# Mini Med Spring 2017 Honors Quiz

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| By Minimedspring201
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Minimedspring201
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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 129
Questions: 25 | Attempts: 129

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• 1.

### An 18 year old female presents to your office to get her pre-entrance "physical exam" for college. He measures her vital signs and finds that her height is 5'5 and weight is 176 lb. What BMI category would this patient belong in?

• A.

Underweight

• B.

Normal

• C.

Overweight

• D.

Obese

C. Overweight
Explanation
Based on the information provided, the patient's height is 5'5" and weight is 176 lb. To determine the BMI category, we need to calculate the BMI using the formula: weight (in kg) divided by height (in meters) squared. However, since the height is given in feet and inches, we need to convert it to meters.

Converting 5'5" to meters: 5 feet = 1.52 meters, 5 inches = 0.13 meters. So, the total height is 1.65 meters.

Calculating BMI: weight (in kg) = 176 lb * 0.45 kg/lb = 79.2 kg.
BMI = 79.2 kg / (1.65 meters * 1.65 meters) = 29.07.

According to the BMI categories, a BMI of 29.07 falls into the "Overweight" category.

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• 2.

### A 3 year old presents to her pediatrician's office with a BP of 100/50, HR of 120, and RR of 24. Are these vital signs considered normal?

• A.

Yes--they are normal

• B.

No--they are abnormal

A. Yes--they are normal
Explanation
The vital signs of a 3-year-old child with a blood pressure of 100/50, heart rate of 120, and respiratory rate of 24 are considered normal. Blood pressure within this range is within the normal limits for a child of this age. The heart rate of 120 beats per minute is also within the normal range for a child, and the respiratory rate of 24 breaths per minute falls within the expected range. Therefore, all of these vital signs are considered normal for a 3-year-old child.

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• 3.

### Which of the following is a centrally located pulse that can be used to determine an individual's heart rate?

• A.

• B.

Carotid Pulse

• C.

Brachial Pulse

• D.

Dorsalis Pedis Pulse

B. Carotid Pulse
Explanation
The carotid pulse is a centrally located pulse that can be used to determine an individual's heart rate. It is located in the neck, specifically in the carotid artery. This pulse is easily accessible and can be felt by placing two fingers on the side of the neck, slightly below the jawline. The carotid pulse is commonly used in medical settings to assess heart rate and rhythm as it provides a reliable and accurate measurement.

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• 4.

### Alex presents to the emergency room with chest pain and shortness of breath for the past hour. A medical student records the vital signs as follows:BP: 150/90 HR: 120 and difficult to palpate RR: 26 Temperature: 99.2.Which of the following best characterizes the patient's pulse?

• A.

• B.

Irregular

• C.

• D.

Bounding

Explanation
The patient's pulse is best characterized as thready because the vital signs indicate a high blood pressure (150/90) and a high heart rate (120), but the medical student notes that the pulse is difficult to palpate. A thready pulse refers to a weak and feeble pulse that is difficult to feel. This could be indicative of a decrease in cardiac output or a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance.

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• 5.

### Which of the following describes arterial pressure during contraction of the heart? Relaxation of the heart?

• A.

Systolic, diastolic

• B.

Diastolic, systolic

A. Systolic, diastolic
Explanation
During contraction of the heart, the arterial pressure is at its highest, which is known as systolic pressure. This is when the heart pumps blood into the arteries, causing them to expand and the pressure to rise. On the other hand, during relaxation of the heart, the arterial pressure decreases, which is known as diastolic pressure. This is when the heart is at rest and the arteries are able to relax and refill with blood.

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• 6.

### Which of the following is an exocrine function of the pancreas?

• A.

Secretion of insulin

• B.

Secretion of glucagon

• C.

Secretion of pancreatic juices

• D.

Regulation of glucose levels

C. Secretion of pancreatic juices
Explanation
The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions. While the secretion of insulin and glucagon is part of its endocrine function, the secretion of pancreatic juices is an example of its exocrine function. Pancreatic juices contain enzymes that aid in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in the small intestine. These enzymes are released into the small intestine through the pancreatic duct, helping in the breakdown of food and facilitating nutrient absorption.

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• 7.

### Which of the following is secreted by the body into blood after a carbohydrate rich meal?

• A.

Glucagon

• B.

Insulin

• C.

Complex Carbohydrates

• D.

Fatty Acids

B. Insulin
Explanation
Insulin is secreted by the body into the blood after a carbohydrate-rich meal. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. Insulin is released by the pancreas in response to high levels of glucose in the blood. It helps to regulate blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells, where it can be used for energy or stored as glycogen. Insulin also promotes the synthesis of fatty acids and inhibits the breakdown of glycogen and fat, ensuring that the body has enough energy from glucose and preventing excessive buildup of glucose in the blood.

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• 8.

### Which of the following organ systems is not impacted by diabetes mellitus(DM)?

• A.

Cardiovascular

• B.

Nervous

• C.

Renal

• D.

None--DM affects all organ systems!

D. None--DM affects all organ systems!
Explanation
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels. It is known to have a significant impact on various organ systems. The cardiovascular system can be impacted by DM, leading to an increased risk of heart disease and stroke. The nervous system can also be affected, causing symptoms such as neuropathy and nerve damage. Additionally, DM can lead to renal complications, such as diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, the correct answer is that DM affects all organ systems, indicating that none of the listed options are not impacted by DM.

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• 9.

### Which of the following, when elevated in the blood, is the best indicator of diabetes mellitus?

• A.

HbA1c

• B.

Insulin Levels

• C.

Glucagon Levels

• D.

Ketone Levels

A. HbA1c
Explanation
HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, is the best indicator of diabetes mellitus when elevated in the blood. It reflects the average blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months, providing a long-term measure of blood glucose control. Insulin levels can be useful in diagnosing diabetes, but they only indicate the current state of insulin production and do not provide a comprehensive picture of blood sugar control. Glucagon levels and ketone levels are not specific indicators of diabetes mellitus and are more commonly associated with conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis.

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• 10.

### Which of the following is a characteristic of both type I and type II diabetes mellitus?

• A.

Immune related

• B.

Low blood insulin levels

• C.

Controlled by diet and excercise

• D.

Inability to use glucose

D. Inability to use glucose
Explanation
Both type I and type II diabetes mellitus are characterized by the inability to use glucose effectively. In type I diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to a lack of insulin production. In type II diabetes, the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or does not produce enough insulin to properly regulate blood sugar levels. In both cases, the result is elevated blood sugar levels and the inability of cells to use glucose for energy.

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• 11.

### Devika presents to the doctor's office with an ongoing migraine that began four days ago. She appears diaphoretic and nauseous with high sensitivity to loud noises and bright lights. You obtain her vital signs and note her pulse is 110 BPM, blood pressure is 148/86, respirations are 16, and temperature is 98.6 degrees F. Check each of the findings that is abnormal.

• A.

Pulse

• B.

Blood Pressure

• C.

Respirations

• D.

Temperature

A. Pulse
B. Blood Pressure
Explanation
Devika's presentation of an ongoing migraine, along with symptoms of diaphoresis, nausea, and high sensitivity to loud noises and bright lights, suggests that she is experiencing a migraine attack. During a migraine attack, it is common for the pulse to be elevated, which is indicated by a pulse rate of 110 BPM. Similarly, high blood pressure can also be associated with migraines, as seen by a blood pressure reading of 148/86. Therefore, both the pulse and blood pressure findings are abnormal in this case.

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• 12.

### Nikita presents to the doctors office with a blood pressure of 162/98 and pulse of 52. Which of the following accurately classifies Nikita's presentation?

• A.

Stage 1 Hypertension, bradycardic

• B.

Stage 2 Hypertension, bradycardic

• C.

Stage 1 Hypertension, tachycardic

• D.

Stage 2 Hypertension, tachycardic

B. Stage 2 Hypertension, bradycardic
Explanation
Nikita's blood pressure of 162/98 falls within the range for Stage 2 Hypertension, which is defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140 or higher and/or a diastolic blood pressure of 90 or higher. Additionally, Nikita's pulse of 52 is considered bradycardic, which means it is slower than the normal range of 60-100 beats per minute. Therefore, the correct classification for Nikita's presentation is Stage 2 Hypertension, bradycardic.

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• 13.

### Which of the following is not a major category of nutrients?

• A.

Carbohydrates

• B.

Fats

• C.

Minerals

• D.

Vegetables

D. Vegetables
Explanation
Vegetables are not a major category of nutrients. The major categories of nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, and minerals. Vegetables are a source of vitamins and minerals, but they are not a major category of nutrients on their own.

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• 14.

### True or False: Simple carbs can eventually be converted to fat inside the body?

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Simple carbs can eventually be converted to fat inside the body. When we consume excess carbohydrates, especially simple carbs like sugars and refined grains, our body converts them into glucose for immediate energy. However, if we consume more carbs than our body needs for energy, the excess glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles. Once these glycogen stores are full, any additional glucose is converted into fat through a process called lipogenesis. Therefore, it is true that simple carbs can be converted to fat inside the body.

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• 15.

### Which of the following are considered "bad" fats? Check all that apply.

• A.

Monounsaturated

• B.

Trans

• C.

Saturated

• D.

Polyunsaturated

B. Trans
C. Saturated
Explanation
Trans and saturated fats are considered "bad" fats because they can raise cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease. Trans fats are artificially created through a process called hydrogenation, which makes them more solid and stable at room temperature. They are commonly found in processed foods, fried foods, and baked goods. Saturated fats are mainly found in animal products like meat and dairy, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming too much of these fats can lead to health problems, so it is recommended to limit their intake.

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• 16.

### Which of the following vitamin or mineral helps prevent birth defects?

• A.

Calcium

• B.

Vitamin D

• C.

Folic Acid

• D.

Magnesium

C. Folic Acid
Explanation
Folic acid is the correct answer because it is a B vitamin that is essential for the development of a baby's neural tube, which later becomes the brain and spinal cord. Adequate intake of folic acid before and during pregnancy can help prevent major birth defects of the baby's brain and spine. It is particularly important during the early stages of pregnancy when the neural tube is forming. Calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium are important for overall health but do not specifically prevent birth defects.

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• 17.

### Dwight presents to his doctor worried about his recent weight gain. His BMI is now 29. What changes would you recommend he make?

• A.

Incorporate both aerobic and weight bearing exercise

• B.

Decrease his consumption of monounsaturated fat

• C.

Increase his consumption of refined grains

• D.

Cut down on fiber

A. Incorporate both aerobic and weight bearing exercise
Explanation
The correct answer is to incorporate both aerobic and weight bearing exercise. This is because Dwight is concerned about his recent weight gain, and incorporating both types of exercise can help him burn calories and build muscle, which can contribute to weight loss and overall improved health. Aerobic exercise such as running or swimming can help burn calories and improve cardiovascular health, while weight bearing exercises like weightlifting can help build muscle and increase metabolism. This combination of exercises can help Dwight achieve his weight loss goals and improve his overall fitness level.

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• 18.

### What are the CDC guidelines for physical activity?

• A.

1.5 hours of moderate intensity exercise/week

• B.

2 days of weight bearing exercise/week

• C.

2.5 hours of moderate intensity exercise/week

• D.

A & B

• E.

B & C

D. A & B
Explanation
The CDC guidelines for physical activity include 1.5 hours of moderate intensity exercise per week and 2 days of weight bearing exercise per week. This means that individuals should engage in activities that get their heart rate up and make them break a sweat for at least 1.5 hours each week. In addition, they should also incorporate weight bearing exercises such as strength training or resistance exercises into their routine for at least 2 days per week. Therefore, the correct answer is A & B.

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• 19.

### Which of the following lists the correct direction of blood flow through the heart, starting with venous blood and returning to the heart?

• A.

Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Lungs, Left Atrium, Left Ventricle, Aorta

• B.

Left Ventricle, Left Atrium, Lungs, Right Ventricle, Right Atrium, Aorta

• C.

Right Ventricle, Right Atrium, Lungs, Left Ventricle, Left Atrium, Aorta

• D.

Left Atrium, Left Ventricle, Lungs, Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Aorta

A. Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Lungs, Left Atrium, Left Ventricle, Aorta
• 20.

### True or False: Most men and women have similar symptoms when experiencing a heart attack.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
False. Men and women often experience different symptoms when having a heart attack. While men typically experience the classic symptoms such as chest pain and discomfort, women may have more subtle symptoms like shortness of breath, nausea, and back or jaw pain. This difference in symptoms can lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment for women, making it important to be aware of these gender-specific symptoms.

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• 21.

### Simon is a 72 year old male presenting at the ER with an intense crushing pain in his chest. He has a history of hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. You suspect that Simon may be experiencing an acute myocardial infarction. Which of the following is not a symptom associated with MI?

• A.

Sweating

• B.

Shortness of Breath

• C.

Nausea

• D.

Pain radiating to the left leg

D. Pain radiating to the left leg
Explanation
Pain radiating to the left leg is not a symptom associated with a myocardial infarction (MI). MI symptoms typically include intense crushing pain in the chest, sweating, shortness of breath, and nausea. Pain radiating to the left arm, jaw, or shoulder is commonly associated with an MI, but pain radiating to the left leg is not a typical symptom.

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• 22.

### Which of the following is not true?

• A.

Pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood

• B.

Pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood

• C.

Superior vena cava carries oxygenated blood

• D.

Inferior vena cava carries deoxygenated blood

C. Superior vena cava carries oxygenated blood
Explanation
The superior vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body to the right atrium of the heart. Oxygenated blood is carried by the pulmonary vein from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. Therefore, the statement that the superior vena cava carries oxygenated blood is not true.

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• 23.

### Atherosclerosis is a common contributor to coronary artery disease. What effect do atherosclerotic plaques have on blood vessels and flow?

• A.

Widening of lumen, decrease flow

• B.

Narrowing of lumen, increase flow

• C.

Narrowing of lumen, decrease flow

• D.

Widening of lumen, increase flow

C. Narrowing of lumen, decrease flow
Explanation
Atherosclerotic plaques, which are buildups of fatty deposits and cholesterol in the arteries, cause narrowing of the lumen (inner opening) of the blood vessels. This narrowing reduces the space available for blood to flow through, resulting in a decrease in blood flow. Therefore, the correct answer is "Narrowing of lumen, decrease flow."

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• 24.

### What is the difference between LDL and HDL?

• A.

LDL is good cholesterol and should be kept below 100 mg/dL

• B.

LDL is bad cholesterol and should be kept between 110 and 120 mg/dL

• C.

HDL is good cholesterol and should be kept above 60 mg/dL

• D.

HDL is bad cholesterol and should be kept below 100 mg/dL

C. HDL is good cholesterol and should be kept above 60 mg/dL
Explanation
HDL, or high-density lipoprotein, is commonly referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, from the arteries and transports it to the liver for processing. Maintaining a higher level of HDL in the blood is associated with a lower risk of heart disease. The recommended level for HDL is above 60 mg/dL.

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• 25.

### Which one of the following is not an uncontrollable risk factor for cardiovascular disease?

• A.

Age

• B.

Sex

• C.

Family History

• D.

Obesity

D. Obesity
Explanation
Obesity is not an uncontrollable risk factor for cardiovascular disease because it can be managed and controlled through lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise. Age, sex, and family history, on the other hand, are uncontrollable risk factors as they are determined by factors beyond an individual's control.

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• Current Version
• Mar 14, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Mar 11, 2017
Quiz Created by
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