K1 US Examination Questions & Answers

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K1 US Examination Questions & Answers - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What region of the body is located between the shoulder and the elbow?

    • A.

       Brachial

    • B.

      Cubital

    • C.

      Axillary

    • D.

      Cervical

    Correct Answer
    A.  Brachial
    Explanation
    The region of the body located between the shoulder and the elbow is called the brachial region. This region includes the upper arm and is responsible for connecting the shoulder to the elbow. The brachial region contains important structures such as the brachial artery, brachial vein, and brachial plexus, which are responsible for supplying blood and innervation to the arm.

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  • 2. 

    What region of the body is located at the posterior knee?

    • A.

      Popliteal

    • B.

      Cubital

    • C.

      Sural

    • D.

      Patellar

    Correct Answer
    A. Popliteal
    Explanation
    The region of the body that is located at the posterior knee is called the popliteal region. This area is located behind the knee joint and is formed by the muscles, tendons, and ligaments that surround the joint. The popliteal region is important for the movement and stability of the knee joint.

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  • 3. 

    What is the anatomical term for the region on the underside of the foot?

    • A.

      Plantar

    • B.

      Dorsal

    • C.

      Sural

    • D.

      Crural

    Correct Answer
    A. Plantar
    Explanation
    The anatomical term for the region on the underside of the foot is plantar. This term refers to the sole of the foot, which is the area that makes contact with the ground when walking or standing. The plantar region contains various structures, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves, that are important for foot movement and support.

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  • 4. 

    In what region of the body is the umbilicus located

    • A.

      Abdominal

    • B.

      Inguinal

    • C.

      Pelvic

    • D.

      Thoracic

    Correct Answer
    A. Abdominal
    Explanation
    The umbilicus is located in the abdominal region of the body. This refers to the area between the chest and the pelvis, which includes the stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs. The umbilicus, also known as the belly button, is the scar left behind after the umbilical cord is cut at birth. It is located in the center of the abdomen, typically a few inches above the pelvis.

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  • 5. 

    What is the anatomical term for the groin?

    • A.

      Inguinal

    • B.

      Pelvic

    • C.

      Femoral

    • D.

      Pubic

    Correct Answer
    A. Inguinal
    Explanation
    The anatomical term for the groin is inguinal. This term refers to the area where the thigh meets the lower abdomen, specifically the crease between the abdomen and the thigh. It is commonly used in medical and anatomical contexts to describe structures and conditions related to this area, such as inguinal hernias. The other options, pelvic, femoral, and pubic, do not specifically refer to the groin area, making inguinal the correct answer.

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  • 6. 

    What is the anatomical term that describes the low back?

    • A.

      Lumbar

    • B.

      Thoracic

    • C.

      Pelvic

    • D.

      Inguinal

    Correct Answer
    A. Lumbar
    Explanation
    The anatomical term that describes the low back is "lumbar." This term refers to the region of the spine that is located between the thoracic (mid back) and sacral (lower back) regions. The lumbar region consists of five vertebrae, which are larger and more flexible compared to other vertebrae. It is responsible for providing support and stability to the upper body and allowing movement, such as bending and twisting.

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  • 7. 

    What plan of movement divides the body into upper and lower parts?

    • A.

      Transverse

    • B.

      Coronal

    • C.

      Sagittal

    • D.

      Frontal

    Correct Answer
    A. Transverse
    Explanation
    The plan of movement that divides the body into upper and lower parts is the transverse plane. This plane is perpendicular to the sagittal and frontal planes, and it divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions. It is often used in medical imaging to visualize structures in the body, such as organs or bones, and is also commonly referred to as the horizontal plane.

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  • 8. 

    What is the plane that divides the body into two symmetrical right and left halves?

    • A.

      Mid sagittal

    • B.

      Sagittal

    • C.

      Coronal

    • D.

      Transverse

    Correct Answer
    A. Mid sagittal
    Explanation
    The plane that divides the body into two symmetrical right and left halves is called the mid sagittal plane. This plane passes through the midline of the body, dividing it into equal halves. It is also known as the median plane or the midline plane. The other options, sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes, do not specifically divide the body into symmetrical halves.

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  • 9. 

    What is the plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions?

    • A.

      Coronal

    • B.

      Transverse

    • C.

      Superior

    • D.

      Sagittal

    Correct Answer
    A. Coronal
    Explanation
    The plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions is called the coronal plane. This plane runs vertically from side to side, dividing the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) sections. It is also known as the frontal plane. The transverse plane divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions. The term "superior" refers to a position above or higher than another structure. The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right portions.

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  • 10. 

    Within what plane do the actions of flexion and extension occur?

    • A.

      Sagittal

    • B.

      Transverse

    • C.

      Frontal

    • D.

      Anterior

    Correct Answer
    A. Sagittal
    Explanation
    Flexion and extension are movements that occur in the sagittal plane. The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves and is perpendicular to the frontal and transverse planes. Flexion refers to the bending of a joint, decreasing the angle between two body parts, while extension refers to the straightening of a joint, increasing the angle between two body parts. Therefore, the actions of flexion and extension occur within the sagittal plane.

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  • 11. 

    What does the term superior mean?

    • A.

      Closer to the head

    • B.

      Closer to the feet

    • C.

      Closer to midline

    • D.

      The back of the body

    Correct Answer
    A. Closer to the head
    Explanation
    The term "superior" refers to a position that is closer to the head. In anatomical terms, it is used to describe the location of a body part that is situated above or higher than another part. This can be used to indicate the relative position of different body structures, such as organs or bones, in relation to each other.

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  • 12. 

    The sternum is _______ to the spine?

    • A.

      Anterior

    • B.

      Lateral

    • C.

      Medial

    • D.

      Proximal

    Correct Answer
    A. Anterior
    Explanation
    The sternum is located in the front of the body, facing towards the anterior side. It is positioned in front of the spine, making it anterior to the spine.

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  • 13. 

    The heart is _________ to the rib cage?

    • A.

      Deep

    • B.

      Anterior

    • C.

      Superficial

    • D.

      Proximal

    Correct Answer
    A. Deep
    Explanation
    The heart is deep to the rib cage because it is located behind the rib cage, closer to the spine. This means that the heart is positioned further away from the surface of the body compared to the rib cage.

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  • 14. 

    The tibialis anterior is _________ to the biceps femoris?

    • A.

      Distal

    • B.

      Proximal

    • C.

      Superior

    • D.

      Medial

    Correct Answer
    A. Distal
    Explanation
    The tibialis anterior is distal to the biceps femoris because it is located further away from the trunk or origin of the limb. In anatomical terms, "distal" refers to a position that is farther away from the center of the body or point of attachment, while "proximal" refers to a position that is closer to the center or point of attachment. Since the tibialis anterior is located in the lower leg, which is farther away from the trunk compared to the biceps femoris in the thigh, it is considered distal to the biceps femoris.

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  • 15. 

    The shoulders are __________ to the knees?

    • A.

      Superior

    • B.

      Inferior

    • C.

      Distal

    • D.

      Caudal

    Correct Answer
    A. Superior
    Explanation
    The term "superior" refers to a position or location that is above or higher than another. In the context of the question, it means that the shoulders are positioned higher than the knees. This is anatomically accurate as the shoulders are located on the upper part of the body, while the knees are on the lower part.

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  • 16. 

    What movement straightens/opens a joint?

    • A.

      Extension

    • B.

      Pronation

    • C.

      Adduction

    • D.

      Flexion

    Correct Answer
    A. Extension
    Explanation
    Extension is the movement that straightens or opens a joint. It involves increasing the angle between two bones or body parts, typically in the opposite direction of flexion. For example, when you straighten your arm after bending it, you are performing extension at the elbow joint. Similarly, when you straighten your leg after bending it, you are performing extension at the knee joint. Therefore, extension is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 17. 

    What action describes side bending of the neck or trunk?

    • A.

      Lateral flexion

    • B.

      Lateral rotation

    • C.

      Horizontal abduction

    • D.

      Lateral deviation

    Correct Answer
    A. Lateral flexion
    Explanation
    Lateral flexion is the action that describes side bending of the neck or trunk. This movement occurs when the spine curves laterally, allowing the head or trunk to tilt towards one side. It is commonly seen when performing exercises such as side bends or when bending the neck to the side. Lateral rotation refers to the rotation of a body part away from the midline, horizontal abduction refers to moving a limb away from the midline in a horizontal plane, and lateral deviation is not a commonly used term to describe this action.

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  • 18. 

    What term describes movement of the scapula away from the spine?

    • A.

      Protraction

    • B.

      Retraction

    • C.

      Elevation

    • D.

      Adduction

    Correct Answer
    A. Protraction
    Explanation
    Protraction is the correct answer because it refers to the movement of the scapula away from the spine. This movement is commonly seen when someone pushes their shoulders forward or when they reach their arms forward. Retraction, on the other hand, describes the movement of the scapula towards the spine. Elevation refers to the upward movement of the scapula, while adduction refers to the movement towards the midline of the body.

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  • 19. 

    What term describes the movement at the ankle joint when stepping on the gas?

    • A.

      Plantar flexion

    • B.

      Dorsiflexion

    • C.

      Inversion

    • D.

      Pronation

    Correct Answer
    A. Plantar flexion
    Explanation
    Plantar flexion is the correct answer because when stepping on the gas pedal, the ankle joint moves in a way that points the foot downwards, towards the ground. This movement is known as plantar flexion, which involves the extension of the ankle joint and the pointing of the toes away from the body.

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  • 20. 

    What type of joint is capable of circumduction?

    • A.

      Ball and socket

    • B.

      Pivot

    • C.

      Gliding

    • D.

      Modified hinge

    Correct Answer
    A. Ball and socket
    Explanation
    A ball and socket joint is capable of circumduction, which is the movement of a body part in a circular motion. This type of joint allows for a wide range of motion in multiple directions, as the rounded end of one bone fits into the concave socket of another bone. This structure allows for movement in all planes, including rotation and circumduction, making it the correct answer.

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  • 21. 

    What type of joint contains a joint cavity?

    • A.

      Synovial

    • B.

      Cartilaginous

    • C.

      Fibrous

    • D.

      Suture

    Correct Answer
    A. Synovial
    Explanation
    A synovial joint contains a joint cavity. Synovial joints are characterized by the presence of a synovial cavity, which is filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps to lubricate the joint and reduce friction during movement. Examples of synovial joints include the knee, hip, and shoulder joints. In contrast, cartilaginous joints are connected by cartilage, fibrous joints are connected by fibrous tissue, and sutures are immovable joints found only in the skull.

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  • 22. 

    What portion of the scapula articulates with the clavicle?

    • A.

      Acromion process

    • B.

      Superior angle

    • C.

      Coracoid process

    • D.

      Superior notch

    Correct Answer
    A. Acromion process
    Explanation
    The acromion process is the portion of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle. It forms the highest point of the shoulder and provides attachment for various muscles and ligaments. The acromion process helps to stabilize the shoulder joint and allows for movement and rotation of the arm.

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  • 23. 

    What joint is formed where the humerus and scapula meet?

    • A.

      Glenohumeral

    • B.

      Scauplothoracic

    • C.

      Sternoclavicular

    • D.

      Coracohumeral

    Correct Answer
    A. Glenohumeral
    Explanation
    The joint formed where the humerus and scapula meet is called the glenohumeral joint. This joint is commonly known as the shoulder joint and allows for a wide range of motion in the arm. The glenohumeral joint is a ball-and-socket joint, with the head of the humerus fitting into the shallow socket of the scapula. This joint is supported by ligaments and muscles, and its structure allows for movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation of the arm.

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  • 24. 

    What is the attachment point between the axial and appendicular skelaton?

    • A.

      Sternoclavicular

    • B.

      Glenohumeral

    • C.

      Sterocostal

    • D.

      Scapulothoracic

    Correct Answer
    A. Sternoclavicular
    Explanation
    The sternoclavicular joint is the attachment point between the axial and appendicular skeleton. It connects the clavicle (appendicular skeleton) to the sternum (axial skeleton). This joint allows for movement and stability of the shoulder girdle and is responsible for connecting the upper limb to the axial skeleton.

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  • 25. 

    What part of the scapula serves as an attachment site for the rhomboids and serratus anterior?

    • A.

      Medial border

    • B.

      Inferior angle

    • C.

      Lateral border

    • D.

      Superior border

    Correct Answer
    A. Medial border
    Explanation
    The rhomboids and serratus anterior muscles both attach to the medial border of the scapula. The medial border is located on the inner side of the scapula, running parallel to the spine. This attachment site allows these muscles to exert their pulling and stabilizing actions on the scapula, contributing to movements of the shoulder joint.

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  • 26. 

    What scapular landmark is isolated by placing your fingers on the spine of the scapula, the medial border, and the lateral border?

    • A.

      Infraspinatus fossa

    • B.

      Subscapular fossa

    • C.

      Glenoid cavity

    • D.

      Infraglenoid tubercle

    Correct Answer
    A. Infraspinatus fossa
    Explanation
    By placing your fingers on the spine of the scapula, the medial border, and the lateral border, you are isolating the area known as the infraspinatus fossa. The infraspinatus fossa is a shallow depression on the posterior surface of the scapula, located below the spine of the scapula. It is the attachment site for the infraspinatus muscle, which plays a role in shoulder movement and stabilization.

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  • 27. 

    What is the common attachment site of the deltoid and trapezius?

    • A.

      Lateral one-third of the clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula?

    • B.

      Deltoid tuerosity, and spinous process of C7-T12

    • C.

      Sternum and medical half of clavicle

    • D.

      Lateral half of the clavicle and greater tubercle of humerus

    Correct Answer
    A. Lateral one-third of the clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula?
    Explanation
    The common attachment site of the deltoid and trapezius is the lateral one-third of the clavicle, acromion, and spine of the scapula.

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  • 28. 

    What is the common attachment site of the biceps brachii and coracobrachialis?

    • A.

      Corocoid process

    • B.

      Greater tubercle

    • C.

      Lesser tuberecle

    • D.

      Acromion process

    Correct Answer
    A. Corocoid process
    Explanation
    The common attachment site of the biceps brachii and coracobrachialis is the coracoid process. The coracoid process is a small hook-like structure on the scapula (shoulder blade) that serves as a point of attachment for various muscles, including the biceps brachii and coracobrachialis. These muscles play a role in flexing and stabilizing the arm at the shoulder joint.

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  • 29. 

    What muscle is a complete synergist with the latissimus dorsi?

    • A.

      Teres major

    • B.

      Teres minor

    • C.

      Subscapularis

    • D.

      Posterior deltoid

    Correct Answer
    A. Teres major
    Explanation
    Teres major is a complete synergist with the latissimus dorsi. This means that these two muscles work together to perform the same action. The latissimus dorsi is responsible for actions such as extension, adduction, and medial rotation of the arm at the shoulder joint. The teres major assists in these movements and acts as a synergist to the latissimus dorsi, helping to stabilize and strengthen the shoulder joint during these actions.

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  • 30. 

    What muscles make up the rotator cuff?

    • A.

      Teres minor, subscapularis, infraspinatus, supraspinatus

    • B.

      Subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor, latissimus dorsi

    • C.

      Supraspinatus, teres major, infraspinatus, subscapularis

    • D.

      Infraspinatus, deltoid, supraspinatus, teres minor

    Correct Answer
    A. Teres minor, subscapularis, infraspinatus, supraspinatus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Teres minor, subscapularis, infraspinatus, supraspinatus. These are the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, providing stability and allowing for movement of the shoulder. The teres minor, subscapularis, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus muscles work together to control and coordinate the movements of the shoulder joint, helping to rotate and stabilize the arm.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following bony landmarks is an attachment site for the long head of the biceps brachii?

    • A.

      Supraglenoid tubercle

    • B.

      Infraglenoid tubercle

    • C.

      Coracoid process

    • D.

      Glenoid foss

    Correct Answer
    A. Supraglenoid tubercle
    Explanation
    The supraglenoid tubercle is an attachment site for the long head of the biceps brachii. This bony landmark is located on the upper part of the glenoid fossa of the scapula. The long head of the biceps brachii originates from this tubercle and travels down the arm to insert on the radial tuberosity. This attachment allows the biceps muscle to flex the elbow and supinate the forearm. The other options listed, including the infraglenoid tubercle, coracoid process, and glenoid fossa, do not serve as attachment sites for the long head of the biceps brachii.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following muscles depresses the scapula?

    • A.

      Pectoralis minor

    • B.

      Rhomboid

    • C.

      Pectoralis major

    • D.

      Infraspinatus

    Correct Answer
    A. Pectoralis minor
    Explanation
    The pectoralis minor muscle depresses the scapula. This muscle is located in the upper chest area and attaches to the scapula. When it contracts, it pulls the scapula downward and forward, causing depression. The other muscles listed - rhomboid, pectoralis major, and infraspinatus - do not have the primary function of depressing the scapula.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following muscles abducts the humerus at the shoulder joint?

    • A.

      Deltoid

    • B.

      Biceps brachii

    • C.

      Infraspinatus

    • D.

      Pectoralis major

    Correct Answer
    A. Deltoid
    Explanation
    The deltoid muscle is responsible for the abduction of the humerus at the shoulder joint. Abduction refers to the movement of a body part away from the midline of the body. The deltoid muscle is a large, triangular muscle that covers the shoulder joint and is capable of producing a wide range of movements, including abduction. It is the primary muscle involved in lifting the arm away from the body and is essential for activities such as raising the arm to the side or performing shoulder presses.

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  • 34. 

    Bilateral contraction of the upper trapezius will create what movement of the head and neck?

    • A.

      Extension

    • B.

      Flexion

    • C.

      Lateral rotation

    • D.

      Rotation

    Correct Answer
    A. Extension
    Explanation
    Bilateral contraction of the upper trapezius muscles will create extension of the head and neck. The upper trapezius muscles are located on the back of the neck and upper back, and when they contract, they pull the head and neck backwards, causing extension. This movement is commonly seen when looking up at the ceiling or tilting the head back.

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  • 35. 

    What muscle tendon lies within the intertubercular groove?

    • A.

      Biceps brachii

    • B.

      Coracobrachialis

    • C.

      Supraspinatus 

    • D.

      Triceps brachii

    Correct Answer
    A. Biceps brachii
    Explanation
    The biceps brachii muscle tendon lies within the intertubercular groove. This is a groove located on the anterior aspect of the humerus bone. The biceps brachii muscle is responsible for flexing the elbow joint and supinating the forearm. Its tendon passes through the intertubercular groove and attaches to the top of the radius bone in the forearm.

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  • 36. 

    What rotator cuff muscle is a synergist with the teres minor in lateral rotation of the arm at the shoulder joint?

    • A.

      Infraspinatus

    • B.

      Supraspinatus

    • C.

      Teres minor

    • D.

      Subscapularis

    Correct Answer
    A. Infraspinatus
    Explanation
    The infraspinatus muscle is a synergist with the teres minor in lateral rotation of the arm at the shoulder joint. These two muscles work together to rotate the arm laterally, helping to stabilize and move the shoulder joint. The supraspinatus muscle is not involved in lateral rotation, while the subscapularis muscle is actually a synergist with the teres major in medial rotation of the arm. Therefore, the correct answer is the infraspinatus.

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  • 37. 

    What muscle is superficial to the supraspinatus tendon?

    • A.

      Deltoid

    • B.

      Trapezius

    • C.

      Infraspinatus

    • D.

      Biceps brachii

    Correct Answer
    A. Deltoid
    Explanation
    The deltoid muscle is located superficially to the supraspinatus tendon. It is a large, triangular muscle that covers the shoulder joint and is responsible for the abduction and flexion of the arm. Its position above the supraspinatus tendon allows it to provide support and stability to the shoulder joint during movement. The trapezius, infraspinatus, and biceps brachii muscles are not directly superficial to the supraspinatus tendon.

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  • 38. 

    Rhomboids and trapezius are synergists in what scapular movement?

    • A.

      Adduction

    • B.

      Upward rotation

    • C.

      Downward rotation

    • D.

      Depression

    Correct Answer
    A. Adduction
    Explanation
    Rhomboids and trapezius are synergists in scapular adduction. Adduction refers to the movement of bringing the scapula closer to the midline of the body. The rhomboids and trapezius muscles work together to retract and stabilize the scapula during this movement.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following muscles is an antagonist to serratus anterior?

    • A.

      Rhomboid

    • B.

      Subscapularis

    • C.

      Infraspinatus

    • D.

      Pectoralis major

    Correct Answer
    A. Rhomboid
    Explanation
    The rhomboid muscle is an antagonist to the serratus anterior. The serratus anterior is responsible for protracting and stabilizing the scapula, while the rhomboid muscle retracts and stabilizes the scapula. These two muscles work in opposition to each other, with the serratus anterior pulling the scapula forward and the rhomboid pulling it backward.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is an action of the clavicular fibers of pectoralis major?

    • A.

      Shoulder flexion

    • B.

      Horizontal abduction of the shoulder

    • C.

      Shoulder extension

    • D.

      Lateral rotation of the arm at the shoulder joint

    Correct Answer
    A. Shoulder flexion
    Explanation
    The clavicular fibers of the pectoralis major are responsible for shoulder flexion. This means that they are involved in lifting the arm forward and upward, bringing the shoulder closer to the chest.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following are actions of the biceps brachii?

    • A.

      Shoulder flexion, forearm supination

    • B.

      Elbow flexion, forearm pronation

    • C.

      Forearm supination, shoulder extension

    • D.

      Elbow flexion, shoulder extension

    Correct Answer
    A. Shoulder flexion, forearm supination
    Explanation
    The biceps brachii is a muscle located in the upper arm. It is responsible for two main actions: shoulder flexion and forearm supination. Shoulder flexion refers to the movement of raising the arm forward, while forearm supination refers to the movement of rotating the forearm so that the palm faces up. Therefore, the correct answer is shoulder flexion and forearm supination.

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  • 42. 

    Which region of the vertebral column in the most mobile?

    • A.

      Cervical

    • B.

      Thoracic

    • C.

      Lumbar

    • D.

      Sacral

    Correct Answer
    A. Cervical
    Explanation
    The cervical region of the vertebral column is the most mobile because it consists of seven vertebrae that are smaller in size and have a greater range of motion compared to the other regions. The cervical vertebrae are responsible for providing flexibility and allowing movements such as rotation, bending, and tilting of the head and neck. This increased mobility in the cervical region is crucial for activities like turning the head, looking up and down, and maintaining balance.

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  • 43. 

    What structures form the visible/palpable row of bumbs that run down the center of the back?

    • A.

      Spinous processes

    • B.

      Transverse processes

    • C.

      Vertebral discs

    • D.

      Laminar groove

    Correct Answer
    A. Spinous processes
    Explanation
    The visible/palpable row of bumps that run down the center of the back are known as spinous processes. These are bony projections that extend from the posterior side of each vertebra. They can be felt and sometimes seen as a series of bumps when running a hand down the center of the back.

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  • 44. 

    What ligament attaches to the scapula and creates an arch across the top of the shoulder that protects the rotator cuff tendons from direct trauma?

    • A.

      Coracoacromial

    • B.

      Coracoclavicular

    • C.

      Acromioclavicular

    • D.

      Coracohumeral

    Correct Answer
    A. Coracoacromial
    Explanation
    The coracoacromial ligament attaches to the scapula and creates an arch across the top of the shoulder. This arch serves as a protective barrier for the rotator cuff tendons, preventing direct trauma to them.

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  • 45. 

    What is the name for the inferior portion of the sternum?

    • A.

      Xyphoid process

    • B.

      Manubrium

    • C.

      Body

    • D.

      Sternal angle

    Correct Answer
    A. Xyphoid process
    Explanation
    The xyphoid process is the correct answer because it is the name for the inferior portion of the sternum. It is a small, cartilaginous structure that is located at the bottom of the sternum. The xyphoid process serves as an attachment point for various muscles and ligaments in the abdomen.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is an action of the longissimus muscle?

    • A.

       Laterally flex the vertebral column to the same side

    • B.

      Depress the thoracic cavity

    • C.

      Rotate the vertebral column to the same side

    • D.

      Flex the vertebral column

    Correct Answer
    A.  Laterally flex the vertebral column to the same side
    Explanation
    The longissimus muscle is responsible for laterally flexing the vertebral column to the same side. This means that it helps to bend the spine sideways, bringing the shoulders or hips closer together on one side. This action is important for movements such as side bending or lateral flexion of the trunk.

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  • 47. 

    What movement would lengthen the fibers of the right quadratus lumborum?

    • A.

      Lateral flexion to the left

    • B.

      Lateral flexion to the right

    • C.

      Elevation of the right hip

    • D.

      Extension of the vertebral column

    Correct Answer
    A. Lateral flexion to the left
    Explanation
    Lateral flexion to the left would lengthen the fibers of the right quadratus lumborum. Lateral flexion refers to the movement of bending the trunk sideways, and in this case, to the left. The right quadratus lumborum is a muscle located in the lower back, and when the trunk is laterally flexed to the left, it stretches and lengthens the fibers of this muscle on the right side. This movement helps to maintain balance and stability in the spine and supports proper posture.

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  • 48. 

    What movement of the spine would lengthen the right external obliques?

    • A.

      Rotation to the right

    • B.

      Rotation to the left

    • C.

      Lateral flexion to the right

    • D.

      Forward flexion

    Correct Answer
    A. Rotation to the right
    Explanation
    Rotation to the right would lengthen the right external obliques. When the spine rotates to the right, the right external obliques, which are located on the side of the torso, are stretched and elongated. This movement involves twisting the torso to the right, causing the right external obliques to lengthen and engage in order to facilitate the rotation.

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  • 49. 

    The serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles affect the movement of what area of the body?

    • A.

      Ribs

    • B.

      Scapula

    • C.

      Vertebral column

    • D.

      Diaphragm

    Correct Answer
    A. Ribs
    Explanation
    The serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles affect the movement of the ribs. These muscles are located on the back and help in the elevation and depression of the ribs during breathing. The serratus posterior superior muscle is responsible for elevating the upper ribs, while the serratus posterior inferior muscle helps in depressing the lower ribs. Therefore, these muscles play a crucial role in the movement and stabilization of the ribcage.

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  • 50. 

    What bones fuse to form the coxal bone?

    • A.

      Ilium, ischium, pubis

    • B.

      Ilium, sacrum, coccyx

    • C.

      Sacrum, coccyx, pelvis

    • D.

      Ischium, pubis, sacrum

    Correct Answer
    A. Ilium, ischium, pubis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Ilium, ischium, pubis. These three bones fuse together to form the coxal bone, also known as the hip bone. The ilium is the largest and uppermost part of the coxal bone, while the ischium is the lower and posterior part, and the pubis is the anterior part. The fusion of these three bones creates a strong and stable structure that supports the weight of the upper body and provides attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

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