Memory loss occurring as part of the natural consequence of aging
Difficulty coping with physical and psychological change
Severe cognitive impairment that occurs rapidly
Loss of cognitive abilities. impairing ability to perform activities of daily living
Complete explanations with multiple details
Pictures or gestures instead of words
Stimulating words and phrases to capture the client’s attention
Short words and simple sentences
Denies confusion by being jovial.
Pretends to be someone else.
Rationalizes various behaviors.
Fills in memory gaps with fantasy.
Remembering the daily schedule
Recalling past events
Coping the anxiety
Solving problems of daily living
“Maybe it’s just caused by aging. This usually happens by age 82.”
“The changes in his behavior came on so quickly! I wasn’t sure what was happening.”
“Dad just didn’t seem to know what he was doing. He would forget what he had for breakfast.”
“Dad has always been so independent. He’s lived alone for years since mom died.”
Tell the client firmly that it is time to get dressed.
Obtain assistance to restrain the client for safety.
Remain calm and talk quietly to the client.
Call the doctor and request an order for sedation.
The client will complete activities of daily living.
The client will maintain safety.
The client will remain oriented.
The client will understand communication.
Daily structured schedule
Positive reinforcement for performing activities of daily living
Use of validation techniques