Microbiology Quiz: Viruses, Fungi, And Protozoa!

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Microbiology Quiz: Viruses, Fungi, And Protozoa! - Quiz

Check out our quiz on bacteria and viruses, the scientific study of microbiology, the practice by which we analyze and record the findings on the many microscopic organisms of the world. We’ll be turning our attention away from the usual main character in this study, biology, and looking more closely at viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Think you know enough about these three suspects? Let’s take a look and see! Do share it with others who you think need practice on this topic.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the protein coat of a virus called?

    • A.

      Capsid

    • B.

      Envelope

    • C.

      Vector

    • D.

      RNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Capsid
    Explanation
    The protein coat of a virus is called the capsid. The capsid is made up of protein subunits called capsomeres, which protect the viral genetic material, either DNA or RNA, inside. The capsid plays a crucial role in protecting the viral genome from degradation and also helps in the attachment of the virus to host cells. The capsid can have different shapes, such as helical or icosahedral, depending on the type of virus.

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  • 2. 

    Most viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. What bacteria is an example that also shares this replication pattern?

    • A.

      Bachillus anthracis

    • B.

      Haemophilus influenzae

    • C.

      Chlamydia trachomatis

    • D.

      Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Chlamydia trachomatis
    Explanation
    Chlamydia trachomatis is an example of a bacteria that shares the replication pattern of obligate intracellular parasites. This means that it can only replicate and survive inside the host cells. Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for causing various sexually transmitted infections and other diseases in humans. It enters the host cells and uses the cellular machinery to replicate and spread. This replication pattern is similar to that of most viruses, which also rely on host cells for their replication and survival.

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  • 3. 

    Viral nucleic acids can be only single or double-stranded RNA.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Viral nucleic acids can be either single or double-stranded RNA, as well as single or double-stranded DNA. Therefore, the statement that viral nucleic acids can only be single or double-stranded RNA is incorrect.

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  • 4. 

    What is the first step in replication after viral entry into the host cytoplasm?

    • A.

      Release of viral progeny

    • B.

      DNA breakdown

    • C.

      Translation of proteins

    • D.

      MRNA synthesis

    Correct Answer
    D. MRNA synthesis
    Explanation
    After viral entry into the host cytoplasm, the first step in replication is mRNA synthesis. This is because the viral genome needs to be transcribed into mRNA in order to be translated into viral proteins. mRNA synthesis is a crucial step in the viral replication cycle as it allows the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery to produce the proteins necessary for viral replication and assembly. Once the viral proteins are synthesized, they can then carry out further steps in the replication process, such as DNA replication and release of viral progeny.

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  • 5. 

    What is direct penetration?

    • A.

      Viron attaches to the host cell surface, and the envelope is engulfed

    • B.

      Naked viron injects nucleic acid into the host cell

    • C.

      Viron attaches to the host cell receptor and fuses with the membrane

    • D.

      Nucleocapsids associate with membrane and bud through

    Correct Answer
    B. Naked viron injects nucleic acid into the host cell
    Explanation
    Direct penetration refers to the process in which a naked viron injects its nucleic acid directly into the host cell. This means that the viron does not require attachment to the host cell surface or fusion with the host cell membrane. Instead, it directly injects its genetic material into the host cell, allowing it to take over the host cell's machinery and replicate itself. This mechanism of direct penetration is commonly observed in certain types of viruses, such as bacteriophages.

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  • 6. 

    What is the correct order of the viral replication cycle?

    • A.

      MRNA synthesis, entry, uncoating, expression, release, assembly

    • B.

      Penetration, attachment, uncoating, replication, assembly, release

    • C.

      Attachment, entry, uncoating, replication, assembly, release

    • D.

      MRNA synthesis, entry, uncoating, expression, assembly, release

    Correct Answer
    C. Attachment, entry, uncoating, replication, assembly, release
    Explanation
    The correct order of the viral replication cycle is attachment, entry, uncoating, replication, assembly, and release. This sequence represents the steps that a virus goes through when infecting a host cell. First, the virus attaches to the host cell surface. Then, it enters the host cell, followed by the uncoating of its genetic material. The viral genome is then replicated within the host cell, and new viral components are synthesized and assembled. Finally, the newly formed viruses are released from the host cell to infect other cells.

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  • 7. 

    Where do viral assembly and release occur?

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Cell membrane

    • C.

      Cytoplasm

    • D.

      Nucleus or cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleus or cytoplasm
    Explanation
    Viral assembly and release can occur in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm of a cell. Some viruses replicate and assemble their new viral particles in the nucleus, while others do so in the cytoplasm. After assembly, the newly formed viruses are then released from the cell, either by budding off from the cell membrane or by rupturing the cell membrane to release the viral particles. Therefore, viral assembly and release can happen in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, depending on the specific virus.

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  • 8. 

    During which phase of viral replication is the capsid formed?

    • A.

      Translation

    • B.

      MRNA synthesis

    • C.

      Release

    • D.

      Uncoating

    Correct Answer
    A. Translation
    Explanation
    During the translation phase of viral replication, the capsid is formed. Translation is the process by which the viral mRNA is used as a template to synthesize viral proteins, including the capsid proteins. The capsid is the protective protein coat that surrounds the viral genetic material, and it is essential for the assembly and stability of the virus. Therefore, during translation, the viral mRNA is translated into capsid proteins, leading to the formation of the capsid.

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  • 9. 

    What type of virus does NOT replicate inside of the nucleus?

    • A.

      Adenovirus

    • B.

      Herpesvirus

    • C.

      Poxvirus

    • D.

      Orthomyxovirus

    Correct Answer
    C. Poxvirus
    Explanation
    Poxvirus is the correct answer because it is the only virus in the given options that does not replicate inside the nucleus. Poxviruses have their own DNA replication machinery and replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. In contrast, adenovirus, herpesvirus, and orthomyxovirus all replicate their genetic material inside the nucleus of the host cell.

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  • 10. 

    What type of viral infection is polio?

    • A.

      Lytic

    • B.

      Persistent

    • C.

      Latent

    • D.

      Endocytic

    Correct Answer
    A. Lytic
    Explanation
    Polio is a lytic viral infection. Lytic viral infections are characterized by the destruction of the host cell, as the virus replicates and spreads. In the case of polio, the virus attacks the nervous system, causing paralysis and muscle weakness. This type of infection is different from persistent or latent infections, where the virus remains in the host without causing significant damage or symptoms. Additionally, polio is not an endocytic infection, which refers to the process of viral entry into the host cell.

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  • 11. 

    What is a persistent infection?

    • A.

      Cell lysis and release of new viruses

    • B.

      Repetitive insertion of viral mRNA into the host cell membrane

    • C.

      Cell remains alive and continues to release virus particles at a slow rate

    • D.

      Virus remains quiescent, and the genetic material may be incorporated into the host genome

    Correct Answer
    C. Cell remains alive and continues to release virus particles at a slow rate
    Explanation
    A persistent infection refers to a situation where the infected cell remains alive and continues to release virus particles at a slow rate. Unlike acute infections where the virus quickly replicates and causes cell lysis, in a persistent infection, the virus establishes a long-term relationship with the host cell. This allows the virus to persist in the body for an extended period, continuously releasing new virus particles without causing immediate cell death. This type of infection can lead to chronic diseases and can be difficult to eliminate from the body.

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  • 12. 

    Which is NOT an effect of a viral infection?

    • A.

      Malignant transformation

    • B.

      Cell death

    • C.

      Formation of multinucleated cells

    • D.

      Transcription

    Correct Answer
    D. Transcription
    Explanation
    Transcription is the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA template. It is a normal cellular process that occurs in both infected and uninfected cells. Viral infections can lead to various effects such as malignant transformation, cell death, and formation of multinucleated cells, but they do not directly affect the process of transcription.

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  • 13. 

    What attaches to the receptor of the host cell enabling the virus to gain entry into the host?

    Correct Answer
    virus attachment protein
    viral attachment protein
    Explanation
    The correct answer for this question is "virus attachment protein" and "viral attachment protein". These proteins attach to the receptor of the host cell, allowing the virus to enter the host. By binding to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell, these attachment proteins facilitate the entry of the virus into the cell, initiating the infection process.

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  • 14. 

    Which is not an example of horizontal transmission?

    • A.

      Fecal-oral

    • B.

      Respiratory aerosol

    • C.

      Breast milk

    • D.

      Insect bite

    Correct Answer
    C. Breast milk
    Explanation
    Breast milk is not an example of horizontal transmission because it is a form of vertical transmission. Vertical transmission refers to the transmission of a disease or infection from a mother to her offspring, usually during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. In the case of breast milk, it can contain antibodies and other immune factors that help protect the baby from infections, rather than transmitting infections. Horizontal transmission, on the other hand, refers to the transmission of a disease or infection between individuals who are not parent-offspring. Examples of horizontal transmission include fecal-oral transmission, respiratory aerosol transmission, and insect bites.

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  • 15. 

    Viruses evade host defenses by decreasing the synthesis of what protein?

    • A.

      Antibodies

    • B.

      MHC class I

    • C.

      MHC class II

    • D.

      VAP

    Correct Answer
    B. MHC class I
    Explanation
    Viruses evade host defenses by decreasing the synthesis of MHC class I proteins. MHC class I molecules are responsible for presenting viral antigens to the immune system, which triggers an immune response. By reducing the production of MHC class I proteins, viruses can avoid detection by the immune system and continue to replicate within the host. This evasion strategy allows viruses to establish infection and persist in the host for longer periods of time.

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  • 16. 

    What cytokines are products of viral immune mediators?

    • A.

      IL-1, TNF

    • B.

      IL-10, IL-12

    • C.

      IL-2, IL-5

    • D.

      IL-4, IL-5

    Correct Answer
    A. IL-1, TNF
    Explanation
    IL-1 and TNF are cytokines that are produced by viral immune mediators. These cytokines play a crucial role in the immune response to viral infections. IL-1 is involved in the activation of immune cells and the production of other cytokines, while TNF helps in the recruitment and activation of immune cells at the site of infection. Therefore, IL-1 and TNF are important mediators of the immune response against viral infections.

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  • 17. 

    What protein(s) composes the cell wall of fungi?

    • A.

      Cellulose and pectin

    • B.

      Peptidoglycan

    • C.

      Silicic acid

    • D.

      Glucan and chitin

    Correct Answer
    D. Glucan and chitin
    Explanation
    Glucan and chitin are the correct proteins that compose the cell wall of fungi. Glucan is a polysaccharide that provides structural support to the cell wall, while chitin is a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide that adds strength and rigidity. These proteins are essential for maintaining the integrity and shape of fungal cells, protecting them from environmental stresses, and facilitating their growth and reproduction.

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  • 18. 

    What is the thread-like filament of fungi?

    • A.

      Chitin

    • B.

      Polysaccharides

    • C.

      Amobee

    • D.

      Hyphae

    Correct Answer
    D. Hyphae
    Explanation
    Hyphae are the thread-like filaments that make up the body of a fungus. They are responsible for absorbing nutrients from the environment and are involved in the growth and reproduction of the fungus. Hyphae play a crucial role in the structure and function of fungi, allowing them to colonize and extract nutrients from their surroundings. Chitin, polysaccharides, and amoebae are not specific to fungi and do not accurately describe the thread-like filaments of fungi.

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  • 19. 

    Fungi are obligate anaerobes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Fungi are not obligate anaerobes, meaning they do not require an oxygen-free environment to survive. In fact, most fungi are aerobic organisms, meaning they require oxygen for their metabolic processes. While there are some anaerobic fungi that can survive in low-oxygen environments, the statement that all fungi are obligate anaerobes is false.

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  • 20. 

    What sterol is present in fungi?

    • A.

      Cholesterol

    • B.

      Ergosterol

    • C.

      Sitosterol

    • D.

      Phytosterol

    Correct Answer
    B. Ergosterol
    Explanation
    Ergosterol is the sterol present in fungi. Sterols are a type of lipid found in cell membranes, and they play a crucial role in maintaining membrane fluidity and stability. While cholesterol is the main sterol found in animal cells, fungi have a different sterol called ergosterol. Ergosterol is essential for fungal growth and survival, as it helps regulate membrane permeability and is involved in various cellular processes. Therefore, ergosterol is the correct answer for the sterol present in fungi.

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  • 21. 

    What type of mycoses involves opportunistic fungi and immunocompromised individuals?

    • A.

      Superficial

    • B.

      Subcutaneous

    • C.

      Systemic

    • D.

      Cutaneous

    Correct Answer
    C. Systemic
    Explanation
    Systemic mycoses involve opportunistic fungi and immunocompromised individuals. These types of fungal infections can spread throughout the body and affect internal organs, such as the lungs, bloodstream, and central nervous system. Unlike superficial or cutaneous mycoses, which primarily affect the skin, systemic mycoses are more severe and require aggressive treatment. Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy, are particularly susceptible to these infections due to their weakened immune systems.

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  • 22. 

    What are single-celled fungi that multiply by budding?

    • A.

      Filaments

    • B.

      Yeasts

    • C.

      Filaments

    • D.

      Hyphae

    Correct Answer
    B. Yeasts
    Explanation
    Yeasts are single-celled fungi that reproduce by budding. Budding is a form of asexual reproduction where a small bud or outgrowth forms on the parent cell and eventually detaches to become a new individual. Yeasts are commonly used in baking and brewing due to their ability to ferment sugars and produce carbon dioxide, which causes dough to rise or creates alcohol in the case of brewing. They are also found in various other habitats, including soil, plants, and the human body.

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  • 23. 

    Fungi can exist as part of the normal flora.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fungi can indeed exist as part of the normal flora. The normal flora refers to the microorganisms that naturally reside in and on the human body without causing any harm. Fungi such as Candida species can be found in various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract, without causing any infections or symptoms in healthy individuals. However, under certain conditions such as a weakened immune system or disruption of the normal microbial balance, these fungi can cause infections.

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  • 24. 

    What dermatophyte has a natural host of dogs and cats?

    • A.

      Microsporum

    • B.

      Trichophyton

    • C.

      Pityrosporum

    • D.

      Malassezia furfur

    Correct Answer
    A. Microsporum
    Explanation
    Microsporum is the correct answer because it is a dermatophyte that commonly infects dogs and cats. Dermatophytes are a type of fungus that cause skin infections in animals and humans. While Trichophyton is also a dermatophyte, it is more commonly associated with infections in humans. Pityrosporum and Malassezia furfur are yeast-like fungi that are typically found on human skin and are not natural hosts for dogs and cats.

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  • 25. 

    What part of fungi do drugs amphotericin B and azole inhibit?

    • A.

      Hyphae

    • B.

      Ergosterol

    • C.

      Chitin

    • D.

      Glucan

    Correct Answer
    B. Ergosterol
    Explanation
    The drugs amphotericin B and azole inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol, which is a type of sterol found in the cell membrane of fungi. Ergosterol is essential for maintaining the integrity and fluidity of the fungal cell membrane. By inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, these drugs disrupt the structure and function of the fungal cell membrane, leading to the death of the fungus.

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  • 26. 

    Which is not a superficial mycosis?

    • A.

      Sporotrichosis

    • B.

      Candida

    • C.

      Pityrosporum

    • D.

      Tinea capitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Sporotrichosis
    Explanation
    Sporotrichosis is not a superficial mycosis because it is caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii, which typically infects the deeper layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Superficial mycoses, on the other hand, are fungal infections that affect only the outermost layers of the skin, hair, or nails. Candida, Pityrosporum, and Tinea capitis are examples of superficial mycoses that commonly affect humans.

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  • 27. 

    What bacteria causes sporotrichosis?

    • A.

      Candida

    • B.

      Blastomyces dermatitidis

    • C.

      Leishmania

    • D.

      Sporothrix schenckii

    Correct Answer
    D. Sporothrix schenckii
    Explanation
    Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by the bacteria Sporothrix schenckii. This bacteria is commonly found in soil, plants, and decaying organic matter. It enters the body through cuts or puncture wounds and can cause skin lesions, ulcers, and other symptoms. Candida is a type of yeast, Blastomyces dermatitidis causes blastomycosis, and Leishmania causes leishmaniasis, none of which are associated with sporotrichosis.

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  • 28. 

    Systemic mycoses are person-to-person communicable.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Systemic mycoses are not person-to-person communicable. Systemic mycoses are fungal infections that typically occur in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy. These infections are usually acquired through inhalation of fungal spores from the environment, rather than through direct person-to-person contact. Therefore, the statement that systemic mycoses are person-to-person communicable is false.

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  • 29. 

    What are fungi that can exist as mold or yeast?

    • A.

      Hyphae

    • B.

      Tinea pedis

    • C.

      Dimorphic

    • D.

      Spore

    Correct Answer
    C. Dimorphic
    Explanation
    Dimorphic fungi are those that have the ability to exist in two different forms, either as mold or as yeast. This means that they can switch between a multicellular, filamentous mold form and a unicellular, budding yeast form depending on the environmental conditions. This adaptability allows them to survive in various habitats and play important roles in both the natural environment and in causing diseases in humans and animals.

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  • 30. 

    What are the most common protozoa found in tropical regions?

    • A.

      Leishmania

    • B.

      Plasmodia

    • C.

      Cryptosporidium

    • D.

      Malaria

    Correct Answer
    D. Malaria
    Explanation
    Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite and is one of the most common protozoa found in tropical regions. It is transmitted through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria is a significant public health concern in many tropical and subtropical countries, causing high morbidity and mortality rates. Symptoms include fever, chills, headache, and muscle aches. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial in managing and controlling the disease.

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  • 31. 

    What protozoa is an exception in undergoing both asexual and sexual reproduction?

    • A.

      Plasmodium

    • B.

      Malaria

    • C.

      Cryptosporidium

    • D.

      Leishmania

    Correct Answer
    C. Cryptosporidium
    Explanation
    Cryptosporidium is an exception among protozoa because it can undergo both asexual and sexual reproduction. This sets it apart from other protozoa, such as Plasmodium, which only undergo asexual reproduction. Malaria, caused by Plasmodium, is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Leishmania is another protozoan parasite that causes a disease called leishmaniasis. However, Cryptosporidium is unique in its ability to reproduce through both asexual and sexual means.

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  • 32. 

    What intracellular protozoa are acquired from the mother in utero?

    • A.

      Trichomonas vaginalis

    • B.

      Leishmania

    • C.

      Toxoplasma

    • D.

      Plasmodium

    Correct Answer
    C. Toxoplasma
    Explanation
    Toxoplasma is the correct answer because it is an intracellular protozoan that can be acquired from the mother in utero. This parasite can cross the placenta and infect the fetus, leading to congenital toxoplasmosis. Pregnant women who acquire Toxoplasma infection for the first time during pregnancy can transmit the parasite to their unborn child, causing severe complications such as neurological abnormalities, eye damage, and even fetal death. Therefore, it is crucial for pregnant women to avoid contact with potentially contaminated sources, such as raw or undercooked meat, cat feces, and contaminated soil.

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  • 33. 

    Where do extracellular parasites infect?

    • A.

      Brain

    • B.

      Muscle

    • C.

      Blood

    • D.

      Epithelium

    Correct Answer
    C. Blood
    Explanation
    Extracellular parasites infect the bloodstream, as they are able to live and replicate outside of host cells. By circulating in the blood, these parasites can easily spread throughout the body and infect various organs and tissues. This allows them to evade the immune system and continue their life cycle.

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  • 34. 

    How is Trichomonas vaginalis spread?

    • A.

      Fecal-oral

    • B.

      Sexual

    • C.

      Insect

    • D.

      Oral-fecal

    Correct Answer
    B. Sexual
    Explanation
    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted infection, so it is primarily spread through sexual contact. This can include vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Other modes of transmission, such as fecal-oral or insect bites, are not associated with the spread of this particular infection.

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  • 35. 

    Protozoa reproduction is usually asexual in humans and insects.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Protozoa reproduction is usually asexual in humans and insects. This statement is false. Protozoa are single-celled organisms that can reproduce both sexually and asexually. In asexual reproduction, they can divide by binary fission or multiple fission, producing genetically identical offspring. However, some protozoa also have the ability to reproduce sexually through processes like conjugation or syngamy. The mode of reproduction in protozoa varies depending on the species and environmental conditions, but it is not limited to asexual reproduction in humans and insects.

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