Cardiovascular Physiology, Stroke Volume

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Cardiovascular Physiology, Stroke Volume - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Define stroke volume

    • A.

      The amount of blood pumped by the left atrium in one contraction

    • B.

      The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one conctraction

    • C.

      The amount of blood pumped by the right atrium in one contraction

    Correct Answer
    B. The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one conctraction
    Explanation
    Stroke volume refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction. It is an important measure of cardiac function and is influenced by factors such as heart rate, contractility of the heart muscle, and the resistance in the blood vessels.

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  • 2. 

    Normal value of stroke volume

    • A.

      70-110 ml

    • B.

      30-70 ml

    • C.

      110-150 ml

    Correct Answer
    A. 70-110 ml
    Explanation
    The normal value of stroke volume is typically between 70-110 ml. This refers to the amount of blood pumped out by the heart with each contraction. If the stroke volume falls below 70 ml, it may indicate a decrease in cardiac function, while a stroke volume above 110 ml could suggest an increase in cardiac output. Therefore, the range of 70-110 ml is considered to be within the normal range for stroke volume.

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  • 3. 

    Define fractional shortening

    • A.

      The change in left ventricular internal dimension throughout the cardiac cycle

    • B.

      The change in right ventricular internal dimension throughout the cardiac cycle

    • C.

      The change in atrial internal dimension throughout the cardiac cycle

    Correct Answer
    A. The change in left ventricular internal dimension throughout the cardiac cycle
    Explanation
    Fractional shortening refers to the change in the left ventricular internal dimension throughout the cardiac cycle. It is a measure of the contractility and pumping function of the heart. By calculating the percentage change in the left ventricular internal dimension from diastole (relaxation phase) to systole (contraction phase), fractional shortening provides an indication of how efficiently the heart is able to pump blood. A decrease in fractional shortening may indicate a decrease in cardiac function, while an increase may suggest improved function.

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  • 4. 

    Normal value of fractional shortening

    • A.

      15-20%

    • B.

      30-45%

    • C.

      45-60%

    Correct Answer
    B. 30-45%
    Explanation
    The normal value of fractional shortening is typically between 30-45%. Fractional shortening is a measure of the contractility or pumping function of the heart. It is calculated by subtracting the end-systolic dimension from the end-diastolic dimension of the left ventricle, and then dividing that difference by the end-diastolic dimension. A value of 30-45% indicates a healthy pumping function of the heart, while values outside of this range may suggest abnormalities in cardiac function.

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  • 5. 

    Define cardiac output

    • A.

      The amount of blood ejected by the left atrium during a 1 minute interval

    • B.

      The amount of blood that circulates the body during a 1 minute interval

    • C.

      The amount of blood ejected by the ventricle during a 1 minute interval

    Correct Answer
    C. The amount of blood ejected by the ventricle during a 1 minute interval
    Explanation
    Cardiac output refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out by the ventricle of the heart during a 1 minute interval. This measure is important in assessing the overall efficiency of the heart in delivering oxygenated blood to the body's tissues. It is calculated by multiplying the heart rate (number of heartbeats per minute) by the stroke volume (amount of blood pumped out with each heartbeat). Therefore, the correct answer is "The amount of blood ejected by the ventricle during a 1 minute interval."

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  • 6. 

    Normal value of cardiac output

    • A.

      1-4 liters per minute

    • B.

      4-8 liters per minute

    • C.

      8-12 liters per minute

    Correct Answer
    B. 4-8 liters per minute
    Explanation
    The normal value of cardiac output refers to the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute. The range of 4-8 liters per minute is considered to be the normal value for cardiac output. This means that a healthy heart should be able to pump between 4 and 8 liters of blood per minute to meet the body's oxygen and nutrient needs.

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  • 7. 

    Define ejection fraction

    • A.

      Percentage of blood being ejected from the ventricle during systole

    • B.

      Percentage of blood being ejected from the atria during diastole

    • C.

      Percentage of blood being ejected by the ventricle during a 1 minute interval

    Correct Answer
    A. Percentage of blood being ejected from the ventricle during systole
    Explanation
    The ejection fraction is defined as the percentage of blood that is being ejected from the ventricle during systole. Systole is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood out of the ventricles. The ejection fraction is an important measure of the heart's pumping function and is used to assess cardiac health. A normal ejection fraction is typically between 50% and 70%. A lower ejection fraction can indicate a weakened or damaged heart muscle, while a higher ejection fraction may suggest a more efficient pumping ability.

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  • 8. 

    Normal value of ejection fraction

    • A.

      Less than 25%

    • B.

      Greater than 50% up to 75%

    • C.

      Greater than 25% up to 50%

    Correct Answer
    B. Greater than 50% up to 75%
    Explanation
    The normal value of ejection fraction is greater than 50% up to 75%. Ejection fraction is a measurement of the percentage of blood pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart with each contraction. A normal ejection fraction indicates that the heart is effectively pumping blood and functioning properly. Values below 50% may indicate reduced heart function, while values above 75% may indicate a hypercontractile state. Therefore, a range of greater than 50% up to 75% is considered normal for ejection fraction.

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  • 9. 

    The apical views are indispensable for...

    • A.

      Assessing proper blood flow

    • B.

      Assessing global and regional atria function

    • C.

      Assessing global and regional ventricular function

    Correct Answer
    C. Assessing global and regional ventricular function
    Explanation
    The apical views are important for assessing global and regional ventricular function. These views provide a clear visualization of the ventricles from the apex, allowing for the evaluation of their overall function as well as any regional abnormalities. By examining the apical views, healthcare professionals can assess the contractility, wall motion, and overall performance of the ventricles, which are crucial in determining the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. Therefore, the apical views are indispensable for assessing global and regional ventricular function.

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  • 10. 

    The apical views should appear...

    • A.

      Oblong

    • B.

      Horizontal

    • C.

      Invisible

    Correct Answer
    A. Oblong
    Explanation
    The apical views should appear oblong because the apical view is a specific imaging technique used in echocardiography to visualize the heart's apex. The shape of the apex is typically elongated or oblong, which allows for better visualization and assessment of the cardiac structures in this view. Therefore, the correct answer is oblong.

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  • 11. 

    In the apical 4 view, it is possible to see at least 2 ________ entering the inferior portion of the left atrium.

    • A.

      Pulmonary arteries

    • B.

      Pulmonary veins

    • C.

      Coronary arteries

    Correct Answer
    A. Pulmonary arteries
    Explanation
    In the apical 4 view, which is an echocardiographic view of the heart, it is possible to see the pulmonary arteries entering the inferior portion of the left atrium. This view allows visualization of the structures and blood flow in the heart, and in this case, it specifically shows the pulmonary arteries, which carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.

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  • 12. 

    The Apical 4 chamber view is useful in...

    • A.

      Assessing RV wall motion abnormalities

    • B.

      Assessing LV wall motion abnormalities

    • C.

      Assessing aortic valve motion abnormalities

    Correct Answer
    B. Assessing LV wall motion abnormalities
    Explanation
    The Apical 4 chamber view is useful in assessing LV wall motion abnormalities. This view provides a comprehensive visualization of the left ventricle, allowing for the assessment of its wall motion. By analyzing the movement of the LV walls, abnormalities such as wall motion abnormalities can be detected. This view is commonly used in echocardiography to evaluate the function of the left ventricle and identify any potential abnormalities.

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  • 13. 

    The Apical 4 view can be used when...

    • A.

      Assessing blood flow through the PV and TV

    • B.

      Assessing blood flow through the MV and AOV

    • C.

      Assessing blood flow through the MV and TV

    Correct Answer
    C. Assessing blood flow through the MV and TV
    Explanation
    The Apical 4 view is a specific ultrasound imaging technique that allows for visualization of the mitral valve (MV) and tricuspid valve (TV) in the heart. This view provides a clear image of the blood flow through these valves, making it useful for assessing any abnormalities or disorders related to the MV and TV. It is not used for assessing blood flow through the pulmonary valve (PV) and aortic valve (AOV).

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  • 14. 

    In the Apical 5 chamber view, the ultrasound beam transverses the...

    • A.

      RVOT and PV

    • B.

      LVIT and MV

    • C.

      LVOT and AOV

    Correct Answer
    C. LVOT and AOV
    Explanation
    In the Apical 5 chamber view, the ultrasound beam transverses the LVOT (left ventricular outflow tract) and AOV (aortic valve). This view allows for visualization of the left ventricle, left atrium, mitral valve, aortic valve, and aortic root. It is a commonly used view in echocardiography to assess the function and anatomy of the left side of the heart.

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  • 15. 

    The Apical 2 chamber view allows us to visualize the...

    • A.

      LA, RA & MV

    • B.

      LA, LV & MV

    • C.

      RA, RV & TV

    Correct Answer
    B. LA, LV & MV
    Explanation
    The Apical 2 chamber view is a specific ultrasound view that helps visualize the left atrium (LA), left ventricle (LV), and mitral valve (MV). This view is obtained by placing the ultrasound probe on the patient's chest at the apex of the heart, allowing for a clear visualization of these structures.

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  • 16. 

    The Apical 2 chamber view allows visualization of...

    • A.

      Posterior and Inferior walls and is important in evaluating segmental wall motion abnormalities

    • B.

      Anterior and Superior walls and is important in evaluating IVS motion abnormalities

    • C.

      Anterior and Inferior walls and is important in evaluating segmental wall motion abnormalities

    Correct Answer
    C. Anterior and Inferior walls and is important in evaluating segmental wall motion abnormalities
    Explanation
    The Apical 2 chamber view allows visualization of the anterior and inferior walls of the heart. This view is important in evaluating segmental wall motion abnormalities, which can indicate areas of the heart that are not contracting properly. By assessing the motion of these walls, doctors can diagnose conditions such as myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy and determine the severity of the disease.

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  • 17. 

    Apical 3 Chamber view is also known as...

    • A.

      Apical Short Axis View

    • B.

      Apical Long Axis View

    • C.

      Apical Transverse View

    Correct Answer
    B. Apical Long Axis View
    Explanation
    The Apical 3 Chamber view is also known as the Apical Long Axis view. This view is obtained by placing the ultrasound probe at the apex of the heart and angling it towards the left shoulder. It provides a longitudinal view of the heart, allowing visualization of the left ventricle, left atrium, and the mitral valve. This view is useful in assessing the function and dimensions of the left ventricle, as well as detecting any abnormalities in the mitral valve or left atrium.

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  • 18. 

    The structures visualized in the Apical 3 view are the...

    • A.

      LV, LVOT, LA, MV, proximal aorta

    • B.

      RV, RVOT, RA, TV, IVS

    • C.

      RV, RVOT, RA, PV, MPA

    Correct Answer
    A. LV, LVOT, LA, MV, proximal aorta
    Explanation
    The Apical 3 view is a cardiac imaging technique that provides a visualization of the left ventricle (LV), left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), left atrium (LA), mitral valve (MV), and proximal aorta. This view allows for the assessment of the LV function, LVOT dimensions, and the presence of any abnormalities in the MV and proximal aorta. The other options do not include all the structures mentioned in the question.

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  • 19. 

    Which part in the Apical 4 view can be evaluated for thrombi or aneurysms?

    • A.

      LA

    • B.

      RA

    • C.

      LV

    Correct Answer
    C. LV
    Explanation
    In the Apical 4 view, the left ventricle (LV) can be evaluated for thrombi or aneurysms. This view provides a clear visualization of the LV, allowing for the detection of any abnormal structures or formations within the chamber. Thrombi are blood clots that can form in the LV, while aneurysms are abnormal bulges or weak spots in the LV wall. By examining the LV in the Apical 4 view, healthcare professionals can assess for the presence of these conditions.

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  • 20. 

    Define preload

    • A.

      The volume or pressure that exists in the ventricles at end-diastole

    • B.

      The resistance a ventricle faces during ejection

    • C.

      The volume or pressure that exists in the ventricles at end-systole

    Correct Answer
    A. The volume or pressure that exists in the ventricles at end-diastole
    Explanation
    Preload refers to the volume or pressure that exists in the ventricles at end-diastole. This is the amount of blood that fills the ventricles during relaxation (diastole) before they contract (systole). Preload is an important determinant of stroke volume, which is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction. When preload increases, the ventricles are filled with more blood, leading to a greater stretch of the myocardium and a more forceful contraction. Therefore, preload directly affects cardiac output and is a key factor in regulating heart function.

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  • 21. 

    According to Frank Starling Law, the pulmonary wedge pressure reflects the pressure in the...

    • A.

      Right Ventricle

    • B.

      Right Atrium

    • C.

      Left Atrium

    Correct Answer
    C. Left Atrium
    Explanation
    The Frank Starling Law states that the stroke volume of the heart is directly proportional to the end-diastolic volume. The end-diastolic volume is determined by the filling pressure in the left ventricle, which is reflected by the pressure in the left atrium. Therefore, the pulmonary wedge pressure, which is a measure of the left atrial pressure, reflects the pressure in the left atrium.

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  • 22. 

    According to Frank Starling Law, the right ventricular filling pressure is reflected by....

    • A.

      Right ventricular pressure or central venous pressure

    • B.

      Left atrial pressure or central venous pressure

    • C.

      Right atrial pressure or central venous pressure

    Correct Answer
    C. Right atrial pressure or central venous pressure
    Explanation
    According to Frank Starling Law, the right ventricular filling pressure is reflected by the right atrial pressure or central venous pressure. This means that the pressure in the right atrium or the central veins can indicate the amount of blood filling the right ventricle. The law states that the greater the volume of blood entering the heart, the greater the force of contraction of the heart muscle and therefore the greater the stroke volume. Therefore, monitoring the right atrial pressure or central venous pressure can provide valuable information about the filling pressure and function of the right ventricle.

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  • 23. 

    The term used to describe the resistance a ventricle faces during ejection is...

    • A.

      Preload

    • B.

      Afterload

    • C.

      Stroke volume

    Correct Answer
    B. Afterload
    Explanation
    Afterload is the term used to describe the resistance that the ventricle of the heart faces during ejection. It refers to the force that the ventricle must overcome in order to pump blood out of the heart and into the systemic circulation. Factors that contribute to afterload include the systemic vascular resistance and the pressure in the aorta. A higher afterload can make it more difficult for the ventricle to eject blood, leading to increased workload on the heart and potentially causing cardiac dysfunction.

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  • 24. 

    An increase in afterload will lead to an increase in cardiac contraction and therefore an increase in cardiac performance.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    An increase in preload will lead to an increase in cardiac contraction and therefore an increase in cardiac performance.

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  • 25. 

    Force refers to the load production that the myocardial fiber must produce. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Force refers to the load production that the myocardial fiber must produce. This statement is true because force is the amount of tension or load that the myocardial fiber needs to generate in order to contract and pump blood effectively. The force produced by the myocardial fiber is essential for maintaining proper cardiac function and ensuring an adequate supply of blood to the body's tissues and organs.

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  • 26. 

    Velocity relates to the rate of myocardial fiber shortening during ventricular systole. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Velocity relates to the rate of myocardial fiber shortening during ventricular systole. This means that velocity is a measure of how quickly the heart muscle fibers are contracting and shortening during the pumping phase of the heart. A higher velocity indicates a faster and more efficient contraction, while a lower velocity may indicate a problem with the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 27. 

    A reduction in afterload means an increase in force and a decrease in the rate of fiber shortening and an improvement in cardiac performance. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A reduction in afterload means an decrease in force and an increase in the rate of fiber shortening and an improvement in cardiac performance. 

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  • 28. 

    An increase in afterload will cause the ventricles to contract more slowly

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An increase in afterload refers to an increase in the resistance that the heart has to pump against, usually due to increased pressure in the arteries. This increased afterload makes it more difficult for the ventricles to eject blood out of the heart, resulting in a slower contraction. Therefore, the statement that an increase in afterload will cause the ventricles to contract more slowly is true.

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  • 29. 

    Conditions that increase afterload are ________,________, and ________

    Correct Answer
    semilunar valve stenosis, valvular aortic/pulmonic stenosis, subvalvular aortic/pulmonic stenosis, supravalvular aortic/pulmonic stenosis, renal artery stenosis
    polycythemia
    systemic/pulmonary hypertension
    Explanation
    Conditions that increase afterload include semilunar valve stenosis, valvular aortic/pulmonic stenosis, subvalvular aortic/pulmonic stenosis, supravalvular aortic/pulmonic stenosis, renal artery stenosis, polycythemia, and systemic/pulmonary hypertension. These conditions all result in increased resistance to blood flow out of the heart, leading to increased pressure that the heart must overcome to eject blood. This increased afterload can cause the heart to work harder and potentially lead to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

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  • 30. 

    Conditions that increase ventricular preload are ________ ________ ________

    Correct Answer
    Atrioventricular valve regurgitation
    Semilunar valve regurgitation
    Congenital heart defects shunts
    Explanation
    Conditions that increase ventricular preload are atrioventricular valve regurgitation, semilunar valve regurgitation, and congenital heart defects shunts. Atrioventricular valve regurgitation occurs when the valves between the atria and ventricles do not close properly, leading to backflow of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction. Semilunar valve regurgitation refers to the improper closure of the valves between the ventricles and the arteries, causing blood to flow back into the ventricles during diastole. Congenital heart defects with shunts involve abnormal connections between the chambers of the heart, allowing blood to flow in abnormal patterns and increasing ventricular preload.

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  • 31. 

    80% of ventricular filling occurs during...

    • A.

      Rapid, early filling

    • B.

      Diastasis

    • C.

      Atrial systole (late diastolic filling)

    Correct Answer
    A. Rapid, early filling
    Explanation
    Rapid, early filling refers to the initial phase of ventricular filling where blood rapidly flows from the atria to the ventricles. This phase occurs during the early part of diastole, immediately after ventricular relaxation. It is responsible for approximately 80% of the total ventricular filling. During this phase, the atrioventricular valves are open, allowing blood to passively enter the ventricles from the atria. This rapid filling helps to optimize ventricular preload and ensures an adequate volume of blood for the subsequent cardiac cycle.

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  • 32. 

    20% of ventricular filling occurs during...

    • A.

      Rapid filling

    • B.

      Diastasis

    • C.

      Atrial systole (late diastolic filling)

    Correct Answer
    C. Atrial systole (late diastolic filling)
    Explanation
    During atrial systole, the atria contract and push blood into the ventricles. This occurs towards the end of diastole, after the rapid filling phase. Atrial systole accounts for approximately 20% of ventricular filling, as it contributes to the completion of ventricular filling before the next contraction. This filling phase is crucial for ensuring an adequate amount of blood is pumped out of the heart during the subsequent systolic phase.

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  • 33. 

    During isovolumic relaxation, 

    • A.

      Semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves are open

    • B.

      Semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves are closed

    • C.

      Semilunar valves are open and atrioventricular valves are closed

    Correct Answer
    B. Semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves are closed
    Explanation
    During isovolumic relaxation, both the semilunar valves and the atrioventricular valves are closed. This is the phase of the cardiac cycle where the ventricles are relaxing and filling with blood. The closure of both sets of valves prevents the backflow of blood from the aorta and pulmonary artery back into the ventricles. This closure also allows the ventricles to build up pressure in preparation for the next phase of the cardiac cycle, which is ventricular ejection.

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  • 34. 

    Isovolumic relaxation represents

    • A.

      Represents the time period between atrioventricular valve closure and semilunar valve opening

    • B.

      Represents the time period between semilunar valve closure and atrioventicular valve opening

    • C.

      Represents the time it takes for the heart to beat

    Correct Answer
    B. Represents the time period between semilunar valve closure and atrioventicular valve opening
    Explanation
    Isovolumic relaxation represents the time period between semilunar valve closure and atrioventricular valve opening. This is the phase of the cardiac cycle where all the heart valves are closed, and the ventricles are not yet contracting or relaxing. During this phase, the ventricles are filling with blood from the atria, and the pressure in the ventricles is decreasing. Once the atrioventricular valves open, blood flows from the atria into the ventricles, marking the end of isovolumic relaxation and the beginning of ventricular filling.

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  • 35. 

    Isovolumic contraction represents

    • A.

      The time period between atrioventricular valve closure and semilunar valve opening

    • B.

      The time period between atrioventricular valve opening and semilunar valve closure

    • C.

      The time it takes for oxygenated blood to return from the lungs

    Correct Answer
    A. The time period between atrioventricular valve closure and semilunar valve opening
    Explanation
    Isovolumic contraction represents the time period between atrioventricular valve closure and semilunar valve opening. During this phase, the ventricles contract, causing the atrioventricular valves to close and preventing blood from flowing back into the atria. At the same time, the pressure in the ventricles increases until it exceeds the pressure in the arteries, leading to the opening of the semilunar valves and the ejection of blood into the arteries. This is an important phase in the cardiac cycle as it ensures efficient pumping of blood from the ventricles to the rest of the body.

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  • 36. 

    During isovolumic contraction, 

    • A.

      All cardiac valves are closed as the atria begin to contract

    • B.

      All cardiac valves are open as the ventricles begin to contract

    • C.

      All cardiac valves are closed as the ventricles begin to contract

    Correct Answer
    C. All cardiac valves are closed as the ventricles begin to contract
    Explanation
    During isovolumic contraction, all cardiac valves are closed as the ventricles begin to contract. This is because isovolumic contraction occurs during the early phase of ventricular systole, when the ventricles are contracting but the volume of blood in the ventricles remains constant. At this stage, the pressure in the ventricles rises rapidly, causing the atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid valves) to close, preventing blood from flowing back into the atria. The semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary valves) also remain closed, preventing blood from flowing into the aorta and pulmonary artery. This closure of all cardiac valves ensures that blood is contained within the ventricles during contraction and prepares for the subsequent ejection of blood into the arteries.

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  • 37. 

    End systole is found on the..

    • A.

      P Wave

    • B.

      T Wave

    • C.

      The onset of the QRS complex

    Correct Answer
    B. T Wave
    Explanation
    The T wave represents ventricular repolarization, which occurs during the end of systole. This is the phase when the ventricles are relaxing and preparing for the next contraction. Therefore, the correct answer is the T wave.

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  • 38. 

    Ventricular diastole ends with...

    • A.

      The P Wave

    • B.

      The T Wave

    • C.

      The onset of the QRS complex

    Correct Answer
    C. The onset of the QRS complex
    Explanation
    Ventricular diastole is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles relax and fill with blood. The QRS complex represents the depolarization of the ventricles, which occurs at the beginning of ventricular systole. Therefore, the end of ventricular diastole coincides with the onset of the QRS complex. The P wave represents atrial depolarization, which occurs before ventricular diastole. The T wave represents ventricular repolarization, which happens during ventricular diastole.

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  • 39. 

    The myocardium receives its blood supply during

    • A.

      Systole

    • B.

      Diastole

    • C.

      Isovolumic Relaxation

    Correct Answer
    B. Diastole
    Explanation
    During diastole, the myocardium receives its blood supply. Diastole is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart muscle relaxes and fills with blood. This is the period when the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the myocardium, can deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. In contrast, during systole, the heart muscle contracts to pump blood out of the heart, and during isovolumic relaxation, the heart muscle is also relaxed, but the chambers are not filling with blood yet. Therefore, diastole is the correct answer as it corresponds to the period when the myocardium receives its blood supply.

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  • 40. 

    The coronary arteries consist of two main arteries,  ________ and ________

    Correct Answer
    right main coronary artery, left main coronary artery
    left main coronary artery, right main coronary artery
    Explanation
    The correct answer is right main coronary artery, left main coronary artery. The coronary arteries are responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. The right main coronary artery branches off from the aorta and supplies blood to the right side of the heart. The left main coronary artery also branches off from the aorta and supplies blood to the left side of the heart. Both arteries are vital for the proper functioning of the heart and any blockage or damage to these arteries can lead to serious heart conditions.

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  • 41. 

    During ____, blood flows backwards briefly, filling the Sinuses of Valsalva and allowing blood flow to the myocardium 

    • A.

      Isovolumic contraction

    • B.

      Systole

    • C.

      Diastole

    Correct Answer
    C. Diastole
    Explanation
    During diastole, the heart is in a relaxed state and the ventricles are filling with blood. This is the phase of the cardiac cycle where the heart muscle receives oxygenated blood from the coronary arteries. The Sinuses of Valsalva are small dilations at the beginning of the aorta, and during diastole, blood flows backwards briefly into these sinuses, allowing blood flow to the myocardium. Therefore, diastole is the correct answer for this question.

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  • 42. 

    During systole, the aortic valve opens and the aortic cusps actually cover the opening of the coronary arteries located in the....

    • A.

      Brachiocephalic

    • B.

      Sinus of Valsalva

    • C.

      LA

    Correct Answer
    B. Sinus of Valsalva
    Explanation
    During systole, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle and into the aorta. The aortic cusps, which are the flaps of the valve, actually cover the opening of the coronary arteries located in the Sinus of Valsalva. This prevents blood from flowing back into the ventricle and ensures that it is directed towards the rest of the body through the aorta. The Sinus of Valsalva is a dilated portion of the aorta just above the aortic valve, and it serves as a reservoir for blood during systole.

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  • 43. 

    The left main and right coronary arteries originate at the aortic root, just superior to the aortic valve at the...

    • A.

      Aortic arch

    • B.

      LA

    • C.

      Sinus of Valsalva

    Correct Answer
    C. Sinus of Valsalva
    Explanation
    The left main and right coronary arteries originate at the aortic root, just superior to the aortic valve at the Sinus of Valsalva. The Sinus of Valsalva is a dilated portion of the aortic root that lies between the aortic valve and the ascending aorta. It is named after Italian anatomist Antonio Maria Valsalva. The coronary arteries arise from the Sinus of Valsalva and supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.

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  • 44. 

    The "Non-Coronary Cusp" DOES NOT have a coronary artery associated with it.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The non-coronary cusp refers to one of the three cusps of the aortic valve, and it does not have a coronary artery associated with it. The coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, are typically located in the other two cusps - the left coronary cusp and the right coronary cusp. Therefore, it is true that the non-coronary cusp does not have a coronary artery associated with it.

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  • 45. 

    Each coronary artery is responsible for supplying a specific portion of the heart muscle with oxygenated blood. If the demand exceeds the supply, _____ will result

    • A.

      Ischemia

    • B.

      Stroke

    • C.

      Myocardial infarction

    Correct Answer
    A. Ischemia
    Explanation
    If the demand for oxygenated blood exceeds the supply in a specific portion of the heart muscle, it will result in ischemia. Ischemia occurs when there is a reduced blood flow to a certain area of the body, which can lead to tissue damage and oxygen deprivation. This can cause chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. A stroke refers to a lack of blood flow to the brain, while myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is the death of heart muscle tissue due to a complete blockage of blood flow.

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  • 46. 

    The left main coronary artery divides into...

    • A.

      External Carotid Artery and Internal Carotid Artery

    • B.

      L Subclavian and L Vertebral Artery

    • C.

      Left Anterior Descending Artery and Left Circumflex Artery

    Correct Answer
    C. Left Anterior Descending Artery and Left Circumflex Artery
    Explanation
    The left main coronary artery is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. It divides into two branches: the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCX). The LAD supplies blood to the front and left side of the heart, while the LCX supplies blood to the back of the heart. These two branches are important for maintaining proper blood flow to the heart and are commonly referred to as the "widowmaker" arteries because blockages in these arteries can lead to severe heart problems or even death.

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  • 47. 

    The Great Cardiac vein drains blood from 

    • A.

      Posterior heart

    • B.

      Anterior heart

    • C.

      Descending Aorta

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior heart
    Explanation
    The Great Cardiac vein drains blood from the anterior heart. This vein is responsible for collecting deoxygenated blood from the front of the heart and returning it to the right atrium. It runs alongside the left anterior descending artery and helps in the overall circulation of blood in the heart.

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  • 48. 

    The Middle Cardiac Vein drains blood from the 

    • A.

      Posterior heart

    • B.

      Anterior heart

    • C.

      Descending Aorta

    Correct Answer
    A. Posterior heart
    Explanation
    The Middle Cardiac Vein drains blood from the posterior heart. This vein runs alongside the posterior interventricular artery, which supplies blood to the posterior walls of the left and right ventricles. The middle cardiac vein collects deoxygenated blood from the posterior part of the heart and returns it to the coronary sinus, which then drains into the right atrium.

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  • 49. 

    The Coronary Sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the ________. It delivers deoxygenated blood to the RA 

    • A.

      Pericardium

    • B.

      Myocardium

    • C.

      Endocardium

    Correct Answer
    B. Myocardium
    Explanation
    The Coronary Sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the myocardium. It delivers deoxygenated blood to the RA. The myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart that contracts to pump blood throughout the body. Therefore, it makes sense that the Coronary Sinus would collect blood from the myocardium, as this is where the pumping action occurs.

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  • 50. 

    Which one do you like?

    • A.

      Option 1

    • B.

      Option 2

    • C.

      Option 3

    Correct Answer
    A. Option 1

Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 23, 2017
    Quiz Created by
    Jimschneider1980
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