Candidates can share their views directly with the electorate through television.
Voters can nominate party candidates in primary elections.
Candidates largely fund their own campaigns or hire campaign firms.
The government has failed to enforce party membership among the electorate.
The electorate is becoming increasingly independent from party affiliation.
Encourages moderation in policy-making and discourages change.
Offers voters no choice among ideologies.
Usually includes a liberal and a conservative party.
Relies on popular elections to change the party in power.
Allows parties to choose their own leaders in the legislature.
II & III only.
I & IV only
II, III, and IV only.
Give voters radically different choices of policy initiatives.
Offer politicians a distinct political identify.
Connect the public with policy-making institutions.
Contribute to a centralized federal government.
Influence policy in each of the three branches of government.
A critical election.
A national convention.
An open primary.
A closed primary.
A national committee.
A party wins a significant majority of the seats in Congress.
There is a third-party candidate in the presidential election.
A political party forms a coalition around a specific policy.
The president is of a different party from the majority party in Congress.
The same party wins the majority in both houses of Congress.
Party machines no longer control large cities.
They must turn most of their resources over to state organizations
Most voters are not able to participate in politics at the local level.
The Constitution limits the scope of their activities.
Campaign finance reforms have prevented them from fundraising.
I & IV only.
II & III only.
I, II, and IV only.
The Democratic Party forged a new coalition.
The New Deal greatly expanded the scope of federal activities.
It defined the Democratic Party that still exists, for the most part, today.
It began a new party era of Democratic control of the federal government.
It initiated the current trend of divided government.
The electoral college.
An important aspect of democracy.
Effective only in raising money for campaigns.
Appropriate for a direct democracy but not for a republic.
A means communicating public opinion to the president.
Factions motivated by ambition and self-interest.
Reform of political institutions.
Efficiency in government.
Machine style politics.
Elected officials and party leaders who are nor required to pledge themselves in advance to a presidential candidate.
Delegates representing special-interest caucuses.
Delegates-at-large who are chosen by a vote of the national party leadership.
Delegates chosen by primary elections and grassroot caucuses,
Delegates who received more than 80% of the vote in a caucus.
Political action committee (PAC).
Exert considerable inside influence.
Win a runoff election.
Secure a majority of the votes.
Secure at least 70% of the vote.
American Independent party.
Bull Moose party.
More liberal if they are Democrats, more conservative if they are Republicans.
More liberal regardless of party.
More conservative regardless of party.
More conservative if they are Democrats, more liberal if they are Republicans.
None of the above.
Early 20th century reformers.
Most voters in the 1980s.
Nations around the world.
The leaders of the Confederacy.
The electoral college.
Congress a way of controlling the president.
Citizens a direct say in making laws.
Courts a system for prosecuting election fraud.
Governors more power in relation to legislatures.
Party regulars a say in nominating candidates.
1800, 1828, and 1876.
1828, 1876, and 1896.
1876, 1896, and 1932.
1860, 1896, and 1932
1932, 1968, and 1984
Electoral realignments are an inevitable aspect of American politics.
An electoral realignment will certainly take place in the next 10 or 15 years.
Parties are dealigning, not realigning.
Realignment will occur once again if economic issues are prominent in presidential elections.
Declining voter turnout increases the possibility of critical or realigning elections.