Modified radical mastectomy
Do not cause damage to adjacent tissue.
Do not spread to other tissues and organs.
Are simply an overgrowth of normal cells.
Frequently recur in the same site.
“The cells in your tumor do not look very different from normal bowel cells.”
“The tumor cells have DNA that is different from your normal bowel cells.”
“Your tumor cells look more like immature fetal cells than normal bowel cells.”
“The cells in your tumor have mutated from the normal bowel cells.”
“Chest x-rays do not detect cancer until tumors are already at least a half-inch in size.”
“Annual x-rays will increase your risk for cancer because of exposure to radiation.”
“Insurance companies do not authorize yearly x-rays just to detect early lung cancer.”
“Frequent x-rays damage the lungs and make them more susceptible to cancer.”
Most people are willing to make these changes to avoid cancer.
Dietary fat and obesity promote growth of many types of cancer.
People who exercise and eat healthy will make other lifestyle changes.
Obesity and lack of exercise cause cancer in susceptible people.
Teach the patient about the need for a colonoscopy at age 50.
Ask the patient to bring in a stool specimen to test for occult blood.
Schedule a sigmoidoscopy to provide baseline data about the patient.
Have the patient ask the doctor about specific tests for colon cancer.
The cancer cells are well-differentiated.
It is difficult to determine the original site of the cervical cancer.
Further testing is needed to determine the spread of the cancer.
The cancer is localized to the cervix.
“The biopsy will tell the doctor whether the cancer has spread to my other organs.”
“The biopsy will help the doctor decide what treatment to use for my enlarged prostate.”
“The biopsy will determine how much longer I have to live.”
“The biopsy will indicate the effect of the cancer on my life.”
“After cancer has not recurred for 5 years. it is considered cured.”
“I will need to have follow-up examinations for many years after I have treatment before I can be considered cured.”
“Cancer is considered cured if the entire tumor is surgically removed.”
“Cancer is never considered cured. but the tumor can be controlled with surgery. chemotherapy. and radiation.”
Control of the tumor growth by removal of malignant tissue.
Promotion of better nutrition by relieving the pressure in the stomach.
Relief of pain by cutting sensory nerves in the stomach.
Reduction of the tumor burden to enhance adjuvant therapy.