Preliminary Examination In Elective 2

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Preliminary Examination In Elective 2 - Quiz

AKLAN POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE
COLLEGE OF NURSING
​​​1ST SEMESTER S. Y 2020-2021
PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION IN ELECTIVE II


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    An 88-year-old retired school principal who lives alone has neighbors who believe his home is dark, dirty,  smelly, and without modern conveniences. The neighborhood children think he is a “crazy old man.” What does this describe?

    • A.

      Racism

    • B.

      Sexism

    • C.

      Ageism

    • D.

      Patriotism

    • E.

      Option 5

    Correct Answer
    C. Ageism
    Explanation
    This scenario describes ageism, which is the prejudice or discrimination against individuals based on their age. The neighbors and children hold negative stereotypes about the 88-year-old retired school principal solely because of his age. They perceive his home as dark, dirty, smelly, and lacking modern conveniences, and label him as a "crazy old man." This demonstrates a biased and discriminatory attitude towards older people, which is characteristic of ageism.

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  • 2. 

    Which statement reflects respect for people who are older?

    • A.

      Getting old is a hopeless downward spiral toward death.

    • B.

      As people get older, they become very self-centered.

    • C.

      Older people maintain unique and individual characteristics.

    • D.

      Older people become very rigid and are unable to learn new things.

    Correct Answer
    C. Older people maintain unique and individual characteristics.
    Explanation
    The statement "Older people maintain unique and individual characteristics" reflects respect for people who are older because it acknowledges their individuality and recognizes that they possess unique qualities that make them different from others. This statement values and appreciates the diversity and experiences that come with age, rather than making negative generalizations or assumptions about older individuals.

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  • 3. 

     Normal physiological aging is

    • A.

       A predictable and uniform process

    • B.

      Reflective of individual diversity

    • C.

      Accompanied by extreme mood swings and predictable depression

    • D.

       Primarily related to chronic disease processes

    Correct Answer
    B. Reflective of individual diversity
    Explanation
    Normal physiological aging is reflective of individual diversity because each person experiences the aging process in their own unique way. Factors such as genetics, lifestyle choices, and overall health can influence how individuals age. Some individuals may experience certain age-related changes earlier or more severely than others, while others may age more slowly or maintain better health. This diversity in the aging process highlights the individuality of each person's journey through aging.

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  • 4. 

    What is LEAST likely to affect the aging process?

    • A.

       Life experiences

    • B.

      Financial resources

    • C.

      Stress management style

    • D.

      Social support system

    Correct Answer
    B. Financial resources
    Explanation
    Financial resources are least likely to affect the aging process because while having financial resources can provide access to better healthcare and lifestyle choices, it does not directly impact the biological process of aging. Aging is primarily influenced by genetic factors, lifestyle choices, and overall health. Life experiences, stress management style, and social support system are more likely to have an impact on the aging process as they can affect mental and emotional well-being, which in turn can influence physical health and the aging process.

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  • 5. 

    The normal aging process is accompanied by

    • A.

      Potential problems in functional ability

    • B.

       Chronic disease processes

    • C.

      Regression from previous social activities

    • D.

      A characteristic depression related to multiple losses

    Correct Answer
    A. Potential problems in functional ability
    Explanation
    As individuals age, they may experience potential problems in functional ability. This can include difficulties with activities of daily living such as dressing, bathing, and mobility. These challenges can arise due to physical changes in the body, such as decreased strength and flexibility, as well as cognitive changes that may impact memory and decision-making abilities. It is important for older adults to receive appropriate support and resources to address these potential problems and maintain their independence and quality of life.

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  • 6. 

     The leading cause of death in older adults is

    • A.

      Stroke

    • B.

      Heart disorders

    • C.

      Cancer

    • D.

      Pneumonia

    Correct Answer
    C. Cancer
    Explanation
    Cancer is the leading cause of death in older adults because it is a complex disease that can affect various organs and systems in the body. It is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells, which can lead to organ failure and ultimately death. Older adults are more susceptible to cancer due to factors such as a weakened immune system, accumulated genetic mutations, and exposure to risk factors over time. Additionally, cancer is often diagnosed at later stages in older adults, making it more difficult to treat effectively.

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  • 7. 

    Which theory is NOT considered to be a psychological theory of aging?

    • A.

      Subcultural theory

    • B.

      Wear and tear theory

    • C.

      Developmental tasks theory

    • D.

      Continuity theory

    Correct Answer
    B. Wear and tear theory
    Explanation
    The wear and tear theory is not considered to be a psychological theory of aging because it focuses on the physical aspects of aging rather than the psychological processes involved. This theory suggests that the body deteriorates over time due to accumulated damage and stress, leading to the aging process. In contrast, psychological theories of aging, such as the subcultural theory, developmental tasks theory, and continuity theory, focus on the psychological changes and adaptations that occur as individuals age.

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  • 8. 

    According to Erik Erikson’s eight stages of life theory, the task of old age is

    • A.

      Integrity vs. Despair

    • B.

      Industry vs. Inferiority

    • C.

      Identity vs. Role Confusion

    • D.

      Generativist vs. Stagnation

    Correct Answer
    A. Integrity vs. Despair
    Explanation
    According to Erik Erikson's eight stages of life theory, the task of old age is Integrity vs. Despair. This stage occurs during late adulthood, typically beginning around the age of 65. During this stage, individuals reflect on their lives and evaluate whether they have lived a meaningful and fulfilling life. Those who have a sense of integrity feel satisfied and accomplished, while those who experience despair may feel regret and a sense of failure. This stage is crucial for individuals to achieve a sense of wisdom and acceptance of their lives.

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  • 9. 

    Which is NOT a characteristic of physiological theories of aging?

    • A.

      Genetics

    • B.

      Nutrition

    • C.

      Personality

    • D.

      Wear and tear of the body

    Correct Answer
    C. Personality
    Explanation
    Physiological theories of aging focus on biological factors that contribute to the aging process. These theories typically consider genetics, nutrition, and wear and tear of the body as important factors that influence aging. However, personality is not typically considered a characteristic of physiological theories of aging. Personality is more closely associated with psychological theories of aging, which focus on the psychological and emotional aspects of the aging process.

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  • 10. 

     What is considered normal aging of the cardiovascular system?

    • A.

      Strengthened heart contractions

    • B.

      Decreased cardiac output

    • C.

      Flaccid and thinned heart valves

    • D.

      Dilation of blood vessels

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased cardiac output
    Explanation
    As individuals age, it is normal for the cardiovascular system to experience a decrease in cardiac output. This means that the heart is not able to pump blood as efficiently as it did in younger years. This can be attributed to various factors such as a decrease in the strength and elasticity of the heart muscle, a decrease in the number of heart muscle cells, and a decrease in the efficiency of the heart's electrical conduction system. This decrease in cardiac output can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and decreased exercise tolerance.

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  • 11. 

    What determines an older adult’s ability to function?

    • A.

      Driving a car

    • B.

      Quality of life

    • C.

      Working, driving, shopping, and exercising as usual

    • D.

       Performance of activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs, and quality of life

    Correct Answer
    D.  Performance of activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs, and quality of life
    Explanation
    The ability to function in older adults is determined by their performance of activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs, and quality of life. ADLs refer to basic self-care tasks such as bathing, dressing, and eating, while instrumental ADLs include more complex activities like managing finances and using transportation. The quality of life encompasses various aspects such as physical health, mental well-being, social engagement, and overall satisfaction with life. Therefore, the performance of these activities and the overall quality of life are key factors in determining an older adult's ability to function.

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  • 12. 

    Which does NOT contribute to increased residual lung volume in an older patient?

    • A.

      Kyphosis

    • B.

      Decreased elastic recoil

    • C.

      Decreased number of functioning alveoli

    • D.

      Decreased efficiency of gas exchange in the alveoli

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased efficiency of gas exchange in the alveoli
    Explanation
    Kyphosis is a normal change in aging that increases residual lung volume in an older
    patient.

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  • 13. 

     One of the best ways for the nurse to promote normal respiratory function with older adults is to

    • A.

      Encourage daily walks.

    • B.

      Encourage frequent naps and rest periods.

    • C.

      Discourage strenuous lifting and physical activity.

    • D.

      Teach the use of inhalers in case of respiratory emergencies.

    Correct Answer
    A. Encourage daily walks.
    Explanation
    Encouraging daily walks promotes normal respiratory function in older adults because it helps to improve lung capacity, strengthen respiratory muscles, and increase overall cardiovascular fitness. Regular exercise, such as walking, can also help to prevent respiratory infections and reduce the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. Additionally, walking outdoors exposes older adults to fresh air, which can help to improve lung function and oxygenation.

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  • 14. 

     Which is NOT an expected age-related change affecting the respiratory status of an older patient?

    • A.

      Weakened abdominal muscles

    • B.

      Elongation of the thoracic spine

    • C.

       Increased rigidity of the rib cage

    • D.

      Increased thickness of the alveolus capillary membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. Elongation of the thoracic spine
    Explanation
    As individuals age, several changes can occur in the respiratory system. Weakened abdominal muscles can contribute to decreased respiratory muscle strength, making it harder for older patients to take deep breaths. Increased rigidity of the rib cage can limit the ability of the chest to expand fully during breathing. Increased thickness of the alveolus capillary membrane can impair gas exchange in the lungs. However, elongation of the thoracic spine is not an expected age-related change affecting respiratory status. The thoracic spine may experience degenerative changes with age, but this does not directly impact respiratory function.

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  • 15. 

    Which is NOT considered a common complication of inactivity in an older adult?

    • A.

      Decreased energy

    • B.

      Decreased bone mass

    • C.

       Decreased muscle mass

    • D.

      Decreased joint range of motion

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreased energy
    Explanation
    Inactivity in older adults can lead to various complications, such as decreased bone mass, decreased muscle mass, and decreased joint range of motion. However, decreased energy is not typically considered a common complication of inactivity in older adults. While inactivity can contribute to fatigue and low energy levels, it is not directly linked to a decrease in overall energy.

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  • 16. 

    What effect do age-related changes of the skin have on an older patient?

    • A.

      Effects joint mobility

    • B.

      Alters temperature regulation

    • C.

       Impacts the ability to ambulate

    • D.

      Influences clothing style choices

    Correct Answer
    B. Alters temperature regulation
    Explanation
    As a person gets older, their skin undergoes age-related changes that can affect their ability to regulate temperature. The skin becomes thinner and loses its elasticity, making it more difficult for the body to retain heat. This can lead to increased sensitivity to cold temperatures and a decreased ability to stay warm. On the other hand, the skin also becomes less efficient at cooling the body down in hot weather, which can result in a decreased ability to regulate body temperature and increased risk of overheating. Therefore, age-related changes of the skin can alter temperature regulation in older patients.

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  • 17. 

    Which is one of the most effective ways to minimize the aging changes of the skin?Which one do you like?

    • A.

       Wash the skin daily with soap.

    • B.

       Avoid excessive sun exposure

    • C.

      Use a vitamin E-fortified lotion every day. 

    • D.

      Use rose milk lotion on the skin every day.

    Correct Answer
    B.  Avoid excessive sun exposure
    Explanation
    Avoiding excessive sun exposure is one of the most effective ways to minimize the aging changes of the skin. The sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, wrinkles, and other signs of aging. By limiting sun exposure and using proper sun protection such as sunscreen and protective clothing, one can reduce the harmful effects of UV rays on the skin and maintain a more youthful appearance.

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  • 18. 

    What can slow musculoskeletal changes in an older adult?

    • A.

      Exercising

    • B.

      Restricting calcium intake

    • C.

       Napping throughout the day

    • D.

       Eating a diet high in carbohydrates

    Correct Answer
    A. Exercising
    Explanation
    Exercising can slow musculoskeletal changes in an older adult because regular physical activity helps to maintain muscle strength, flexibility, and bone density. It can also improve balance and coordination, reducing the risk of falls and fractures. Exercise promotes the production of collagen, which is important for maintaining the integrity of tendons and ligaments. Additionally, exercise increases blood flow to the muscles and joints, providing them with essential nutrients and oxygen. Overall, regular exercise can help older adults maintain their musculoskeletal health and prevent age-related decline.

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  • 19. 

     What is the best advice for an older person who complains of never being hungry?

    • A.

       Try eating six small meals throughout the day.

    • B.

      Force yourself to eat at least three meals a day.

    • C.

      As people get older, they may need to eat only one meal a day.

    • D.

      Avoid eating roughage and drinking large amounts of fluid.

    Correct Answer
    A.  Try eating six small meals throughout the day.
    Explanation
    As people get older, their appetite may decrease, leading to a lack of hunger. By eating six small meals throughout the day, the older person can ensure that they are getting enough nutrients and calories, even if they don't feel hungry. This approach can help maintain a healthy weight and prevent malnutrition. Additionally, smaller meals are often easier to digest, which can be beneficial for older individuals who may have digestive issues.

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  • 20. 

    Which body system is most highly influenced by previous life patterns and environmental conditions?

    • A.

      Circulatory

    • B.

      Integumentary

    • C.

      Respiratory

    • D.

      Gastrointestinal

    Correct Answer
    B. Integumentary
    Explanation
    The integumentary system, which includes the skin, hair, and nails, is most highly influenced by previous life patterns and environmental conditions. The skin acts as a barrier between the body and the external environment, protecting it from harmful substances and regulating temperature. Previous life patterns, such as sun exposure and skincare habits, can have long-term effects on the health and appearance of the skin. Environmental conditions, such as pollution and climate, can also impact the condition of the skin. Therefore, the integumentary system is the body system that is most influenced by previous life patterns and environmental conditions.

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  • 21. 

    Which statement is most true about enlargement of the prostate gland in older men?

    • A.

      It is a normal aging change.

    • B.

      It indicates the presence of cancer.

    • C.

       It is related to a high incidence of impotence for older men.

    • D.

      It decreases the incidence of urinary incontinence for older men.

    Correct Answer
    A. It is a normal aging change.
    Explanation
    Enlargement of the prostate gland in older men is a normal aging change. As men age, the prostate gland naturally grows larger, a condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a non-cancerous condition that occurs due to hormonal changes and is not related to the presence of cancer. While BPH can cause urinary symptoms such as frequent urination or difficulty in starting and stopping urination, it does not directly lead to impotence or decrease the incidence of urinary incontinence.

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  • 22. 

    Incontinence is a problem for many older women. The normal aging change that contributes to stress incontinence for older women is

    • A.

      Decreased bladder capacity

    • B.

      Decreased renal blood flow

    • C.

      Reduced glomerular filtration rate

    • D.

       Loss of mass and strength of perineal muscles

    Correct Answer
    D.  Loss of mass and strength of perineal muscles
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Loss of mass and strength of perineal muscles." As women age, the muscles in the perineum, which support the bladder and urethra, can weaken and lose mass. This can lead to stress incontinence, which is the involuntary leakage of urine during activities that put pressure on the bladder, such as coughing, sneezing, or laughing. Strengthening these muscles through exercises, such as Kegels, can help improve bladder control and reduce the symptoms of stress incontinence.

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  • 23. 

    Painful intercourse and vaginal infections can be associated with

    • A.

       Loss of pubic hair

    • B.

      Urinary incontinence

    • C.

      Decreased vaginal secretions

    • D.

      Decreased perineal muscle mass

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased vaginal secretions
    Explanation
    Painful intercourse and vaginal infections can be associated with decreased vaginal secretions. Vaginal secretions play a crucial role in lubricating the vagina during sexual intercourse, making it more comfortable and reducing friction. When there is a decrease in vaginal secretions, the vagina may become dry and less lubricated, leading to discomfort and pain during intercourse. Additionally, decreased vaginal secretions can also create an environment that is more prone to vaginal infections, as the natural protective mechanisms of the vagina may be compromised.

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  • 24. 

    What sleep pattern change is most stressful to older adults?

    • A.

      Frequent wakening

    • B.

      Shorter sleeping time at night

    • C.

      Inability to nap during the day

    • D.

      Feeling of being less rested after sleeping all night

    Correct Answer
    D. Feeling of being less rested after sleeping all night
    Explanation
    As people age, their sleep patterns tend to change. While frequent wakening, shorter sleeping time at night, and inability to nap during the day can all be disruptive and frustrating, the feeling of being less rested after sleeping all night is particularly stressful for older adults. This can lead to increased fatigue, decreased energy levels, and difficulties in performing daily activities. It can also negatively impact their overall well-being and quality of life.

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  • 25. 

    Which are the most common gastrointestinal problems for older adults?

    • A.

      Indigestion, diarrhea, and anorexia

    • B.

      Constipation, bulimia, and indigestion

    • C.

      Indigestion, constipation, and anorexia

    • D.

      Flatulence, diarrhea, and intestinal cramps

    Correct Answer
    C. Indigestion, constipation, and anorexia
    Explanation
    As people age, they may experience gastrointestinal problems such as indigestion, constipation, and anorexia. Indigestion refers to discomfort or pain in the stomach, while constipation is the difficulty in passing stool. Anorexia is the loss of appetite, which can lead to malnutrition and weight loss. These three problems are common in older adults due to factors such as decreased digestive function, medication side effects, and changes in eating habits. Flatulence, diarrhea, and intestinal cramps are not mentioned as the most common gastrointestinal problems for older adults.

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  • 26. 

    How do older adults adapt to their slowed response time?

    • A.

       Giving up activities such as driving

    • B.

       Increasing accuracy of their responses

    • C.

      Avoiding situations that require quick responses

    • D.

       Using ambulation aids to decrease the chance of falling

    Correct Answer
    B.  Increasing accuracy of their responses
    Explanation
    As older adults experience a slowed response time, they may compensate by increasing the accuracy of their responses. This means that they may take more time to carefully consider their actions and make sure they are responding correctly. By doing so, they can still effectively engage in activities and tasks, even though their response time may be slower. This adaptive strategy allows older adults to maintain their independence and continue participating in activities that are important to them.

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  • 27. 

    Decreased tearing of the eyes increases the incidence of

    • A.

      Glaucoma

    • B.

       Eye infections

    • C.

      Corneal abrasions

    • D.

      Cataract formation

    Correct Answer
    B.  Eye infections
    Explanation
    Decreased tearing of the eyes can lead to a decrease in the natural lubrication and cleansing of the eyes, making them more prone to infections. Tears help to flush out any foreign particles or bacteria that may enter the eyes, reducing the risk of infections. Therefore, when tearing is decreased, the eyes are more susceptible to developing infections.

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  • 28. 

    Which is an age-related change in hearing for older adults?

    • A.

      Loss of low-frequency tones

    • B.

       Loss of high-frequency tones

    • C.

      Generalized loss of all frequencies

    • D.

      Loss of high-frequency and low-frequency tones

    Correct Answer
    B.  Loss of high-frequency tones
    Explanation
    As individuals age, they may experience a loss of high-frequency tones in their hearing. This is a common age-related change in hearing for older adults. High-frequency sounds, such as those produced by birds chirping or certain musical instruments, become more difficult to hear and distinguish. This can make it challenging for older adults to understand speech, particularly in noisy environments. The loss of high-frequency tones is often attributed to the natural aging process and the gradual degeneration of the inner ear structures responsible for detecting these frequencies.

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  • 29. 

    What should the nurse do to help an older patient improve hearing?

    • A.

      Speak loudly.

    • B.

       Speak slowly in a normal tone.

    • C.

      Speak slowly with an increased pitch.

    • D.

       Mouth words slowly so that the older adult can read lips.

    Correct Answer
    B.  Speak slowly in a normal tone.
    Explanation
    Speaking slowly in a normal tone would be the most effective way for a nurse to help an older patient improve hearing. Speaking loudly may distort the sound and make it difficult for the patient to understand. Speaking slowly with an increased pitch may also distort the sound and make it harder for the patient to comprehend. Mouthing words slowly may be helpful for lip-reading, but it may not be sufficient for improving hearing. Therefore, speaking slowly in a normal tone would be the best approach to ensure clear communication with the older patient.

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  • 30. 

    Which are the preferred colors to use for signs, curb markings, and stair edgings for older adults?

    • A.

      Red and green

    • B.

      Blue and green

    • C.

      Yellow and red

    • D.

      Blue and yellow

    Correct Answer
    C. Yellow and red
    Explanation
    Yellow and red are the preferred colors to use for signs, curb markings, and stair edgings for older adults. These colors are chosen because they provide high contrast and visibility, making it easier for older adults with visual impairments to identify and navigate these elements. Yellow and red are also commonly associated with caution and danger, which helps to grab the attention of older adults and alert them to potential hazards or important information.

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  • 31. 

    Which change in the aging eye increases risk of falling?

    • A.

      Decreased tearing

    • B.

      Yellowing of the lens

    • C.

       Increased sensitivity to glare

    • D.

       Decreased dark and light accommodation

    Correct Answer
    D.  Decreased dark and light accommodation
    Explanation
    As the eye ages, it loses the ability to quickly adjust to changes in light intensity, known as dark and light accommodation. This means that when transitioning from a bright environment to a dark one, or vice versa, the eye takes longer to adapt. This can increase the risk of falling, as sudden changes in lighting can cause temporary vision impairment and make it difficult to navigate safely. Decreased tearing, yellowing of the lens, and increased sensitivity to glare may also contribute to vision problems in aging eyes, but they are not specifically related to the increased risk of falling.

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  • 32. 

    A 78-year-old patient has both ears impacted with cerumen. Why is the incidence of cerumen impaction increased for older adults?

    • A.

       Increased keratin in cerumen

    • B.

      Increased production of cerumen

    • C.

      Decreased bathing because of skin dryness, so ears do not get cleaned as often

    • D.

      Older adults are less likely to be in the habit of using cotton-tipped applicators to clean outtheir ears

    Correct Answer
    A.  Increased keratin in cerumen
    Explanation
    As individuals age, the production of keratin in their body increases. Keratin is a protein that is a major component of cerumen, also known as earwax. Therefore, the increased keratin production in older adults leads to an increased amount of keratin in cerumen, making it more likely for their ears to become impacted with cerumen.

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  • 33. 

    An 84-year-old patient is experiencing decreased reaction time while driving and some dizziness when getting out of his car. What should the nurse realize about this patient’s symptoms?

    • A.

      Secondary to diet

    • B.

       Indicative of senile dementia

    • C.

      Part of the normal aging process

    • D.

      Indicative of decreased mental capabilities

    Correct Answer
    C. Part of the normal aging process
    Explanation
    The nurse should realize that the patient's symptoms of decreased reaction time while driving and dizziness when getting out of the car are part of the normal aging process. As people age, their reaction time tends to slow down, and they may experience dizziness due to changes in blood pressure regulation. These symptoms are common in older adults and do not necessarily indicate any underlying medical condition or decreased mental capabilities. It is important for the nurse to educate the patient about these normal age-related changes and provide support and guidance to ensure their safety while driving and getting out of the car.

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  • 34. 

    Which is NOT included during the assessment of ADLs?

    • A.

      Eating

    • B.

      Moving

    • C.

      Cooking

    • D.

      Dressing

    Correct Answer
    C. Cooking
    Explanation
    During the assessment of activities of daily living (ADLs), cooking is not typically included. ADLs refer to the basic self-care tasks that individuals perform on a daily basis to maintain their independence and well-being. These activities usually include eating, moving, and dressing. Cooking, on the other hand, is considered an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), which involves more complex tasks that are necessary for independent living but are not essential for basic self-care.

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  • 35. 

    Which would NOT be included when assessing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)?

    • A.

      Toileting

    • B.

      Cleaning

    • C.

      Managing finances

    • D.

      Taking medications

    Correct Answer
    A. Toileting
    Explanation
    Toileting would not be included when assessing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) because toileting refers to basic activities of daily living (ADLs) rather than instrumental activities. IADLs are more complex tasks that are necessary for independent living, such as cleaning, managing finances, and taking medications. Toileting, on the other hand, is considered a basic ADL that involves personal hygiene and is typically assessed separately from IADLs.

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  • 36. 

    Which are NOT considered to be signs of wear and tear on the body as the result of aging?

    • A.

      Slow gait

    • B.

      Replaced knees

    • C.

      Use of a walker

    • D.

       Chronic diseases

    Correct Answer
    D.  Chronic diseases
    Explanation
    Chronic diseases are not considered signs of wear and tear on the body as the result of aging because they can affect individuals of any age, not just older adults. While aging can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases, they are not exclusively associated with the aging process itself. Slow gait, replaced knees, and the use of a walker, on the other hand, are all physical signs commonly associated with the natural wear and tear that occurs on the body as a result of aging.

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  • 37. 

    What information does NOT need to be collected when first interviewing an elderly patient?

    • A.

      Nutrition

    • B.

      Family history

    • C.

       Chronic diseases

    • D.

      Number of friends

    Correct Answer
    D. Number of friends
    Explanation
    When first interviewing an elderly patient, it is important to gather information that is relevant to their health and well-being. Nutrition is crucial as it helps assess their dietary habits and potential nutritional deficiencies. Family history is essential to understand any hereditary conditions or diseases that may affect the patient. Chronic diseases are important to identify and manage appropriately. However, the number of friends does not directly impact the patient's health or medical treatment, making it unnecessary to collect this information during the initial interview.

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  • 38. 

     Why is it common for an older adult to feel colder and have decreased diaphoresis, even with an elevated body temperature?

    • A.

      Increased body fluid

    • B.

      Alterations in appetite

    • C.

      Decreased subcutaneous fat

    • D.

      Difficulty with bowel elimination

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased subcutaneous fat
    Explanation
    As we age, our bodies naturally lose subcutaneous fat, which acts as insulation and helps to retain heat. This loss of fat can make older adults more susceptible to feeling colder, even if their body temperature is elevated. Additionally, decreased diaphoresis, or sweating, can also contribute to feeling colder as sweat helps to cool the body down. Therefore, the combination of decreased subcutaneous fat and decreased diaphoresis can explain why it is common for older adults to feel colder despite having an elevated body temperature.

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  • 39. 

    An older patient is experiencing skin breakdown. What should the nurse identify as the reason for this health problem?

    • A.

      Clustering of melanocytes

    • B.

      Decreased sweat production

    • C.

      Decreased subcutaneous fat

    • D.

      Dryness and reduced skin elasticity

    Correct Answer
    D. Dryness and reduced skin elasticity
    Explanation
    As individuals age, their skin tends to become drier and loses its elasticity. This can lead to skin breakdown, as the skin is more prone to damage and injury. Dryness and reduced skin elasticity can result in the skin becoming more fragile and less able to protect itself. This can lead to the development of pressure ulcers, skin tears, and other forms of skin breakdown. Therefore, it is important for the nurse to identify dryness and reduced skin elasticity as the reason for the older patient's skin breakdown.

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  • 40. 

    What should the nurse realize is the reason for an older patient to have an increase in blood pressure?

    • A.

      Reduced blood volume

    • B.

      Increased rigidity of heart valves

    • C.

      Increased rigidity of vascular walls

    • D.

      Diminished strength of cardiac muscle

    Correct Answer
    C. Increased rigidity of vascular walls
    Explanation
    As people age, their blood vessels become less flexible and more rigid. This is known as increased rigidity of vascular walls. When the blood vessels lose their elasticity, it becomes harder for them to expand and contract, leading to an increase in blood pressure. This is because the heart has to work harder to pump blood through the narrowed blood vessels. Therefore, the nurse should realize that increased rigidity of vascular walls is the reason for the older patient's increase in blood pressure.

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  • 41. 

    An older patient is experiencing a drop in blood volume. What should the nurse realize is the age-related reason for this?

    • A.

      Decreased physical activity

    • B.

       Increased daily urine output

    • C.

      Reduced oral intake of fluids

    • D.

      Decreased amount of total body water

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased amount of total body water
    Explanation
    As people age, there is a natural decline in the amount of total body water. This can lead to a decrease in blood volume, as water is a major component of blood. The other options provided (decreased physical activity, increased daily urine output, reduced oral intake of fluids) may also contribute to a drop in blood volume, but the age-related reason specifically relates to the decreased amount of total body water.

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  • 42. 

    What should the nurse identify as the reason for an older patient to have a decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels?

    • A.

      Increased oral fluid intake

    • B.

       Decreased rigidity of heart valves

    • C.

      Increased rigidity of blood vessels

    • D.

      Reduced bone marrow production

    Correct Answer
    D. Reduced bone marrow production
    Explanation
    As individuals age, their bone marrow may produce fewer red blood cells, leading to a decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. This can result in anemia, which is characterized by a reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Other options, such as increased oral fluid intake or decreased rigidity of heart valves, are not directly related to the production of red blood cells. Similarly, increased rigidity of blood vessels may contribute to hypertension but does not directly affect hematocrit and hemoglobin levels.

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  • 43. 

    The nurse is preparing to assess the respiratory status of an older patient. What should the nurse realize about this status in relation to cardiovascular functioning?

    • A.

      The degree of changes within both systems will be minimal.

    • B.

       The changes within both systems appear suddenly, causing acute health problems.

    • C.

       Changes in the respiratory system are gradual and the older patient will compensate.

    • D.

      Changes in the cardiovascular system are gradual and the older patient will compensate.

    Correct Answer
    C.  Changes in the respiratory system are gradual and the older patient will compensate.
    Explanation
    As people age, both the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes. However, the changes in the respiratory system tend to be gradual, and older patients are often able to compensate for these changes. On the other hand, changes in the cardiovascular system can also occur gradually, but they may not always be compensated for as effectively by the older patient. Therefore, it is important for the nurse to be aware of the potential respiratory changes in older patients and assess their respiratory status accordingly.

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  • 44. 

     An older patient has osteoporosis. What effect should the nurse expect this health problem to have on the patient’s respiratory status?

    • A.

      Improved cough reflex

    • B.

      Improved lung capacity

    • C.

      Reduced lung space and air flow

    • D.

       No change to the respiratory status

    Correct Answer
    C. Reduced lung space and air flow
    Explanation
    Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by weakened and brittle bones. In the case of an older patient with osteoporosis, the nurse should expect a reduced lung space and air flow as a result of the condition. Osteoporosis can lead to compression fractures in the spine, which can cause a decrease in the space available for the lungs to expand during breathing. This can result in reduced lung capacity and restricted airflow, potentially leading to respiratory difficulties for the patient.

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  • 45. 

    What impact do good nutrition, exercise, and stress control have on longevity according to the genetic theory of aging?

    • A.

      Experiencing an early death

    • B.

       Adding 15 years to life expectancy

    • C.

      Reducing risk factors for chronic disease

    • D.

       Prolonging or improving the quality of life

    Correct Answer
    D.  Prolonging or improving the quality of life
    Explanation
    Good nutrition, exercise, and stress control have a positive impact on longevity according to the genetic theory of aging. These factors help in prolonging or improving the quality of life. By maintaining a healthy diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and managing stress levels, individuals can reduce the risk factors for chronic diseases and promote overall well-being. This can lead to a longer and healthier lifespan, enhancing the overall quality of life.

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  • 46. 

    What concept is used to describe today’s nursing homes?

    • A.

       Hospice care

    • B.

       Palliative care

    • C.

      Custodial care

    • D.

      Rehabilitative care

    Correct Answer
    D. Rehabilitative care
    Explanation
    Rehabilitative care is the concept used to describe today's nursing homes. This type of care focuses on helping individuals regain their independence and functionality after an illness or injury. Nursing homes provide various therapies and services aimed at improving physical, cognitive, and emotional abilities. Unlike hospice or palliative care, which focus on providing comfort and support to individuals with terminal illnesses, rehabilitative care aims to restore and enhance the overall well-being of residents. Custodial care, on the other hand, primarily involves assistance with activities of daily living and does not specifically focus on rehabilitation.

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  • 47. 

    Which nursing statement takes the concept of ageism into consideration when caring for an 85-year-old patient with renal failure?

    • A.

      “Mr. Martin, how are you doing this morning?”

    • B.

      “Now, you know you shouldn’t do that, baby doll.”

    • C.

      “Hon, how would you like your eggs in the morning?”

    • D.

       “You are doing such a good job with dialysis, sweetie.”

    Correct Answer
    A. “Mr. Martin, how are you doing this morning?”
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Mr. Martin, how are you doing this morning?" because it demonstrates respect and dignity towards the patient by using a formal and respectful address. This statement does not use any terms of endearment or infantilizing language that may be considered ageist.

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  • 48. 

    The nurse is caring for an 80-year-old patient with lung disease. Which action indicates that the nurse understands the wear and tear theory of aging when caring for this patient?

    • A.

      Reviews the importance of a daily intake of adequate calcium

    • B.

      Asks the patient at what age the patient’s mother and father passed away

    • C.

       Stops and rests for a few seconds when walking with the patient down the hall

    • D.

      Suggests that the patient use a wheelchair to reduce the time needed to get to physicaltherapy

    Correct Answer
    C.  Stops and rests for a few seconds when walking with the patient down the hall
    Explanation
    The action of stopping and resting for a few seconds when walking with the patient down the hall indicates that the nurse understands the wear and tear theory of aging. This theory suggests that the body undergoes cumulative damage over time, leading to decreased physical functioning. By recognizing the need for rest and pacing during physical activity, the nurse is acknowledging the limitations and decreased endurance that can occur with aging and lung disease.

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  • 49. 

    An older patient used to be a teacher but after being diagnosed with a health problem the patient began to write educational materials. Which theory explains this patient’s actions?

    • A.

      Continuity

    • B.

      Subculture

    • C.

      Wear and tear

    • D.

       Developmental tasks

    Correct Answer
    A. Continuity
    Explanation
    The theory of continuity suggests that individuals strive to maintain a sense of consistency and stability in their lives, even when faced with significant changes or challenges. In this case, the older patient's transition from being a teacher to writing educational materials can be seen as a way to continue their involvement in the field of education, despite their health problem. By engaging in a similar activity, they are able to maintain a sense of identity and purpose, demonstrating the principles of continuity theory.

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  • 50. 

    Which statement can be used to define health for an older adult?

    • A.

      Expecting to enjoy perfect health until death

    • B.

      Realizing that no one leaves this life alive and death occurs to us all

    • C.

       Understanding that the body wears out and nothing can be done about it

    • D.

       Functioning at the highest potential in the presence of age-related changes

    Correct Answer
    D.  Functioning at the highest potential in the presence of age-related changes
    Explanation
    The statement "Functioning at the highest potential in the presence of age-related changes" can be used to define health for an older adult because it acknowledges that aging brings about changes in the body, but emphasizes the importance of maintaining optimal functioning and well-being despite these changes. It recognizes that health is not about expecting perfect health until death or accepting that nothing can be done about the body wearing out, but rather about maximizing one's potential and quality of life in the face of age-related challenges.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 29, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Ibisatepearl

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