Intro To Vitamins And Minerals

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Vitamin Quizzes & Trivia

Basic information on essential vitamins and minerals


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Preformed vitamin a found in animal derived foods

    • A.

      Retinol

    • B.

      Beta carotene

    • C.

      Bioflavinoid

    • D.

      Antioxidant

    Correct Answer
    A. Retinol
    Explanation
    Retinol is the correct answer because it is a form of preformed vitamin A that is found in animal-derived foods. It is a type of vitamin A that is already in its active form and can be readily used by the body. Beta carotene, on the other hand, is a provitamin A compound found in plant-based foods, which the body converts into retinol. Bioflavonoids and antioxidants are not directly related to vitamin A or retinol.

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  • 2. 

    What are the functions of vitamin A?

    • A.

      Promotes vision, cell division, growth of bones and teeth

    • B.

      Promotes vision, blood clotting, metabolism

    • C.

      Helps body use calcium

    • D.

      Produces energy

    Correct Answer
    A. Promotes vision, cell division, growth of bones and teeth
    Explanation
    Vitamin A is essential for promoting vision as it is a key component of the pigment in the retina of the eye. It also plays a role in cell division, helping to maintain healthy skin, mucous membranes, and tissues. Additionally, vitamin A is crucial for the growth and development of bones and teeth.

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  • 3. 

    Signs of vitamin A deficiencies include

    • A.

      Night blindness

    • B.

      Keratinization

    • C.

      Infectious diseases

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all the above" because night blindness, keratinization, and susceptibility to infectious diseases are all signs of vitamin A deficiencies. Night blindness is a condition where a person has difficulty seeing in low light or darkness, and it is a common symptom of vitamin A deficiency. Keratinization refers to the abnormal thickening and hardening of the skin, hair, and nails, which can occur due to a lack of vitamin A. Additionally, vitamin A plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy immune system, and a deficiency can make individuals more prone to infectious diseases. Therefore, all three options mentioned are signs of vitamin A deficiencies.

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  • 4. 

    Where is most of  vitamin A stored in the body

    • A.

      Kidneys

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Fatty tissue

    • D.

      Non of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver
    Explanation
    Vitamin A is primarily stored in the liver. The liver is responsible for storing and releasing various nutrients, including vitamin A. It acts as a reservoir for this fat-soluble vitamin, allowing the body to access it when needed. The liver plays a crucial role in maintaining vitamin A levels in the body, ensuring its availability for various physiological functions such as vision, immune function, and cell growth.

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  • 5. 

    What is beta carotene

    • A.

      A form of vitamin C

    • B.

      Precursor of vitamin A found in plants

    • C.

      Antioxidant

    • D.

      Both B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both B and C
    Explanation
    Beta carotene is a precursor of vitamin A found in plants. It is also an antioxidant. Antioxidants help protect the body from damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals. Beta carotene is converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for vision, immune function, and cell growth. Therefore, the correct answer is both B and C.

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  • 6. 

    What are the fat soluble vitamins

    • A.

      D E A K

    • B.

      C E A B

    • C.

      C A B K

    • D.

      K C B A

    Correct Answer
    A. D E A K
    Explanation
    The fat soluble vitamins are D, E, A, and K. These vitamins are soluble in fats and oils, and are stored in the body's fatty tissues. Vitamin D is important for bone health and immune function, while vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects cells from damage. Vitamin A is essential for vision and skin health, and vitamin K is necessary for blood clotting.

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  • 7. 

    How can vitamins be destroyed?

    • A.

      Freezing

    • B.

      Acidity

    • C.

      Light and heat

    • D.

      B and c only

    Correct Answer
    C. Light and heat
    Explanation
    Light and heat can destroy vitamins. Exposing vitamins to light and heat for prolonged periods can cause them to break down and lose their nutritional value. This is why it is important to store vitamin-rich foods in cool, dark places and to cook them at lower temperatures to preserve their vitamin content. Freezing and acidity, on the other hand, do not typically destroy vitamins.

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  • 8. 

    The availability of vitamins depend on which factors?

    • A.

      Efficiency of digestion and transit time through the GI tract

    • B.

      Other foods consumed at the same time

    • C.

      Method of preparation

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All the above
    Explanation
    The availability of vitamins depends on several factors. The efficiency of digestion and transit time through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a crucial role in determining how well vitamins are absorbed and utilized by the body. Additionally, the presence of other foods consumed at the same time can affect the absorption and bioavailability of vitamins. Furthermore, the method of preparation, such as cooking or processing, can impact the vitamin content in foods. Therefore, all of the above factors contribute to the availability of vitamins.

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  • 9. 

    What does MFP stand for?

    • A.

      More fish please

    • B.

      Meal from plantation

    • C.

      Most famous person

    • D.

      Meat fish poultry

    Correct Answer
    D. Meat fish poultry
    Explanation
    The acronym MFP stands for meat fish poultry. This acronym is commonly used in the food industry to refer to these specific types of protein sources.

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  • 10. 

    What is a coenzyme?

    • A.

      Small organic molecule that links to enzymes usually from vitamin

    • B.

      Helps the enzyme to do its job

    • C.

      Mineral found in the blood

    • D.

      A and b only

    Correct Answer
    D. A and b only
    Explanation
    A coenzyme is a small organic molecule that links to enzymes, usually derived from vitamins. It helps the enzyme to perform its function effectively. This means that options a and b are correct, as they accurately describe the role and nature of a coenzyme.

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  • 11. 

    Which are the water soluble vitamins

    • A.

      Vitamin A

    • B.

      Vitamin C

    • C.

      B vitamins

    • D.

      B and c only

    Correct Answer
    D. B and c only
    Explanation
    The water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C and the B vitamins. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, which means it is not soluble in water. Water-soluble vitamins are easily absorbed by the body and any excess amounts are excreted through urine, so they need to be consumed regularly through the diet.

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  • 12. 

    Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed first into

    • A.

      The blood and then the liver

    • B.

      The lymph and then the blood

    • C.

      The small intestine

    • D.

      The fat cells and then the blood

    Correct Answer
    B. The lymph and then the blood
    Explanation
    Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed first into the lymph and then the blood. This is because fat soluble vitamins are not water soluble and therefore cannot be directly transported in the bloodstream. Instead, they are absorbed into the lymphatic system through the small intestine. From there, they are transported through the lymphatic vessels and eventually enter the bloodstream, where they can be carried to various tissues and organs in the body.

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  • 13. 

    Transportation of fat soluble vitamins require a carrier protein called

    • A.

      Cholesterol

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Niacin

    • D.

      Chylomicron

    Correct Answer
    D. Chylomicron
    Explanation
    Chylomicron is the correct answer because it is a type of lipoprotein that transports fat soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K, in the bloodstream. Chylomicrons are formed in the small intestine after the absorption of dietary fats and are responsible for carrying these vitamins to various tissues in the body. They act as carrier proteins, allowing the vitamins to be transported and utilized by the cells. Cholesterol, DNA, and niacin do not play a direct role in the transportation of fat soluble vitamins.

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  • 14. 

    Another name for vitamin B1 is

    • A.

      Thiamine

    • B.

      Riboflavin riboflavin

    • C.

      Beri beri

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Thiamine
    Explanation
    Thiamine is another name for vitamin B1. It is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in converting food into energy and maintaining a healthy nervous system. Thiamine deficiency can lead to a condition called beriberi, which affects the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Riboflavin, on the other hand, is vitamin B2 and is not synonymous with thiamine. Therefore, the correct answer is thiamine.

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  • 15. 

    Which paralysing disease seen in malnourished people is caused by a defiency in vitamin B1?

    • A.

      Arthereoclorosis

    • B.

      Beri beri

    • C.

      Jaundice

    • D.

      Non of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Beri beri
    Explanation
    Beri beri is a paralyzing disease that is caused by a deficiency in vitamin B1. This disease is commonly seen in malnourished individuals. Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, plays a crucial role in the body's energy metabolism and nerve function. When there is a deficiency of this vitamin, it can lead to symptoms such as muscle weakness, paralysis, and cardiovascular problems. Therefore, beri beri is the correct answer as it is directly linked to a deficiency in vitamin B1.

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  • 16. 

    Functions of vitamin B1 include

    • A.

      Assists in energy metabolism

    • B.

      Plays a role in nerve membranes

    • C.

      Part of a coenzyme

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, has multiple functions in the body. It assists in energy metabolism by helping convert carbohydrates into energy. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of nerve membranes, which is important for proper nerve function. Additionally, thiamine is a part of a coenzyme called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), which is involved in several enzymatic reactions in the body. Therefore, all of the given options are correct and accurately describe the functions of vitamin B1.

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  • 17. 

    What are some of the food sources of vitamin B1

    • A.

      Pork

    • B.

      Legumes

    • C.

      Sunflower seeds

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all the above" because pork, legumes, and sunflower seeds are all food sources of vitamin B1. Pork is particularly rich in vitamin B1, while legumes and sunflower seeds also contain significant amounts of this vitamin. Therefore, consuming any of these foods can help fulfill the body's requirement for vitamin B1.

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  • 18. 

    Vitamin B2 is involved in metabolism and vision

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, plays a crucial role in metabolism by helping convert food into energy. It is an essential component of various enzyme reactions that are involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Additionally, riboflavin is important for maintaining good vision and overall eye health. It helps protect the cornea and supports the production of antioxidants that are beneficial for the eyes. Therefore, it is accurate to say that vitamin B2 is indeed involved in metabolism and vision.

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  • 19. 

    Signs of vitamin B2 deficiency include cracks and redness at the corners of the mouth

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cracks and redness at the corners of the mouth are indeed signs of vitamin B2 deficiency. Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is essential for maintaining healthy skin and mucous membranes. A deficiency in this vitamin can lead to various symptoms, including cracks and redness at the corners of the mouth, as well as other symptoms like a sore throat, swollen tongue, and dry or scaly skin. Therefore, the statement "signs of vitamin B2 deficiency include cracks and redness at the corners of the mouth" is true.

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  • 20. 

    Vitamin B2 is also known as

    • A.

      Niacin

    • B.

      Thiamine

    • C.

      Riboflavin

    • D.

      Non of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Riboflavin
    Explanation
    Vitamin B2 is commonly known as riboflavin. Niacin is another B vitamin, also known as vitamin B3. Thiamine is vitamin B1. Therefore, the correct answer is riboflavin.

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  • 21. 

    Some sources of riboflavin are

    • A.

      Dairy products

    • B.

      Green leafy vegetables

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all the above" because riboflavin can be found in dairy products, green leafy vegetables, and liver. These sources are rich in riboflavin and can provide the necessary intake of this vitamin.

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  • 22. 

    The synthetic form of folate is called folic acid

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Folic acid is indeed the synthetic form of folate. Folate is a B-vitamin that is naturally found in foods, while folic acid is a man-made form of folate that is often used in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Folic acid is converted into its active form, known as methylfolate, in the body. This active form of folate plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including DNA synthesis and cell division. Therefore, the statement that the synthetic form of folate is called folic acid is true.

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  • 23. 

    Folate helps prevent

    • A.

      Neural tube defects

    • B.

      Heart disease

    • C.

      Some forms of cancer

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Folate is a B vitamin that plays a crucial role in the body's growth and development. It is particularly important during pregnancy as it helps prevent neural tube defects in the developing fetus. Additionally, folate has been found to have a protective effect against heart disease by reducing levels of homocysteine, an amino acid that has been linked to cardiovascular problems. Furthermore, studies have shown that folate intake may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, such as colon and cervical cancer. Therefore, all of the options mentioned in the question are correct, as folate does help prevent neural tube defects, heart disease, and some forms of cancer.

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  • 24. 

    Folate and B12 are closely linked it converts B12 to coenzyme form and b12 converts folate to its active form

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Folate and B12 are indeed closely linked in a metabolic pathway. Folate is converted to its active form by B12, and in turn, B12 is converted to its coenzyme form by folate. This reciprocal relationship between the two vitamins is essential for their proper functioning in various biological processes. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 25. 

    Deficiency of folate can cause this disease of the blood

    Correct Answer
    anemia
    Explanation
    Folate deficiency can lead to a condition called anemia, which is a disease of the blood. Anemia occurs when there is a decrease in the number of red blood cells or a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood. Folate is important for the production and maintenance of red blood cells, and its deficiency can impair the ability of the body to produce healthy red blood cells. This can result in symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath, which are characteristic of anemia.

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  • 26. 

    Which population should be extra careful in making sure they get adequate folate?

    • A.

      Post menopausal women

    • B.

      Old men

    • C.

      Pregnant women

    • D.

      Children

    Correct Answer
    C. Pregnant women
    Explanation
    Pregnant women should be extra careful in making sure they get adequate folate because folate is crucial for the development of the baby's neural tube, which forms the baby's brain and spinal cord. Adequate folate intake can help prevent neural tube defects such as spina bifida. Pregnant women need more folate than the general population to support the rapid growth of the fetus.

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  • 27. 

    This vitamin is rarely found in plant foods but abundant in meat products, vegetarians may become deficient in it due to insufficient intake

    • A.

      Vitamin B12

    • B.

      Folate

    • C.

      Vitamin c

    • D.

      Vitamin B1

    Correct Answer
    A. Vitamin B12
    Explanation
    Vitamin B12 is rarely found in plant foods but abundant in meat products. Since vegetarians do not consume meat, they may have insufficient intake of vitamin B12, leading to a deficiency. This is because plant-based sources of vitamin B12 are limited, making it difficult for vegetarians to meet their recommended intake. Therefore, vitamin B12 is the correct answer.

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  • 28. 

    To proper benefit the body  calcium should be combined with vit B12

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Calcium and vitamin B12 work together to benefit the body. Calcium is important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, while vitamin B12 is necessary for the production of red blood cells and proper nerve function. When taken together, calcium and vitamin B12 can enhance each other's absorption and effectiveness in the body. Therefore, combining calcium with vitamin B12 can help maximize the benefits and ensure that the body is properly benefiting from both nutrients.

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  • 29. 

    This type of nutrient protects other substanstances from being oxidised or destroyed. it becomes oxidised itself

    • A.

      Antioxidants

    • B.

      Vitamins vitamins

    • C.

      Collegen

    • D.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    A. Antioxidants
    Explanation
    Antioxidants are a type of nutrient that protect other substances from being oxidized or destroyed. They work by becoming oxidized themselves, neutralizing harmful free radicals and preventing damage to cells and tissues. Antioxidants are commonly found in vitamins, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, and are essential for maintaining overall health and preventing oxidative stress-related diseases.

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  • 30. 

    Water plays many roles in body functions check as many as are applicable

    • A.

      Carries nutrients and waste products

    • B.

      Helps form structure of large molecules

    • C.

      Participates in chemical reaction

    • D.

      Lubricant

    • E.

      Temperature regulation

    • F.

      Blood volume control

    • G.

      Contributes 60% of human body weight

    • H.

      Provides energy to the body

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Carries nutrients and waste products
    B. Helps form structure of large molecules
    C. Participates in chemical reaction
    D. Lubricant
    E. Temperature regulation
    F. Blood volume control
    G. Contributes 60% of human body weight
    Explanation
    Water plays many roles in body functions. It carries nutrients and waste products, helping in the transportation of essential substances and the removal of waste from cells. It also helps in the formation of the structure of large molecules, such as proteins and carbohydrates. Water participates in chemical reactions, serving as a solvent and a medium for metabolic processes. It acts as a lubricant, facilitating the movement of joints and organs. Water also plays a role in temperature regulation, as it helps in maintaining body temperature through sweating and evaporation. It contributes to blood volume control, ensuring proper circulation. Additionally, water makes up approximately 60% of the human body weight, highlighting its importance in overall bodily functions.

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  • 31. 

    Which part of the brain initiates drinking and regulates thirst?

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Cortex

    • C.

      Pituitary gland

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is responsible for initiating drinking and regulating thirst. It contains specialized cells that detect changes in the body's fluid levels and send signals to increase or decrease thirst accordingly. This region of the brain also controls the release of hormones that regulate water balance in the body. The cortex, which is responsible for higher cognitive functions, and the pituitary gland, which regulates hormone production, do not have direct involvement in initiating drinking or regulating thirst. Therefore, the correct answer is the hypothalamus.

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  • 32. 

    The organ which regulates homeostasis or balance of water in the body is the

    • A.

      Heart

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Kidneys

    • D.

      Spleen

    Correct Answer
    C. Kidneys
    Explanation
    The kidneys are responsible for regulating the balance of water in the body through a process called osmoregulation. They filter waste products and excess water from the blood, producing urine which helps to maintain the body's fluid balance. The kidneys also play a crucial role in maintaining the body's electrolyte levels and blood pressure. Therefore, the kidneys are the organ that regulates homeostasis or balance of water in the body.

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  • 33. 

    The body derives water from these sources

    • A.

      Water and other beverages

    • B.

      Fruits and vegetables

    • C.

      Metabolism processes

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All the above
    Explanation
    The body derives water from all the mentioned sources: water and other beverages, fruits and vegetables, and metabolism processes. Water and other beverages provide direct hydration, while fruits and vegetables contain high water content that contributes to the body's water intake. Additionally, metabolism processes also produce water as a byproduct, which adds to the body's water supply. Therefore, all the mentioned sources contribute to the body's water intake.

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  • 34. 

    The body requires ..........  ml of water as urine to carry waste of metabolism

    • A.

      1000 ml

    • B.

      300 ml

    • C.

      400 ml

    • D.

      500 ml

    Correct Answer
    D. 500 ml
    Explanation
    The body requires 500 ml of water as urine to carry waste of metabolism. This amount is necessary to flush out toxins and waste products from the body through the urinary system. It is important to maintain proper hydration to ensure the kidneys can effectively remove waste and maintain overall health.

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  • 35. 

    From which organs can water loss occur

    • A.

      Lungs, kidneys,

    • B.

      A and c only

    • C.

      Skin colon

    • D.

      Stomach, eyes

    Correct Answer
    B. A and c only
    Explanation
    Water loss can occur from the lungs and kidneys. The lungs are responsible for excreting water vapor during respiration, while the kidneys regulate water balance in the body by filtering waste products and excess water from the blood to produce urine. Therefore, water loss can occur through the process of breathing and urine production, making options "a and c only" the correct answer.

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  • 36. 

    What are electrolytes?

    • A.

      Positively charged proteins

    • B.

      Biodegradable organic compounds

    • C.

      A salt that dissolves in water and into charged particles

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A salt that dissolves in water and into charged particles
    Explanation
    Electrolytes are substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water. They are typically salts, such as sodium chloride or potassium phosphate, that dissociate into charged particles called ions. These ions can carry electrical current through the solution. Positively charged proteins and biodegradable organic compounds are not electrolytes as they do not dissolve in water and do not dissociate into ions. Therefore, the correct answer is "a salt that dissolves in water and into charged particles."

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  • 37. 

    Minerals are organic compounds that maintain their identity and are not changed by heat acid or light

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because minerals are inorganic compounds, not organic compounds. Inorganic compounds do not contain carbon, while organic compounds do. Additionally, minerals can be changed by heat, acid, or light, such as through chemical reactions or physical changes in their structure. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 38. 

    Body cells cannot move water they need minerals to move water in and out of cells

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Body cells do not have the ability to move water on their own. They rely on minerals, such as electrolytes, to facilitate the movement of water in and out of cells. These minerals help to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes within the cells, ensuring proper cell function and hydration. Therefore, the statement that body cells cannot move water without minerals is true.

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  • 39. 

    Electrolytes carry either postively  charges called anion or negatively charged ions called cations

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Electrolytes carry both positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions. Therefore, the statement is incorrect.

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  • 40. 

    Positively charged ions are known as

    • A.

      Cations

    • B.

      Current

    • C.

      Anions

    • D.

      Volts

    Correct Answer
    A. Cations
    Explanation
    Positively charged ions are known as cations. This is because cations are formed when an atom loses one or more electrons, resulting in a net positive charge. These ions are attracted to negatively charged particles and are involved in various chemical reactions and processes. An example of a cation is the sodium ion (Na+), which forms when a sodium atom loses one electron.

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  • 41. 

    Negatively charged ions are known as

    • A.

      Cations

    • B.

      Current

    • C.

      Anions

    • D.

      Volts

    Correct Answer
    C. Anions
    Explanation
    Anions are negatively charged ions. They are formed when an atom gains one or more electrons. This results in an overall negative charge on the ion. Cations, on the other hand, are positively charged ions formed when an atom loses one or more electrons. Volts and current are not relevant to the question as they are units of measurement for electric potential and electric current respectively.

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  • 42. 

    Risk factors for salt sensitivity are

    • A.

      Black

    • B.

      Over 20

    • C.

      Parent with HTN

    • D.

      Obesity

    • E.

      Diabetes

    • F.

      Osteosporosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Black
    C. Parent with HTN
    D. Obesity
    E. Diabetes
    Explanation
    The risk factors for salt sensitivity are being black, having a parent with hypertension (HTN), obesity, and diabetes. These factors have been found to contribute to an individual's sensitivity to salt, which can lead to higher blood pressure levels. Being black, having a family history of hypertension, being overweight or obese, and having diabetes are all associated with an increased risk of developing high blood pressure. Therefore, individuals with these risk factors should be cautious about their salt intake to manage their blood pressure effectively.

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  • 43. 

    Increased sodium intakes leaches calcium from bones

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Increased sodium intakes can lead to the leaching of calcium from bones. This is because when there is an excessive amount of sodium in the body, the kidneys need to work harder to eliminate it. In order to do so, the kidneys excrete more calcium, which can result in a decrease in calcium levels in the bones. This can ultimately lead to weakened bones and an increased risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, the statement "increased sodium intakes leaches calcium from bones" is true.

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  • 44. 

    The roles of sodium in the body include

    • A.

      Helps to move water through cells

    • B.

      Maintains acid base volume of blood

    • C.

      Nerve transmission

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All the above
    Explanation
    Sodium plays multiple roles in the body. Firstly, it helps to move water through cells, which is essential for proper hydration and maintaining the balance of fluids in the body. Secondly, it is involved in maintaining the acid-base volume of blood, which is crucial for maintaining the body's pH balance. Lastly, sodium is also necessary for nerve transmission, as it helps in generating and transmitting electrical signals in the nervous system. Therefore, all the given options are correct, as they accurately describe the roles of sodium in the body.

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  • 45. 

    Which mineral is the most abundant in the body

    • A.

      Potassium

    • B.

      Calcium

    • C.

      Iron

    • D.

      Zinc

    Correct Answer
    B. Calcium
    Explanation
    Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body because it plays a crucial role in many bodily functions. It is essential for maintaining strong bones and teeth, as well as for proper muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. Calcium is also involved in regulating hormone secretion and cell signaling. The body tightly regulates calcium levels to ensure its availability for these vital functions.

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  • 46. 

    Only ..... % of calcium consumed is absorbed by the body

    • A.

      25%

    • B.

      30%

    • C.

      50%

    • D.

      45%

    Correct Answer
    A. 25%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 25%. This means that only a quarter of the calcium that is consumed is actually absorbed by the body. The remaining 75% is not absorbed and is excreted. This low absorption rate highlights the importance of consuming enough calcium-rich foods to meet the body's needs, as a large portion of it is not utilized by the body.

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  • 47. 

    Factors that decrease absorption of calcium

    • A.

      Increased protein and salt intake

    • B.

      Vitamin D deficiency

    • C.

      High phosphorus diet

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All the above
    Explanation
    The factors that decrease absorption of calcium include increased protein and salt intake, vitamin D deficiency, and a high phosphorus diet. Increased protein and salt intake can lead to an increase in calcium excretion through urine, while vitamin D deficiency reduces the body's ability to absorb calcium from the intestines. A high phosphorus diet can also interfere with calcium absorption. Therefore, all of the above factors can contribute to a decrease in calcium absorption.

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  • 48. 

    Calcium deficency can cause

    • A.

      Beri beri

    • B.

      Osteosporosis

    • C.

      B and d only

    • D.

      Tetany

    Correct Answer
    C. B and d only
    Explanation
    Calcium deficiency can cause osteoporosis, which is a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. It can also lead to tetany, which is a condition characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms. Beriberi, on the other hand, is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1), not calcium. Therefore, the correct answer is b and d only, as calcium deficiency can cause osteoporosis and tetany.

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  • 49. 

    Blood carrying compound that carries oxygen in the blood

    • A.

      Myoglobin

    • B.

      Mucosal ferratin

    • C.

      Iron

    • D.

      Hemoglobin

    Correct Answer
    D. Hemoglobin
    Explanation
    Hemoglobin is the correct answer because it is a blood carrying compound that carries oxygen in the blood. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and binds to oxygen in the lungs, transporting it to tissues throughout the body. This allows for the delivery of oxygen to cells and the removal of carbon dioxide. Myoglobin is a similar compound found in muscle tissue, but it is not responsible for carrying oxygen in the blood. Mucosal ferratin is a protein involved in iron storage, and iron is a mineral necessary for the production of hemoglobin.

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  • 50. 

    Blood carrying compound that carries oxygen to the muscles

    • A.

      Myoglobin

    • B.

      Mucosal ferratin

    • C.

      Iron

    • D.

      Hemoglobin

    Correct Answer
    A. Myoglobin
    Explanation
    Myoglobin is a blood carrying compound that carries oxygen to the muscles. It is a protein found in muscle cells and is responsible for storing and releasing oxygen as needed during muscle contraction. Unlike hemoglobin, which is found in red blood cells and carries oxygen throughout the body, myoglobin specifically delivers oxygen to the muscles. Mucosal ferritin and iron are not directly involved in carrying oxygen to the muscles.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 26, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Malle057
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