, leading to various health issues and developmental problems. Therefore, niacin is an essential nutrient required by all living organisms.

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  • 42. 

    A link between nutrient and disease has been proven in all of the following cases EXCEPT

    • A.

      Vitamin A and night blindness

    • B.

      Vitamin D and osteomalacia

    • C.

      Niacin and pellagra

    • D.

      Beta carotene and birth defects

    Correct Answer
    D. Beta carotene and birth defects
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the link between beta carotene and birth defects has not been proven. This means that there is no evidence or scientific research indicating that beta carotene causes birth defects. However, the other options listed in the question have been proven to have a link with the respective diseases or conditions.

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  • 43. 

    In general, the difference between a major and a trace mineral is

    • A.

      Major minerals are more important than trace minerals

    • B.

      Trace minerals occur less often in foods

    • C.

      Trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts. This is because major minerals are required by the body in larger quantities, while trace minerals are only needed in very small amounts. Both types of minerals are important for various bodily functions, but the distinction lies in the quantity required for optimal health.

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  • 44. 

    The basic vitamin molecule has all of the following structures EXCEPT

    • A.

      Hydrocarbons

    • B.

      Fluorocarbons

    • C.

      Individual hysrogen atoms

    • D.

      A carbon-based ring

    Correct Answer
    B. Fluorocarbons
    Explanation
    The basic vitamin molecule is composed of hydrocarbons, individual hydrogen atoms, and a carbon-based ring. However, it does not contain fluorocarbons. Fluorocarbons are compounds that contain carbon and fluorine atoms, and they are not typically found in the structure of a basic vitamin molecule.

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  • 45. 

    One impact on health related to vitamin solubility is _________.

    • A.

      Water-soluble vitamins aew found in fewer sources

    • B.

      Fat-soluble vitamins are more likely to build to excessive levels

    • C.

      Fat-soluble vitamins are more easily destroyed by heat

    • D.

      Water-soluble vitamins must be consumed with fat-soluble vitamins

    Correct Answer
    B. Fat-soluble vitamins are more likely to build to excessive levels
    Explanation
    Fat-soluble vitamins, unlike water-soluble vitamins, can be stored in the body for longer periods of time. This means that if excessive amounts of fat-soluble vitamins are consumed, they can accumulate in the body and reach toxic levels. This can have negative impacts on health as it can lead to vitamin toxicity, which can cause various symptoms and health problems.

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  • 46. 

    The main fuction of vitamins and minerals in the body is to _________.

    • A.

      Speed up processes in the cells

    • B.

      Provide a medium for chemical reactions

    • C.

      Supply reserve energy

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Speed up processes in the cells
    Explanation
    Vitamins and minerals play a crucial role in the body by speeding up processes in the cells. They act as coenzymes or cofactors, which are essential for various chemical reactions to occur efficiently. These reactions are vital for the body to carry out essential functions such as metabolism, energy production, and maintaining overall health. Therefore, the main function of vitamins and minerals is to enhance and facilitate cellular processes, ensuring the proper functioning of the body.

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  • 47. 

    All of the following are examples of known interactions between nutrients EXCEPT

    • A.

      Potassium and sodium balance fluiids in the cells

    • B.

      Magnesium and calcium regulate blood clotting

    • C.

      Iodine and iron make certain hormones

    • D.

      Calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D build teeth

    Correct Answer
    C. Iodine and iron make certain hormones
    Explanation
    The given answer is correct because all of the other options provide examples of known interactions between nutrients. Potassium and sodium balance fluids in the cells, magnesium and calcium regulate blood clotting, and calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D build teeth are all well-known interactions between nutrients. However, iodine and iron do not directly interact to make certain hormones.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 01, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    DianeMoroney
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