Major political parties ensure that party organizations at the state and local levels collaborate closely.
National party committees have no real power over organizations at the state and local levels.
Most political parties encourage grassroots activity by putting local organizations in charge.
State party organizations are required to align their goals with the party's national platform.
Raising funds for candidates for local offices, such as sheriff and county commissioner
Discussing local issues with the national party committee
Organizing conventions that bring together party leaders from each state
Understanding state regulations governing political parties
B and C only
A and B only
A, B, and C
A and C only
Party organizers, volunteers, voters, and elected officials
Democrats, Republicans, third-party members, and nonvoters
Campaign managers, citizens, representatives, and county councils
Electors, petitioners, defendants, and the media
Polling citizens to assess their opinions
Funding citizens' trips to Washington, D.C.
Motivating citizens to take action on political issues
Encouraging citizens to work with members of other parties to create change
During the debate over ratification of the Constitution, two opposing groups form
James Madison argues that the Constitution should be amended to include parties
The Federalists and Anti-Federalists agree on how powerful the government should be
A nationwide vote reveals that American citizens support parties
They are often close contests between candidates from the Democratic and Republican parties.
They are often landslides in favor of candidates from third parties.
They are generally won by candidates from the Republican Party.
The Democratic candidate usually wins the presidency, and the Republican candidate becomes vice president.
Building connections between party members in office to help them be more effective
Building and maintaining public support
Encouraging voter registration at the local level
Supporting party candidates who seek elective office
Filing a lawsuit against corporations that are major polluters and contribute to climate change
Encouraging people to send letters and email to the president about climate change
Lobbying officials in the executive and legislative branches who have expressed doubt that climate change exists
Forming a political action committee to support candidates who believe climate change is real
New regulations in the 1970s and 1980s made it easier for citizens to communicate with government officials
The prosperity of the 1960s made people look more closely at how their government could serve them
The government's quick response to the needs of movements in the 1960s inspired other groups to make their needs known
Groups fighting for equal rights and other causes felt that political parties were not meeting their needs
It prohibits lobbyists from giving gifts to legislators.
It limits the number of public interest groups each lobbyist can represent
It allows experienced lobbyists to avoid reporting their activities, pay, and expenses to Congress
It shortens the time former members of Congress must wait before becoming lobbyists
Lobbyists focus on regulating the activities of the judicial branch
Lobbyists represent individuals and organizations on issues that major political parties might not address
Lobbyists represent the concerns of individual citizens at the federal level only
Lobbyists avoid building close relationships with lawmakers
Paying legal fees for people who file lawsuits that align with the group's goals
Lobbying judges while a case is being heard
Bribing lawyers to represent one side less effectively
Ensuring that decisions cannot be appealed to the Supreme Court
Resorting to unethical tactics
Focusing only on group members' goals
Supporting candidates who may not be the best choice for a position
Lacking power without funding
PACs raise money to provide services like health care for an interest group's members
Most PACs associated with interest groups can only collect funds from group members
PACs are not permitted to finance media campaigns
PACs must donate at least $5,000 to a candidate they want to support
Developing new methods of charging interest
Ensuring that the group's beliefs are represented in public policy
Encouraging the regulation of political action committees
Informing the American public about candidates for office
Serving as watchdogs to prevent government corruption
Inspiring political participation
Informing the general public about issues
Raising money to support candidates
A teacher calls a television station to tell its reporters about a protest at the capitol against low wages; the event receives widespread television coverage
A restaurant server uses Twitter to promote safer shoes for food service workers; the hazard she points out is later covered on the nightly news
A woman uses Twitter to start a conversation about the best restaurants in town, and later adds the information to a guide she's writing
A man uses a popular photo-sharing site to display his images of a polluted river, which he photographed after he read a newspaper article on the pollution
Public opinion polls usually focus on issues rather than on candidates
Opinion polls do not provide additional material for election coverage
Opinion polls can influence how citizens vote
Opinion polls are rarely conducted about political topics
The popularity of the web has reduced the readership of print media
Print media remain the most relevant source of political information
Mass media have historically allowed all citizens to express their opinions about politics
Radio has expanded over time to reach a very large audience