Bio 103 - Chapter 13 (2) - Pharmacgy

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Bio 103 - Chapter 13 (2) - Pharmacgy - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following?

    • A.

      Every human cell

    • B.

      Each human chromosome 

    • C.

      The complete set of species polypeptides   

    • D.

      The complete set of an organism’s genes 

    Correct Answer
    A. Every human cell
    Explanation
    The human genome is minimally contained in every human cell. The human genome refers to the complete set of genetic information or DNA present in an individual. Since every human cell contains a complete copy of the genome, it can be said that the genome is minimally contained in every human cell. This means that each cell carries all the genetic instructions necessary for the development and functioning of a human being.

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  • 2. 

    At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the preparation of a karyotype?

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase

    Correct Answer
    B. Metaphase
    Explanation
    In metaphase of mitosis, the chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane of the cell. This stage is ideal for photographing chromosomes because they are condensed and easily visible. The chromosomes are also maximally separated from each other, which allows for a clear and accurate karyotype to be prepared.

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  • 3. 

    The karyotype is:

    • A.

      A picture that display the individual chromosomes at metaphase

    • B.

      Genotype of the individual 

    • C.

      Blood type of the individual 

    • D.

      Unique combination of chromosomes found in gametes 

    Correct Answer
    A. A picture that display the individual chromosomes at metaphase
    Explanation
    The karyotype is a picture that displays the individual chromosomes at metaphase. This means that it shows all the chromosomes arranged in pairs according to their size and shape. This visual representation helps in identifying any abnormalities or genetic disorders that may be present in an individual. By examining the karyotype, scientists can determine the number, size, and structure of chromosomes, which can provide valuable information about an individual's genetic makeup.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following mechanisms contribute to the genetic variation?

    • A.

      Independent assortment of chromosomes 

    • B.

      Crossing over 

    • C.

      Random fertilization 

    • D.

      All of the above 

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above 
    Explanation
    The mechanisms that contribute to genetic variation are independent assortment of chromosomes, crossing over, and random fertilization. Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs during meiosis when homologous pairs of chromosomes separate randomly, resulting in different combinations of alleles in the gametes. Crossing over is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis, leading to the creation of new combinations of alleles. Random fertilization refers to the chance fusion of gametes during sexual reproduction, which further increases genetic diversity. Therefore, all of these mechanisms contribute to genetic variation.

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  • 5. 

    We see the tetrad line in the midway of the cell in which phase?

    • A.

      Metaphase II

    • B.

      Metaphase I

    • C.

      Prophase I

    • D.

      Prophase II

    Correct Answer
    B. Metaphase I
    Explanation
    During metaphase I of meiosis, the homologous chromosomes align at the center of the cell, forming a tetrad line. This is the stage where the pairs of homologous chromosomes are held together by the synaptonemal complex. The tetrad line is formed as a result of the crossing over and recombination of genetic material between the homologous chromosomes. Therefore, the presence of a tetrad line indicates that the cell is in metaphase I of meiosis.

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  • 6. 

    The two sister chromatids are called:

    • A.

      Duplicated chromosomes 

    • B.

      Homologous 

    • C.

      Unduplicated chromosomes 

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Duplicated chromosomes 
    Explanation
    The two sister chromatids are called duplicated chromosomes because they are exact copies of each other that are formed during the S phase of the cell cycle. They are held together at the centromere and contain identical genetic information. During cell division, the sister chromatids separate and are distributed to the daughter cells, ensuring that each cell receives a complete set of genetic material.

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  • 7. 

    Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of a dividing cell during:

    • A.

      Mitosis

    • B.

      Meiosis I

    • C.

      Meiosis II

    • D.

      Fertilization 

    Correct Answer
    B. Meiosis I
    Explanation
    During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over. This pairing and crossing over ensure genetic diversity in the resulting cells. Once the homologous chromosomes have exchanged genetic material, they separate and move toward opposite poles of the dividing cell. This is necessary for the subsequent division of the cell into two daughter cells, each containing a unique combination of genes from the original parent cell.

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  • 8. 

    A sexual reproduction occurs in which of the following processes?

    • A.

      Meiosis 

    • B.

      Mitosis 

    • C.

      Fertilization 

    • D.

      The exchange of chromosomes between organisms of different species 

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitosis 
    Explanation
    Mitosis is the correct answer because it is the process of cell division that occurs in somatic cells, resulting in two identical daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a form of asexual reproduction, where the offspring are genetically identical to the parent. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the process of cell division that occurs in reproductive cells, resulting in the production of gametes with half the number of chromosomes. Fertilization is the fusion of gametes during sexual reproduction, and the exchange of chromosomes between organisms of different species is not a process of sexual reproduction.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following processes facilitates the fastest way for organisms to adapt a changing environment?

    • A.

      Mutation 

    • B.

      Asexual reproduction 

    • C.

      Sexual reproduction 

    • D.

      Mitosis 

    Correct Answer
    C. Sexual reproduction 
    Explanation
    Sexual reproduction facilitates the fastest way for organisms to adapt to a changing environment because it introduces genetic variation through the combination of genetic material from two different individuals. This genetic diversity allows for a greater chance of beneficial traits to be present in the population, increasing the likelihood of survival and adaptation to changing conditions. In contrast, asexual reproduction and mitosis result in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent, limiting the potential for adaptation and evolution.

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  • 10. 

    For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?

    • A.

      23

    • B.

      46

    • C.

      460

    • D.

      About 8 million

    Correct Answer
    D. About 8 million
    Explanation
    In humans, the haploid number of chromosomes is 23, meaning that each gamete (sperm or egg) contains 23 chromosomes. Since each chromosome can come from either the mother or the father, there are two possibilities for each chromosome. Therefore, the total number of different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes for the gametes can be calculated as 2^23, which is approximately 8 million.

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  • 11. 

    Which life stage is found in plants but not in animals?

    • A.

      Gamete

    • B.

      Zygote

    • C.

      A somatic cell of a male 

    • D.

      Multicellular haploid 

    Correct Answer
    D. Multicellular haploid 
    Explanation
    Multicellular haploid is a life stage found in plants but not in animals. In plants, this stage is known as the gametophyte generation, where the plant produces haploid gametes through mitosis. These gametes then fuse to form a diploid zygote, which develops into a new multicellular organism. In animals, however, the life cycle typically involves a diploid stage known as the embryo, which is formed by the fusion of gametes. Therefore, multicellular haploid is unique to the life cycle of plants.

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  • 12. 

    Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that

    • A.

      Sister chromatids separate during Anaphase 

    • B.

      DNA replicates before the division 

    • C.

      The daughter cells are diploid 

    • D.

      The chromosome number is reduced 

    Correct Answer
    A. Sister chromatids separate during Anaphase 
    Explanation
    During meiosis II, sister chromatids separate during anaphase. This is similar to mitosis, where sister chromatids also separate during anaphase. In both processes, the sister chromatids, which are identical copies of each other, are pulled apart and move towards opposite poles of the cell. This ensures that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes.

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  • 13. 

    Offsprings acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Offsprings acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes. This is true because genes, which are segments of DNA, are located on chromosomes. During reproduction, each parent passes on half of their chromosomes to their offspring through the process of meiosis. This ensures that the offspring inherits a combination of genes from both parents, determining their genetic traits and characteristics. Therefore, it is correct to say that offsprings acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes.

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  • 14. 

    An individual that reproduces sexually gives rise to a clone 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In sexual reproduction, offspring are not clones of their parents. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of genetic material from two parents, resulting in offspring that inherit a unique combination of genes from both parents. This genetic variation allows for the potential for adaptation and evolution. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that an individual that reproduces sexually gives rise to a clone.

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  • 15. 

    Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes sets from diploid to haploid:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in sexually reproducing organisms. It involves two rounds of division, resulting in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This reduction in chromosome number is what allows for the formation of gametes, such as eggs and sperm, which are haploid cells. Therefore, the statement that meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid is true.

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  • Current Version
  • Jan 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 03, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Pharmacgy
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