Tumor Markers Quiz (March 24, 2020)

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APRIL ANGELES
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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 3,970
Questions: 20 | Attempts: 3,973

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Tumor Markers Quiz (March 24, 2020) - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The learning objectives in studying tumor markers except:

    • A.

      Know the ideal characteristics of a tumor marker

    • B.

      Understand the role of tumor markers for diagnosis and management of patients with cancer

    • C.

      Know the emerging technologies for tumor markers

    • D.

      Understand the role of tumor markers for therapeutic selection

    • E.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the Above
    Explanation
    All of the above mentioned choices are our learning objectives in studying tumor markers

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  • 2. 

    How do we diagnose cancer today?

    • A.

      Chemotherapy

    • B.

      Blood Tests

    • C.

      Surgery

    • D.

      Radiation Therapy

    Correct Answer
    B. Blood Tests
    Explanation
    Blood tests aids in the diagnosis of cancer nowadays, along with physical examination, biopsy and CT scan.

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  • 3. 

    The characteristics of an ideal tumor marker:

    • A.

      Non specificity for a single type of cancer

    • B.

      High sensitivity and specificity for cancerous growth

    • C.

      Heterogeneous (i.e., minimal post-translational modifications)

    • D.

      Long half-life in circulation

    Correct Answer
    B. High sensitivity and specificity for cancerous growth
    Explanation
    The following are the characteristics of an ideal tumor marker:

    Specificity for a single type of cancer
    High sensitivity and specificity for cancerous growth
    Correlation of marker level with tumor size
    Homogeneous (i.e., minimal post-translational modifications)
    Short half-life in circulation

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  • 4. 

    Elevated in pregnancy, liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis, GI tumors)

    • A.

      AFP

    • B.

      CEA

    • C.

      CA 125

    • D.

      CA 15-3

    Correct Answer
    A. AFP
    Explanation
    AFP stands for alpha-fetoprotein, which is a protein produced by the liver of a developing fetus. In pregnant women, elevated levels of AFP can indicate certain liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and GI tumors. Therefore, AFP is a relevant marker to monitor and diagnose liver diseases during pregnancy. CEA, CA 125, and CA 15-3 are not specifically associated with liver diseases in pregnancy, making AFP the correct answer.

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  • 5. 

    Elevated in breast, pancreatic, GI, and lung cancer

    • A.

      CA 15-3

    • B.

      CEA

    • C.

      AFP

    • D.

      CA-125

    Correct Answer
    B. CEA
    Explanation
    CEA stands for carcinoembryonic antigen. It is a protein that is normally produced during fetal development, but its production decreases after birth. Elevated levels of CEA can be found in various types of cancer, including breast, pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and lung cancer. Therefore, CEA is a useful tumor marker for detecting and monitoring these types of cancer.

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  • 6. 

    PSA range that is considered low risk:

    • A.

      0-4 ng/ml

    • B.

      4-10 ng/ml

    • C.

      >10 ng/ml

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. 0-4 ng/ml
    Explanation
    Total PSA ranges:
    0-4 ng/mL = Low risk of PCA (22% positive)
    4-10 ng/mL = diagnostic gray zone (PCA & BPH)
    >10 ng/mL = 40-50% with PCA

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  • 7. 

    Gene amplification/over expression occurs in 30% of patients & correlates with aggressive disease & shortened survival

    • A.

      HER-2/neu

    • B.

      KRAS

    • C.

      BCR-ABL

    • D.

      EGFR

    Correct Answer
    A. HER-2/neu
    Explanation
    Gene amplification or overexpression refers to an increase in the number of copies or the level of expression of a particular gene. In this case, HER-2/neu is the correct answer because it is known to undergo amplification or overexpression in 30% of patients. This amplification is associated with aggressive disease and shortened survival, indicating that HER-2/neu plays a significant role in the progression and prognosis of the disease.

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  • 8. 

    Which technique is most useful for detecting gene duplication and deletions?

    • A.

      Immunohistochemistry

    • B.

      Comparative genomic hybridization

    • C.

      Fluorescence in situ hybridization

    • D.

      Real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Correct Answer
    B. Comparative genomic hybridization
    Explanation
    CGH arrays are performed on microchips.

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  • 9. 

    High sensitivity PSA assays are useful for:

    • A.

      Early detection of disease recurrence after  prostatectomy

    • B.

      Differentiation between benign prostatic hypertrophy  and prostate cancer

    • C.

      Differentiation between aggressive vs. non-  aggressive disease

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    High sensitivity PSA assays are useful for all of the above purposes because they can detect very low levels of PSA in the blood. This makes them effective for early detection of disease recurrence after prostatectomy, as even a small increase in PSA levels can indicate the presence of cancer cells. Additionally, high sensitivity PSA assays can help differentiate between benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer, as the latter typically results in higher PSA levels. Lastly, these assays can also aid in distinguishing between aggressive and non-aggressive disease, as aggressive prostate cancer often leads to higher PSA levels.

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  • 10. 

    Onco fetal antigen/s

    • A.

      CEA

    • B.

      AFP

    • C.

      CA-125

    • D.

      A and C

    • E.

      A and B

    Correct Answer
    E. A and B
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A and B. Onco fetal antigens are substances that are produced by certain tumors and are also found in the developing fetus. CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) are examples of onco fetal antigens. CA-125 is not an onco fetal antigen. Therefore, option A and B are correct as both CEA and AFP are onco fetal antigens.

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  • 11. 

    Prolactin is an example of which type of tumor marker?

    • A.

      Receptor

    • B.

      Protein

    • C.

      Enzyme

    • D.

      Hormone

    Correct Answer
    D. Hormone
    Explanation
    Prolactin is a hormone that is produced by the pituitary gland and plays a crucial role in lactation and reproductive function. It is considered as a tumor marker because elevated levels of prolactin in the blood can indicate the presence of a prolactinoma, which is a type of pituitary tumor. Therefore, the correct answer is hormone.

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  • 12. 

    Mutations/translocations are examples of genetic changes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mutations and translocations are indeed examples of genetic changes. Mutations refer to changes in the DNA sequence, which can result in altered proteins or genetic traits. Translocations, on the other hand, involve the rearrangement of genetic material between two non-homologous chromosomes. Both of these processes can lead to variations in the genetic information, potentially resulting in different phenotypic traits or diseases. Therefore, the statement is correct.

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  • 13. 

    Monitor for disease recurrence or progression (most widely  used function) is one of the roles of tumor markers

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    One of the roles of tumor markers is to monitor for disease recurrence or progression. Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the blood, urine, or tissues of some patients with cancer. They are often used to help detect, diagnose, and monitor the response to treatment of certain types of cancer. Monitoring for disease recurrence or progression is a widely used function of tumor markers, as it helps healthcare professionals track the progress of the disease and make informed decisions about further treatment options.

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  • 14. 

     ________ is considered a Germ cell tumor.

    Correct Answer
    AFP
    Explanation
    AFP stands for alpha-fetoprotein, which is a protein produced by the liver and yolk sac of a developing fetus. It is normally found in high levels in the blood of a developing fetus, but the levels decrease significantly after birth. Elevated levels of AFP in adults can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer, including germ cell tumors. Therefore, AFP is considered a germ cell tumor marker and is used in diagnosing and monitoring these types of tumors.

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  • 15. 

    ________ is elevated in smokers and elderly.

    Correct Answer
    CEA
    Explanation
    CEA stands for carcinoembryonic antigen, which is a protein that is commonly found in the blood of smokers and elderly individuals at elevated levels. CEA levels can be used as a marker for certain types of cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. Smoking is known to increase the production of CEA, and as individuals age, their CEA levels naturally tend to rise. Therefore, the elevated levels of CEA in smokers and elderly individuals can be attributed to the effects of smoking and the aging process.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is indicative of a positive result for Her-2/neu using immunohistochemistry?

    • A.

      Option 1

    • B.

      Option 2

    Correct Answer
    A. Option 1
    Explanation
    A positive result for Her-2/neu using immunohistochemistry would indicate the presence of the Her-2/neu protein in the tissue sample being tested. This could suggest that the patient has an overexpression of the Her-2/neu gene, which is associated with more aggressive forms of breast cancer. Option 1 is therefore indicative of a positive result because it suggests the presence of the protein.

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  • 17. 

    A method of comparing differences in DNA copy  number between tests (e.g. tumor) and  reference samples

    • A.

      MRNA Microarrays

    • B.

      Comparative genomic hybridization

    Correct Answer
    B. Comparative genomic hybridization
    Explanation
    Comparative genomic hybridization is a method used to compare differences in DNA copy number between test samples (such as tumors) and reference samples. It involves labeling DNA from both samples with different fluorescent dyes and then hybridizing them to a microarray. The microarray contains probes that represent different regions of the genome. By comparing the intensity of the fluorescent signals, one can determine if there are any gains or losses in DNA copy number in the test sample compared to the reference sample. This technique is commonly used in cancer research to identify genetic alterations associated with tumor development and progression.

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  • 18. 

    Norepinephrine is an example of which type of tumor marker?

    • A.

      Metabolite

    • B.

      Enzyme

    • C.

      Hormone

    • D.

      Protein

    Correct Answer
    A. Metabolite
    Explanation
    Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter and hormone that is produced and released by the adrenal glands. It functions as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter in the body. As a tumor marker, norepinephrine can be used to detect certain types of tumors, particularly neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors can produce excessive amounts of norepinephrine, which can be measured in the blood or urine as a metabolite. Therefore, norepinephrine is an example of a metabolite tumor marker.

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  • 19. 

     ________, a tumor marker is considered as a normal protein.

    Correct Answer
    Thyroglobulin
    Explanation
    Thyroglobulin is considered a normal protein and a tumor marker because it is produced by the thyroid gland and is involved in the production of thyroid hormones. In healthy individuals, thyroglobulin levels are typically low. However, in cases of thyroid cancer, thyroglobulin levels can be elevated, making it a useful marker for detecting and monitoring the disease. Therefore, thyroglobulin is both a normal protein and a tumor marker.

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  • 20. 

    CA 15-3

    • A.

      Colorectal

    • B.

      Ovarian

    • C.

      Breast 

    • D.

      Pancreatic

    Correct Answer
    C. Breast 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Breast because CA 15-3 is a tumor marker commonly used to monitor breast cancer. It is a blood test that measures the level of a protein called CA 15-3, which is often elevated in breast cancer patients. This marker is particularly useful for tracking the progression of the disease and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment. While CA 15-3 can also be elevated in other types of cancer, such as ovarian and pancreatic, it is most commonly associated with breast cancer. Therefore, the correct answer is Breast.

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